Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Mining water governance : everyday community-mine relationships in the Peruvian Andes
    Sosa Landeo, Milagros - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): R.A. Boelens, co-promotor(en): M.Z. Zwarteveen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436762 - 200
    mining - water policy - governance - water rights - water management - rural communities - local population - water resources - andes - peru - mijnbouw - waterbeleid - governance - waterrechten - waterbeheer - plattelandsgemeenschappen - plaatselijke bevolking - watervoorraden - andes - peru

    This thesis documents as well as questions how the presence of large mining operations in Andean regions of Peru alters social and natural landscapes. Taking conflicts over water as a useful entry-point for the analysis, it explores and unravels the dilemmas and challenges faced by the main conflicting actors: rural communities and mining companies. Through an in-depth analysis of how the actors navigate these challenges, focusing on those related to water, the thesis sets out to understand what happens with water in contexts of mineral extraction. It traces changes in how water is accessed, controlled and governed, and by whom. By making the complex character of water politics in mining contexts explicit, the thesis sheds light on how mining reconfigures water governance arrangements, while also contributing to wider debates about water governance in contexts characterized by huge power differences.

    Potenties van de Hotspotmonitor om de graadmeter Landschap te verfijnen
    Langers, F. ; Buijs, A.E. ; Vries, S. de; Hinsberg, A. van; Kampen, P. van; Marwijk, R.B.M. van; Sijtsma, F.J. ; Tol, S. van - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-werkdocument 321) - 100
    landschap - landschapsbeleving - perceptie - burgers - plaatselijke bevolking - monitoring - recreatie - platteland - taxatie - methodologie - nederland - landscape - landscape experience - perception - citizens - local population - monitoring - recreation - rural areas - valuation - methodology - netherlands
    Het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving werkt aan verfijning van de graadmeter Landschap. Hiertoe is een Hotspotmonitortool ontwikkeld en uitgetest in een landelijke pilot. Aan 300 bewoners van zes studiegebieden is gevraagd op landelijk, regionaal en lokaal schaalniveau landschappelijk aantrekkelijke plekken (hotspots) aan te wijzen. Over deze plekken zijn aanvullende vragen gesteld. De dichtheid aan landelijke hotspots is hoog langs de Nederlandse kust, op de Veluwe en in Zuid-Limburg. Hotspots worden vooral gewaardeerd om de belevingskwaliteiten groen, rust en natuurlijkheid. Afstand blijkt van invloed op de keuze van landelijke hotspots. In relatie tot toekomstig gebruik is van belang dat de Hotspotmonitor zich uitsluitend richt op meest aantrekkelijke groene plekken. De Hotspotmonitor biedt juist vanwege de aandacht voor de bovenkant van de schaal mogelijkheid om de huidige graadmeter te verfijnen. Een probleem, ook richting MKBA’s, is dat in grote delen van Nederland geen hotspots zijn te vinden. Om tot een landsdekkend beeld te komen moet er dus een modelmatige bewerking overheen, het liefst in combinatie met andere meetmethoden.
    Risky encounters : institutions and interventions in response to recurrent disasters and conflict
    Heijmans, A. - \ 2012
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Thea Hilhorst. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461732675 - 308
    instellingen - interventie - risicofactoren - risico - plaatselijke bevolking - rampen - politieke conflicten - risicovermindering - sociale participatie - afghanistan - indonesië - filippijnen - ontwikkelingslanden - institutions - intervention - risk factors - risk - local population - disasters - political conflicts - risk reduction - social participation - afghanistan - indonesia - philippines - developing countries

    The thesis focuses on local level responses to recurrent small disasters and conflict in Afghanistan, Indonesia and the Philippines. It critically reflects on Community-Based Disaster Risk Reduction (CBDRR) approaches to understand the gap between CBDRR policy and actual outcomes. It considers the multi-level institutions through with meaning and implementation of CBDRR policy are negotiated and transformed, from the conceptual policy design stage until the arena where decisions on risk solutions and resource allocation are made. Disasters and conflict are both understood as the product of a cumulative set of institutional arrangements and policy decisions over a long period of time. Vice versa, disasters and conflict affect institutional arrangements and re-order power relations. Interventions like CBDRR are not isolated, distinct entities, but are very much embedded in a context of particular institutional arrangements, which constrain or enable local actors to advance their risk-solutions. Through CBDRR interventions actors defend and mobilize around CBDRR practices that are meaningful to them, or resist institutions and practices that carry meanings they find disagreeable. This results in the manifold manifestations of CBDRR practices and outcomes. The research concludes that there is no such thing as the CBDRR approach. Instead, there are different processes through which local NGOs, civil society organizations, funding agencies and government agencies arrive at a specific framing of local realities and their responses in the context they live and work. These are related to their histories, current state - civil society relationships, and their mandate on how they legitimize their interventions. These actors either underscore the politics of their interventions or rather de-politicize them. From the experiences of this research it is plausible to conclude that when one ignores to view CBDRR interventions in a political and institutional manner, the out­comes of the interventions are likely to reproduce the status quo and are not supporting the vulnerable populations. The implication for humanitarian aid agencies is to include an institutional and political analysis in risk and vulnerability assessments to explain people’ vulnerability. This is crucial for strategizing actions and to engage in the political arena of disaster risk reduction with the aim to create safe and resilient communities. Rather than simply aiming for isolated village-level project objectives, CBDRR interventions have to think ahead of results to be achieved at district and even national level.

    The social side of river management
    Groot, W.T. de; Warner, J.F. - \ 2011
    New York : NovaScience Publishers, Inc. (Environmental Science, Engineering and Technology ) - ISBN 9781611229806 - 159
    rivieren - waterbeheer - milieubeheer - stroomgebieden - beheer van waterbekkens - natuurtechniek - rivierregulering - waterbeleid - sociale kwesties - sociaal conflict - plaatselijke bevolking - gemeenschappen - rivers - water management - environmental management - watersheds - watershed management - ecological engineering - river regulation - water policy - social issues - social conflict - local population - communities
    River management faces many challenges world-wide including climate change, flood risks and the demand for more adaptive and 'ecosystem-based' systems. Instead of raising the dikes even higher, the new adage for river managers is to give the rivers more space to drain their waters. This in turn implies that river management will become a social business, with strong involvement of local communities. This book offers various examples and theories on how to avoid conflict and enter into fruitful relationships with river communities.
    The accidental city : violence, economy and humanitarianism in Kakuma refugee camp Kenya
    Jansen, B.J. - \ 2011
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Thea Hilhorst. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085858591 - 273
    rampen - oorlog - vluchtelingen - noodgevallen - sociologie - agressief gedrag - organisatie - bevolkingsverplaatsing - economie - vn - niet-gouvernementele organisaties - plaatselijk bestuur - plaatselijke bevolking - kenya - afrika - disasters - war - refugees - emergencies - sociology - aggressive behaviour - organization - resettlement - economics - un - non-governmental organizations - local government - local population - kenya - africa

    In this research I examine social ordering processes in Kakuma refugee camp in

    Kenya. I view the camp as an accidental city, by which I challenge the image of

    the camp as a temporary and artificial waiting space or a protracted refugee crisis

    per se. The reference to the city is both metaphorically and physically relevant. First,

    the metaphorical dimension of the city places refugees and their negotiation of

    space into the realm of the normal and the possible, contrary to prevailing notions

    of the camp as an abnormality. In this thesis, I analyze the ways in which refugees

    settle down in the camp and inhabit the humanitarian space. From a physical

    perspective, the camp has grown into a center of facilities in a wider region of

    insecurity, war and marginalized pastoral lands in a semi-desert. Compared to the

    region, the camp resembles a multicultural and cosmopolitan place, with various

    connections to the wider world.

    I have analyzed five domains in which social ordering takes place:

    humanitarian governance, the camp as a warscape, the camp economy, third

    country resettlement and repatriation. In all these domains, refugees seek to

    organize themselves and their surroundings vis-à-vis the humanitarian agencies

    and the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR).

    In chapter two, I describe how UNHCR de facto became the government of

    the refugee camp on behalf of the Kenyan government. In this capacity it operates

    in a confusion of roles; it is both implementer of aid and assistance in the general

    administration of the camp, and monitor and guard of States’ obligations to

    respect refugee rights. This makes that UNHCR and its implementing NGOs not

    only offer, preach and teach entitlements, but are simultaneously for a large part

    responsible in their delivery and for the decision of who is granted inclusion in the

    camp’s services. I have recognized this in the notion of an entitlement arena,

    which highlights how refugees maneuver in the grey area between UNHCR’s

    camp governing and rights monitoring roles. The entitlements born out of refugee

    and human rights then translate into expectations and promises that become part

    of negotiations seeking to align, dodge or alter the camp’s organization. For a

    large part, this negotiation takes places along the interfaces between UNHCR and

    its implementing partners, and the refugees. By employing participation strategies

    in the governing of the camp, UNHCR contributed to the creation of subauthorities,

    which play an important role in the referral of refugees within the aid

    system, but also in the identification of vulnerabilities.

    In the domain of the warscape, I analyze how boundaries between refugee

    leadership and rebel movements have blurred, adding and altering these subauthorities.

    Apart from the camp having a function in the broader war tactics of

    rebel movements in the past and in the present, the notion of the camp as a

    warscape highlights how the politics of war and the dynamics of conflict reach

    and partly order the camp. This warscape notion, instead of being problematic, is

    analyzed from a perspective of place making, through which refugees claim

    political agency and room to organize themselves vis-à-vis the refugee regime,

    thereby reshaping the living arrangements of the camp and organizing where

    people settle on the basis of ethnic and violent histories in the past and in the

    camp. This authority transcends into everyday forms of power and governance,

    largely because of an understanding of imminent and symbolic violence between

    the different groups.

    In a socio-economic domain, I describe how refugees build on the resource of

    aid and create a diversity of livelihood strategies. Aid, more than just a handout or

    a necessity, is comparable to a natural resource in the contours of the camp. For

    refugees, once they are allowed inside the camp, aid is simply there. It is

    something one can vie for, and can harvest, until it is depleted. I describe this as a

    process of “digging aid,” comparable to subsistence farming. On the basis of this

    aid, a camp economy has grown, with linkages to informal and formal regional

    and international economies. The development of the camp economy has

    stimulated socio-economic changes. The local community has found a resource in

    the camp and “dropout pastoralists” have settled around the camp in a way that is

    comparable to the ways urban migrants flock to cities. The camp represents a

    cosmopolitan place where people of different backgrounds come together, meet

    each other, and adapt to each other.

    The fourth domain, described in chapter five, concerns the camp as a portal

    for resettlement. The perspective of third country resettlement in Kakuma has

    both been a reason for people to come to the camp, and a phenomenon that

    greatly contributed to its development. Resettlement can thus be seen as both an

    opportunity as a solution to which people seek access. With this, resettlement

    became an organizing principle for people in the camp. The large volume of

    resettlement from Kakuma contributes to the character of the camp as a transitory

    space. Many informants came to Kakuma not so much to return “home” again,

    but to move forward instead. Kakuma as a portal offers migratory routes to those

    who manage to be considered eligible according to the agencies’ and receiving

    countries’ qualifications. Although imagined as a measure to protect those most in

    need, in reality, becoming eligible for resettlement involves a combination of

    factors, including access to the agencies and a vulnerability or a fitting identity. It

    is here that the warscape and the entitlement arena intertwine to become the

    system of resettlement.

    Chapter six shows how repatriation becomes subject to maneuvering. Over the

    course of my fieldwork, peace broke out in Sudan and repatriation was initiated.

    The prospect was complicated, however. In Sudan, public amenities such as

    schools, health care, and water were scarce or lacking. Towns and urban centers

    were still largely under Arabic influence. The result was that the humanitarian

    government in the form of UNHCR and the NGOs sought to control return

    movements, while refugees sought to strategize and organize return in their own

    ways, and the Sudanese authorities in Sudan sought to keep the refugees in Kenya

    until further notice.

    The notion of the camp as an accidental city comes back in that the camp was

    recognized for its facilities and weighed against the lack thereof in Sudan. New

    arrivals similarly came for education, or for basic amenities and even food.

    Refugees from other nationalities had concerns because of a possible closure of

    Kakuma. Many of them had a rebel or military past, or feared being regarded as

    rebels in their home countries, and thus saw limited opportunities to go home.

    Also people from town were unsure of what would remain of Kakuma in the

    event of the camp being closed.

    This research contributes to earlier work in earlier stages of refugee hosting in

    other camps, and covering specific subthemes. With the analogy to the city, I

    bring together those subthemes in one common frame. The result can in part be

    understood as a history of the specific camp of Kakuma. This nicely captures the

    title of this research, for something that gains a history breaks free from the frame

    of temporality, perhaps by accident. With this approach, this book is not only

    relevant for social science or anthropology, but also as a historical record.

    Protracted refugee camps constitute an experiment in humanitarian action, but

    also in thinking about questions of governance and security in refugee hosting

    contexts in developing countries such as Kenya, Tanzania, Ghana, Nepal,

    Thailand and other locations where the content of this book may be relevant.

    Petén: ¿la última frontera? : la construcción social de una región
    Hurtado Paz y Paz, K.M. - \ 2010
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Jandouwe van der Ploeg, co-promotor(en): Alberto Arce. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085853831 - 303
    rurale sociologie - plattelandsontwikkeling - sociale verandering - ontwikkelingsprojecten - sociale economie - plaatselijke bevolking - sociale klassen - migratie - overheidsbeleid - migranten - guatemala - ontwikkelingslanden - centraal-amerika - sociaal conflict - verhoudingen tussen bevolking en staat - strategieën voor levensonderhoud - rural sociology - rural development - social change - development projects - socioeconomics - local population - social classes - migration - government policy - migrants - guatemala - developing countries - central america - social conflict - relations between people and state - livelihood strategies
    Burgers en overheid samenwerkend voor landschap : Local Ownership in de praktijk
    Overbeek, M.M.M. ; Bogaardt, M.J. ; Vader, J. - \ 2009
    Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (Rapport / LEI : Werkveld 5, Milieu, natuur en landschap ) - ISBN 9789086152964 - 81
    landschap - participatie - plaatselijke bevolking - landschapsbeheer - governance - burgers - landscape - participation - local population - landscape management - governance - citizens
    Een van de actieve vormen van lokale betrokkenheid bij landschap is Local Ownership, waarbij bewoners samen met overheden zeggenschap en verantwoordelijkheid willen delen bij het opzetten en uitvoeren van lokale initiatieven voor landschap. Hoe dit streven door burgers en overheden in de praktijk wordt gerealiseerd, is in dit LEI onderzoek uitgewerkt. Een analyse van de samenwerking tussen burgers en overheden vond plaats bij vijf cases. Het gaat daarbij om Buurtschap IJsselzone, Dorpsvisie Gelselaar, Groenprojecten Sevenum, Ommetje van Hoofdplaat en Naobers van Zudert
    Impact of Participatory Irrigation Management (PIM) to Local Communities and Environment in Hop Tien Commune, Dong Hy
    Wageningen International, - \ 2008
    Hanoi, Vietnam : Department of Water Resources (DWR) (Additional case study 3) - 84
    landbouw met irrigatie - irrigatie - irrigatiewater - waterbeheer - watervoorziening - milieueffect - participatief management - plaatselijke bevolking - ontwikkelingsprogramma's - vietnam - nederland - bewonersparticipatie - ontwikkelingssamenwerking - irrigated farming - irrigation - irrigation water - water management - water supply - environmental impact - participative management - local population - development programmes - vietnam - netherlands - community participation - development cooperation
    This case-study is designed to support the development of the Viet Nam – Netherlands Water Partnership on Water for Food and Ecosystems. The partnership is between Viet Nam’s Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD) and the Netherlands Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality (LNV). IUCN has been asked to coordinate the Partnership development process, including through undertaking study that will identify strategies for the management of water resources that balance agricultural production with the maintenance of the integrity of critical ecosystems that depend on adequate water flows. The case study is being carried out in Hop Tien commune, Dong Hy district, Thai Nguyen province, Vietnam. The purpose of the case study is to identify mechanisms based on that water resources management, which are traditionally approached as single purpose management regimes, should be enhanced to become more integrated, multi-stakeholder based management systems. At the irrigation scheme level, water resources management is considered as irrigation governance and management. The integrated approach is carried out with considerations of various interests such as irrigation, domestic water supply and fishery in Hop Tien commune. On the other hand, issues of saving water, water resources protection should be paid attention in the case study to ensure sustainable water resources development in the area.
    Integrating local knowkledge into GIS-based flood risk assessment : the case of Traingulo and Mabolo communities in Naga city, The Philippines
    Peters Guarín, G. - \ 2008
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Georg Frerks, co-promotor(en): C. van Westen; E. de Man. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085852957 - 352
    overstromingen - risicoschatting - plaatselijke bevolking - geografische informatiesystemen - integratie - floods - risk assessment - local population - geographical information systems - integration
    Methodology for assessing benefits of afforested community and forest land
    Meer, P.J. van der; Bairaktari, C. ; Groot, R.S. de; Heist, M. van; Schmerbeck, J. - \ 2007
    Wageningen : Alterra (NETFOP 02) - 69
    plaatselijke bevolking - bossen - bosproducten anders dan hout - gemeenschappen - india - duitsland - local population - forests - non-wood forest products - communities - india - germany
    Integrating forest conservation and livehood improvement in South-West Ethiopia
    Wiersum, F. ; Bognetteau, E. ; Haile, A. - \ 2007
    Mizan Teferi, Ethiopia : NFTP (Policy briefing note / NFTP 2) - 4
    bossen - conservering - bosproducten anders dan hout - plaatselijke bevolking - bosbeleid - armoede - ethiopië - inheemse volkeren - middelen van bestaan - forests - conservation - non-wood forest products - local population - forest policy - poverty - ethiopia - indigenous people - livelihoods
    Pluralismo Legal, Reforma Hïdrica y Polïticas de Reconocimiento
    Boelens, R.A. ; Guevara Gil, A. ; Hendriks, J. ; Hoogesteger van Dijk, J.D. - \ 2007
    Wageningen : Wageningen Universiteit, Lsg. Irrigatie en Waterbouwkunde (WALIR studies vol. 13) - ISBN 9789085851554 - 306
    waterbeheer - recht - wetgeving - wettelijke rechten - water - peru - bolivia - chili - ecuador - plaatselijke bevolking - waterrechten - inheemse volkeren - andes - actieonderzoek - water management - law - legislation - legal rights - water - peru - bolivia - chile - ecuador - local population - water rights - indigenous people - andes - action research
    Politicas partidistas y su influencia en la Organización Comunitaria, Caso San Martín Sacatepéquez
    Leeuwen, M. van - \ 2006
    Quetzaltenango, Guatemala : SERJUS - 15
    politiek - politieke macht - gemeenschappen - guatemala - plaatselijke bevolking - politics - political power - communities - guatemala - local population
    Agua y Derecho. Políticas Hídricas, Derechos Consuetudinarios e Identidades Locales
    Boelens, R.A. ; Getches, D. ; Guevara Gil, A. - \ 2006
    Lima : Instituto de Estudios Peruanos (Agua y sociedad : Walir / Water Law and Indigenous Rights ) - ISBN 9789972511523 - 436
    water - waterbeleid - wettelijke rechten - eigendomsrechten - toegangsrecht - plaatselijk bestuur - plaatselijke bevolking - peru - latijns-amerika - waterrechten - water - water policy - legal rights - property rights - right of access - local government - local population - peru - latin america - water rights
    Toegankelijkheid van het agrarisch gebied voor recreatie: bepaling en belang; veldinventarisatie en onderzoek onder in- en omwonenden in acht gebieden
    Vries, S. de; Boer, T.A. de - \ 2006
    Wageningen : WOT Natuur & Milieu (WOt-rapport 22) - 76
    openluchtrecreatie - lopen - platteland - vragenlijsten - wandelpaden - kwaliteit - inventarisaties - plaatselijke bevolking - outdoor recreation - walking - rural areas - questionnaires - trails - quality - inventories - local population
    Het Rijk wil de toegankelijkheid van het agrarisch gebied vergroten, vooral middels meer wandelpaden over boerenland. Het Milieu- en Natuurplanbureau wil de ontwikkeling van deze toegankelijkheid monitoren en kijken of met het vergroten de achterliggende beleidsdoelen worden gerealiseerd. Een veldinventarisatie in acht gebieden liet zien dat het totaal aan wandelmogelijkheden op grond van Top10 Vector al redelijk in beeld gebracht kan worden, maar dat het bestand juist voor onverharde paden en wegen lokaal soms duidelijk tekort schiet. Er is hierbij alleen gekeken naar de totale lengte aan nietdoodlopende paden en wegen. Een enquête onder in- en omwonenden van de gebieden liet zien dat de toegankelijkheid van aanzienlijk belang is voor het recreatieve gebruik, en daarmee de binding met het gebied. Vergroting van de toegankelijkheid lijkt vooral zinvol voor slecht ontsloten gebieden zeer nabij bevolkingsconcentraties met een tekort aan groene recreatiemogelijkheden. Trefwoorden: beleving, bezoek, binding, boerenland, GIS-indicatoren, infrastructuur, recreatie, toegankelijkheid, wandelpaden
    Moving people - towards collective action in soil and water conservation : experiences from the Bolivian mountain valleys
    Kessler, A. - \ 2006
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Leo Stroosnijder, co-promotor(en): Jan de Graaff. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085044765 - 195
    bodembescherming - waterbescherming - landdegradatie - plaatselijke bevolking - boeren - houding van boeren - buurtactie - bolivia - soil conservation - water conservation - land degradation - local population - farmers - farmers' attitudes - community action - bolivia
    Land degradation in the Bolivian mountain valleys has increased in the past decades, and many cropland fields have been abandoned. Although farmers are concerned and urgent actions are required, no serious widespread actions are undertaken. Several SWC practices - mostly based on local knowledge - are available to control runoff and improve soil management. The challenge is how to motivate farmers to adopt these practices on a wide scale. Facing this challenge, the JGRC project validated a strategy for executing SWC practices within a holistic framework of rural development. In the first phase of this 'logical strategy', the objective was to lay a solid foundation for sustainable development: to motivate farmers (improve their future prospects) and achieve their genuine participation. Based on this foundation, in the secondphaseSWC and development activities were executed. Participation rates in SWC contests and in maintenance of practices were higher in villages where a solid foundation existed. Nevertheless, two years after project withdrawal, many farmers had lost motivation to continue with SWC. The main reason: the lack of a catalyst to keep the process going. Active involvement of municipalities in rural development is therefore indispensable; they must provide follow-up activities. This requires well-trained and motivated actors in municipalities. Moreover, micro-meso-macro linkages must work efficiently, with local experiences that feed sector-wide approaches for scaling-up SWC activities, and adequate strategies that support and motivate farmers to invest in sustainable land management. Moving people - at all levels - towards collective action in SWC; only then land degradation in the Bolivian mountain valleys can be reversed.
    Smallholder seed practices : maize seed management in the Central Valleys of Oaxaca, Mexico
    Badstue, L.B. - \ 2006
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): N.E. Long, co-promotor(en): M.R. Bellon. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085045021 - 326
    rurale sociologie - plattelandsontwikkeling - maïs - zaden - aanbod - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - kleine landbouwbedrijven - kennis - plaatselijke bevolking - kosten - mexico - actieonderzoek - rural sociology - rural development - maize - seeds - supply - farm management - small farms - knowledge - local population - costs - mexico - action research
    This research aims to contribute to an in­creased understanding of what is commonly referred to as 'local seed systems', 'farmer seed systems' or 'informal seed systems', both in relation to seed supply for agricultural production and in relation to the conservation of important crop genetic diversity. Within a general understanding of seed as an essential input for agricultural production, as well as a fundamental source of germplasm for crop improvement, this study offers a detailed analysis of smallholder maize seed practices among traditional farmers in the Central Valleys of Oaxaca, Mexico, a centre of maize genetic diversity.

    Using an actor-oriented approach as the point of departure, a series of aspects related to local maize seed management and transactions are examined and discussed, including

    • Farmers' seed practices as a form of local knowledge;
    • The role of collective action in relation to crop genetic diversity conserva­tion and seed supply at the local level;
    • The social organization of seed supply; and
    • Farmers' transaction costs in relation to seed acquisition.

    The study shows that smallholder maize seed practices in the Central Valleys of Oaxaca are complex and dynamic, spanning both conservation and innovation aspects. Local concepts relating to maize and maize seed practices are often flexible and negotiable, and small-scale experimentation in search of knowledge and practical solutions is an integral part of farming. The applications and dynamics that make up local maize seed practices in the study area appear to be negotiated on the basis of a set of shared views and conditions, which in themselves are based on the agro-ecological, cultural, and social envi­ronments in which these farmers operate.

    While each section of the book analyses a different problematic, shedding light on a par­ticular aspect of local seed dynamics in the study area, together they complement each other and provide a basis for a deeper understanding of farmers' seed practices in the Central Valleys of Oaxaca. This in turn contributes to an im­proved understanding of local seed practices in a broader perspective and emphasizes the challenge for agricultural research of achieving synergies with local knowledge as the major driving force in local development processes.

    Powerful relations: the role of actor-empowerment in the management of natural resource conflicts : a case of forest conflicts in Ghana
    Marfo, E. - \ 2006
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): H. Schanz; Bas Arts. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085045267 - 222
    bossen - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - bedrijfsvoering - conflict - bosbeleid - plaatselijke bevolking - ghana - bosbedrijfsvoering - forests - natural resources - management - conflict - forest policy - local population - ghana - forest management
    Keywords: natural resource conflict, power, actor-empowerment,Ghana

    Increasingly, conflicts over natural resource (NR) use and management have attracted the attention of both scholars and professionals. While the recognition that conflict has both constructive and destructive capabilities have dawn on us, the negative outcomes have been prominent in many cases, calling for innovations in conflict management. The question of 'power' has been observed as crucial to any such innovations in conflict management. However, it has been noted that current approaches to the study of conflict and power do not offer in-depth understanding of power and how it plays itself out in NR conflicts. Besides, the role of power in NR conflicts has not been well studied. The aim of the study was to enlighten current understanding of the role of power in conflict management interventions by investigating the patterns of strategies and resources that conflict actors used to empowerthemselvesand others to manage impairments. The study established that actor-empowerment is highly context bound and conflict interventions cannot benefit from any predictive patterns such as strategy reciprocity. Thus, instead of relying on predictions of reciprocity from game models, it has been argued that intervention will benefit from understanding actor and systemic factors that constrain the mobilisation of specific resources for mutual influence. It has also been pointed out that our understanding of the role of power in conflict can be enhanced using chronological reconstruction of conflicts and studying conflicts as a two-actor game model.

    People and dams: environmental and socio-economic changes induced by a reservoir in Fincha'a watershed, western Ethiopia
    Bezuayehu, T.O. - \ 2006
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Leo Stroosnijder; Geert Sterk. - [S.l. ] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085044499 - 138
    dammen - stroomgebieden - plaatselijke bevolking - milieueffect - sociale economie - waterbescherming - bodembescherming - erosie - waterbeheer - reservoirs - ethiopië - integraal waterbeheer - dams - watersheds - local population - environmental impact - socioeconomics - water conservation - soil conservation - erosion - water management - reservoirs - ethiopia - integrated water management
    Dams that store water for electricity, irrigation, domestic water supply or flood control have been constructed for thousands of years worldwide. In too many cases, an unacceptable and often unnecessary price has been paid by watershed inhabitants to secure dam benefits, especially in social and environmental terms. The Fincha'a multipurpose dam in western Ethiopia has caused major land use changes, relocated people against their will and induced excessive population pressure in the upper watershed. Following the creation of this dam crop and livestock production have been shifted to steep and fragile parts of the watershed. Lack of agricultural intensification and soil and water conservation (SWC), poor family planning and land tenure insecurity are pressing socio-economic problems leading to impoverishment of the watershed inhabitants. Increased erosion rates and sediment yields reduce the economic life of the dam.Farmers are well aware of erosion problems but theylack confidence in the positive effect on crop yield of recommended SWC measures.The high labour requirement, loss of cropland, land tenure insecurity and the lack of immediate benefits has negatively affected SWC adoption.Integrated watershed management (IWM) has emerged as alternative to the centrally and sectorial approaches in planning dams. The focal point of any dam development programme, using IWM, is the combination of improving the livelihood of the watershed inhabitants and the sustenance of the resource base. For subsistence farmers it is mainly the production in the current season that guarantees the mere survival of their families. Therefore, IWM should be accompanied by creation of multi-stakeholders platforms and integration of soft and hard system methodologies forcreating an environment where science and knowledge help people to develop a diversity of locally appropriate resource management solutions.IWM can effectively address the social, environmental and economic problems during the planning of new dams in Ethiopia.
    Houding en wensen van bewoners ten aanzien van het begrip Nationaal Landschap
    Goossen, C.M. ; Boer, T.A. de - \ 2006
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 1306) - 76
    landschap - erfgoed - landschapsbescherming - openbare mening - plaatselijke bevolking - perceptie - gebruikswaarde - landgebruiksplanning - wensen - nationale landschappen - landscape - heritage areas - landscape conservation - public opinion - local population - perception - use value - land use planning - desires - national landscapes
    Via een online enquete onder 4000 bewoners van alle Nationale Landschappen is gevraagd naar de houding en wensen ten aanzien van Nationale Landschappen. Ruim de helft van alle Nederlanders heeft van het begrip Nationaal Landschap gehoord. Ook de bewoners kennen het begrip maar weten niet dat ze in een Nationaal Landschap wonen. De bewoners zijn voor economische ontwikkelingen in een Nationaal Landschap maar hechten zeer sterk aan het kenmerkende van het landschap. Dit mag niet verloren gaan voor generaties na ons. De meeste bewoners gaan met bijna 5 motieven recreëren. Het motief “er even tussen uit” is het populairst. Op basis van deze motieven hebben de bewoners verschillende inrichtingswensen. Op basis van de motieven en bijbehorende inrichtingswensen zou een Nationaal Landschap een recreatieve zonering moeten krijgen
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