Methodology for estimating emissions from agriculture in the Netherlands. : Calculations of CH4, NH3, N2O, NOx, PM10, PM2.5 and CO2 with the National Emission Model for Agriculture (NEMA)
Vonk, J. ; Bannink, A. ; Bruggen, C. van; Groenestein, C.M. ; Huijsmans, J.F.M. ; Kolk, J.W.H. van der; Luesink, H.H. ; Oude Voshaar, S.V. ; Sluis, S.M. ; Velthof, G.L. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Statutory Research Tasks Unit for Nature & the Environment (WOt-technical report 53) - 164
air pollutants, greenhouse gases, livestock, crops, animal housing, manure storage, manure application, inorganic fertilizer, enteric fermentation, manure management, agricultural soils, liming, NIR, CRF, IIR, NFR - landbouw - gewassen - landbouwgronden - vee - huisvesting, dieren - dierlijke meststoffen - rundveemest - mestverwerking - begrazing - broeikasgassen - luchtverontreinigende stoffen - emissie - ammoniakemissie - kooldioxide - methaan - anorganische meststoffen - fermentatie - bekalking - nederland - compost - rioolslib - teelt - oogstresten - rijp worden - agriculture - crops - agricultural soils - livestock - animal housing - animal manures - cattle manure - manure treatment - grazing - greenhouse gases - air pollutants - emission - ammonia emission - carbon dioxide - methane - inorganic fertilizers - fermentation - liming - netherlands - composts - sewage sludge - cultivation - crop residues - ripening
The National Emission Model for Agriculture (NEMA) is used to calculate emissions to air from agricultural activities in the Netherlands on a national scale. Emissions of ammonia (NH3) and other N-compounds (NOx and N2O) from animal housing, manure storage, manure application and grazing are assessed using a Total Ammoniacal Nitrogen (TAN) flow model. Furthermore, emissions from application of inorganic N-fertilizer, compost and sewage sludge, cultivation of organic soils, crop residues, and ripening of crops are calculated. NEMA is also used to estimate emissions of methane (CH4) from enteric fermentation and manure management, particulate matter (PM) from manure management and agricultural soils, and carbon dioxide
(CO2) from liming. Emissions are calculated in accordance with international guidance criteria and reported in an annual Informative Inventory Report (IIR; for air pollutants) and National Inventory Report (NIR; for greenhouse gases). This methodology report describes the outline and backgrounds of the emission
calculations with NEMA
Greenhouse gas reporting for the LULUCF sector in the Netherlands : methodological background
Arets, E.J.M.M. ; Kolk, J.W.H. van der; Hengeveld, G.M. ; Lesschen, J.P. ; Kramer, H. ; Kuikman, P.J. ; Schelhaas, M. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Statutory Research Tasks Unit for Nature & the Environment (WOT Natuur & Milieu) (WOt-technical report 52) - 78
greenhouse gases - air pollutants - greenhouse effect - climatic change - emission - methodology - netherlands - broeikasgassen - luchtverontreinigende stoffen - broeikaseffect - klimaatverandering - emissie - methodologie - nederland
This report provides a complete methodological description of the Dutch National System for Greenhouse gas Reporting of the LULUCF sector for the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The methodologies follow the IPCC 2006 guidelines for Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land-Uses (AFOLU).
Based on these guidelines, this report provides detailed descriptions and motivations of the used methods, activity data, and emission factors for calculation of the emissions and removals as reported in the National Inventory Report (NIR). The structure of the report follows the structure for national inventory reports as
laid out in the appendix to Decision 24/CP.19 of the UNFCCC.
Emissies van endotoxinen uit de veehouderij: een literatuurstudie voor ontwikkeling van een toetsingskader = Emissions of endotoxins from animal production: a literature survey for development of an assessment framework
Winkel, A. ; Wouters, I.M. ; Aarnink, A.J.A. ; Heederik, D.J.J. ; Ogink, N.W.M. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 773) - 80
endotoxinen - emissie - veehouderij - kennisniveau - dierlijke productie - gezondheid op het platteland - ventilatie - luchtkwaliteit - landbouw en milieu - duurzame veehouderij - luchtverontreinigende stoffen - endotoxins - emission - livestock farming - knowledge level - animal production - rural health - ventilation - air quality - agriculture and environment - sustainable animal husbandry - air pollutants
In this literature review, the state of knowledge is summarized on endotoxin emissions from animal production. Furthermore, the design of an assessment framework for endotoxins for use in permit granting is explored. Finally, lacking knowledge to develop such a framework has been determined.
Metingen aan een biofilter voor de behandeling van ventilatielucht van een vleesvarkensstal = Measurements on a biofilter for treatment of exhaust air from a fattening pig house
Melse, R.W. ; Hol, J.M.G. ; Nijeboer, G.M. ; Hattum, T.G. van - \ 2014
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Report / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 802) - 40
ventilatie - luchtfilters - luchtverontreinigende stoffen - varkenshouderij - slachtdieren - varkens - varkensstallen - emissiereductie - stankemissie - ammoniakemissie - luchtkwaliteit - ventilation - air filters - air pollutants - pig farming - meat animals - pigs - pig housing - emission reduction - odour emission - ammonia emission - air quality
In this study the emission reduction of ammonia, odour and fine dust (PM10, PM2.5) was determined for a biofilter treating exhaust air from a fattening pig house.
Effecten van groenelementen op de luchtkwaliteit : samenvattende rapportage en perspectieven toepassing groenelementen voor het verbeteren van de lokale luchtkwaliteit rondom stallen
Pronk, A.A. ; Ogink, N.W.M. ; Holterman, H.J. ; Hofschreuder, P. ; Vermeij, I. - \ 2013
Wageningen : Plant Research International, Business Unit Agrosysteemkunde (Rapport / Plant Research International 493) - 42
luchtverontreiniging - luchtverontreinigende stoffen - groene zones - houtwallen - bomen - struiken - wegbeplantingen - emissie - ammoniakemissie - intensieve veehouderij - verkeer - fijn stof - windeffecten - air pollution - air pollutants - green belts - hedgerows - trees - shrubs - roadside plantations - emission - ammonia emission - intensive livestock farming - traffic - particulate matter - wind effects
Bomen en struiken in een houtwal, een groenelement, kunnen een bijdrage leveren aan het verlagen van de concentratie emissies in de lucht. Deze overkoepelende samenvattende rapportage geeft een integraal overzicht van de beschikbare informatie uit onderzoeken en publicaties, zowel Nederlands als internationaal, met medeneming van alle facetten, die relevant zijn voor het instrument groenelementen. Het hoofdaccent ligt daarbij op toepassing in de veehouderij.
Emissies van lachgas, methaan en ammoniak uit mest na scheiding = Emissions of nitrous oxide, methane and ammonia from manure after separation
Mosquera Losada, J. ; Schils, R.L.M. ; Groenestein, C.M. ; Hoeksma, P. ; Velthof, G.L. ; Hummelink, E.W.J. - \ 2010
Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 427) - 38
melkveehouderij - varkenshouderij - drijfmest - scheidingstechnologie - ammoniakemissie - broeikasgassen - luchtverontreinigende stoffen - dairy farming - pig farming - slurries - separation technology - ammonia emission - greenhouse gases - air pollutants
It is expected that separation of animal slurry in the Netherlands in coming years will increase as a result of the manure legislation. Against this background the effect of slurry separation on the emission of greenhouse gasses and ammonia during storage and after field application was studied. It is expected that due to slurry separation in the Netherlands in 2020 the greenhouse gas emissions will be slightly lower than the current level. Slurry separation has no effect on the emission of ammonia.
Fijn stof tot nadenken
Krol, M.C. - \ 2007
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - 28
luchtverontreiniging - stof - stofbestrijding - luchtverontreinigende stoffen - risicovermindering - overheidsbeleid - nederland - fijn stof - openbare redes - air pollution - dust - dust control - air pollutants - risk reduction - government policy - netherlands - particulate matter - public speeches
In zijn rede ‘Fijn stof tot nadenken’ gaat prof. Krol in op de luchtkwaliteit in Nederland voor wat betreft fijnstof. Dit zijn deeltjes kleiner dan tien micrometer (1 micrometer is een duizendste millimeter) die vanwege hun geringe massa in de lucht blijven zweven. Berekend is dat aan deze deeltjes, die via de longen in het lichaam komen, in Europa 384.000 vroegtijdige sterfgevallen zijn toe te schrijven (in het jaar 2000). De situatie in delen van Polen, de Po-vlakte, Hongarije en België en Nederland steekt daar nog eens ongunstig tegen af, waardoor de gemiddelde levensverwachting er twee jaar lager uitkomt. Vooral kleine fijnstofdeeltjes (<2,5 micrometer) hebben een duidelijke relatie met gezondheidseffecten, op grond waarvan de EU per 2015 nieuwe normen voorschrijft
Strijd tegen fijn-stofemissie : dustconf presenteert nieuwste methoden
Aarnink, A.J.A. - \ 2007
V-focus 4 (2007)4. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 46 - 48.
landbouw - veehouderij - stof - emissie - luchtverontreiniging - luchtverontreinigende stoffen - preventie - controle - conferenties - agriculture - livestock farming - dust - emission - air pollution - air pollutants - prevention - control - conferences
Tijdens de internationale conferentie DustConf 2007 te Maasticht (23 en 24 april) presenteerden wetenschappers uit diverse landen hun nieuwste manieren om de uitstoot van fijn stof te verminderen
Duurzaamheid van de biologische landbouw : prestaties op milieu, dierenwelzijn en arbeidsomstandigheden
Spruijt, J. ; Schoorlemmer, H.B. ; Woerden, S.C. van; Peppelman, G. ; Visser, M. de; Vermeij, I. - \ 2004
Lelystad : Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving B.V. (PPO nr. 328) - 118
duurzaamheid (sustainability) - biologische landbouw - arbeidsomstandigheden - mineralen - gewasbescherming - dierenwelzijn - energiegebruik - luchtverontreinigende stoffen - sustainability - organic farming - working conditions - minerals - plant protection - animal welfare - energy consumption - air pollutants
In dit rapport worden de prestaties van de biologische landbouw aan de hand van de thema's gewasbescherming, dierenwelzijn, mineralen, energieverbruik, broeikasgassen, ammoniak en arbeidsomstandigheden behandeld in vergelijking met gangbare en geïntegreerde landbouw.
Atmosferische depositie van gewasbeschermingsmiddelen en mogelijke risico's voor waterleven
Deneer, J.W. ; Arts, G.H.P. ; Berg, F. van den; Brink, P.J. van den; Brock, T.C.M. - \ 2004
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 934) - 68
luchtverontreiniging - luchtverontreinigende stoffen - pesticiden - waterverontreiniging - zoetwaterecologie - waterorganismen - aquatische gemeenschappen - risicoschatting - nederland - emissie - air pollution - air pollutants - pesticides - emission - water pollution - freshwater ecology - aquatic organisms - aquatic communities - risk assessment - netherlands
Scenarioberekeningen geven aan dat de atmosferische depositie van gewasbeschermingsmiddelen in 2001 zodanig hoog was dat ook op ver van de toepassing verwijderde locaties effecten op waterleven niet zijn uit te sluiten. Meer dan de helft van de depositie kwam in 2001 voor rekening van een vijftal stoffen. De toxische belasting werd in 2001 voor een groot deel bepaald door stoffen die op dat moment in Nederland geen toelating meer hadden als gewasbeschermings-middel.
Voorkomen van verspreiding van ziektekiemen en milieu-emissies via luchtreiniging
Aarnink, A.J.A. ; Landman, W.J.M. ; Melse, R.W. ; Gijsel, P. de; Huynh Thi Thanh Thuy, ; Fabri, T. - \ 2004
Wageningen : Agrotechnology & Food Innovations (Rapport / Agrotechnology & Food Innovations nr. 059) - ISBN 9789067547451 - 63
veehouderij - dierhouderij - huisvesting, dieren - infectieziekten - luchtverontreinigende stoffen - besmetters - emissie - infectie door luchtdeeltjes - livestock farming - animal husbandry - animal housing - infectious diseases - air pollutants - contaminants - emission - airborne infection
Uncertainties in emission inventories
Aardenne, J.A. van - \ 2002
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): L. Hordijk; M.P.J. Pulles; C. Kroeze. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789058086419 - 143
emissie - luchtverontreinigende stoffen - luchtverontreiniging - stikstofoxiden - milieueffect - inventarisaties - emission - air pollutants - air pollution - nitrogen oxides - environmental impact - inventories
Emission inventories provide information about the amount of a pollutant that is emitted to the atmosphere as a result of a specific anthropogenic or natural process at a given time or place. Emission inventories can be used for either policy or scientific purposes. For policy purposes, emission inventories can be used to monitor the progress of environmental policy or to check compliance with conventions and protocols. For scientific purposes, emission inventories can be used as input into atmospheric dispersion models that are aimed at understanding the chemical and physical processes and the behaviour of air pollutants in the atmosphere. A strict separation between policy and scientific oriented emission inventories is not always possible. The usefulness of emission inventories for policy or science depends on the accuracy and the reliability of the inventories. There is uncertainty about an emission inventory when the accuracy and reliability of the emission estimates are not known. Proper use of emissions inventories requires an assessment of the uncertainties, including identification, qualification and quantification of the uncertainty. Although different methods for the assessment of uncertainty in emission inventories have been proposed, a systematic approach for identification, qualification and quantification of uncertainty does not exist. The objective of this thesis is to develop such a systematic approach for large-scale inventories. In order to meet this objective three research questions have been formulated:
(i) What are the potential sources of uncertainty in emission inventories
(ii) Which methods can be followed for the assessment of uncertainty
(111)To what extent can uncertainty in emission inventories be identified, qualified or quantified.
The methodology of emission inventory compilation typical for large-scale emission inventories has been illustrated by two emission inventories. In chapter 2, time series of past worldwide emission of anthropogenic trace gases for the period 1890 - 1990 are described. Chapter 3 presents projections for NOx emissions in Asia for the period 1990 -2020. The construction of these emission inventories was hampered by the lack of experimental data on the different sources of emission. As a result, the emissions were calculated on another scale than on which the emission processes occur in reality. The activity data and emission factors were based on extrapolation of existing information. Due to these aggregations and extrapolations, the emission inventories are inaccurate representations of the actual emissions.
Chapter 4 describes the theoretical basis for our definitions of uncertainties, followed by a categorisation of uncertainties in emission inventories. It is argued that two types of uncertainty in emission inventories exist. Uncertainty about accuracy is the lack of knowledge about the sources and size of the inaccuracy. Uncertainty about reliability is the lack of knowledge about the degree to which the emission inventory is meeting user-specified quality criteria. These user-specified criteria depend on the purpose of the emission inventory. For scientific purposes the reliability is defined by the accuracy of the inventory. For policy purposes, quality criteria can be related to transparency, application of agreed upon methodologies or sometimes also to the assessment of accuracy. Uncertainty about reliability exists when either the accuracy of the emission inventory is not known or when the documentation of the inventory is inadequate and incomplete. Uncertainty about accuracy exists when the different sources of inaccuracy or the extent to which the inventory is inaccurate is not known. A categorisation of uncertainty about different sources of inaccuracy has been presented. Uncertainty about structural inaccuracy is the lack knowledge about the extent to which the structure of an emission inventory allows for an accurate calculation of the 'real' emission. Three causes for structural inaccuracy have been defined. These are aggregation error, incompleteness and mathematical formulation error. Uncertainty about input value inaccuracy is the lack of knowledge about the values of activity data and emission factors. Four causes for input value inaccuracy have been identified. These are extrapolation error, measurement error, unknown developments and reporting error.
Uncertainty about reliability can be assessed through peer review. For the assessment of inaccuracy, a distinction is made between internal and external assessment of uncertainty. In an internal assessment, the methodology and information to construct an emission inventory form the basis for the assessment of inaccuracy. Based on review of available methodologies six methods for internal assessment are proposed: (i) qualitative discussion, (ii) data quality rating, (iii) calculation cheek and evaluation of mathematical formulation, (iv) expert judgement, (v) error propagation and (vi) importance analysis. In an external assessment, the difference between the emission inventory and external sources of information is used to identify, qualify or quantify inaccuracy in the emission inventory. Four methods can be used:(1)comparison with other emission inventories, (ii) comparison with (in)direct measurements, (iii) forward air quality modelling and (iv) inverse air quality modelling.
Against this background we developed a systematic approach for the assessment of uncertainty in emission inventories. This framework, FRAULEIN (FRamework for the Assessment of Uncertainty in Large-scale Emission INventories) can be used to assess uncertainty about reliability and uncertainty about accuracy. It provides guidance for selection of the methods that can be used to identify, qualify or quantify different sources of uncertainty.
Several methods included in the framework have been analysed in more detail to identify the advantages and disadvantages of these methods in practice. Chapter 5 presents the results of assessment of uncertainties in estimates of 1990 N20 emissions from agriculture in The Netherlands using the methods of error propagation and importance analysis. The results indicate that only a small number (three out of 23) of uncertain inventory parameters have large share in the inaccuracy of the emission inventory. These parameters include emission factors for indirect N20 emissions (EF5), the fraction of N leaching from agricultural soils (Fracleach) and the emission factor for direct soil emissions (EF1). Reducing the inaccuracy in the inventory should therefore focus on improved quantification of indirect emissions (based on EF5 and Fracleach) and direct soil emissions (EF1). From a methodological point of view, the results of the N20 case study show that quantification of input value inaccuracy through error propagation is influenced by the statistical
quantification interpretation of the available information in the IPCC Guidelines (default values, and uncertainty ranges of emission factors in particular). This result provides an indication that the extent to which inaccuracies can be assessed depends not only on the characteristics of the method used for the assessment but also on the available information on inventory parameters. Identification of inventory parameters having the largest share in the inaccuracy, on the other hand, was not influenced by the statistical interpretation of IPCC information.
Chapter 6 describes the results of assessment of uncertainty in a European emission inventory of S02 in 1994 using forward air quality modelling and atmospheric measurements. The problem with this type of assessment is that it is not easy to pinpoint emission inventory inaccuracy as single cause of the deviation between measurements and model results. Inaccuracies exist in both the inventory, model and measurements. In the case study it has been analysed whether wind-direction-dependent differences between calculated and measured concentrations can be used to assess inaccuracies in emission inventories. The results indicate that in three regions within the study domain inaccuracy in the emission inventory is the most likely cause for the discrepancy between modelled and observed S02 concentrations. These regions are Sachsen/Brandenburg (Germany), Central England and the western part of the Russian Federation. In Sachsen/Brandenburg and Central England the spatial distribution of the emissions seems to be inaccurate while in the western part of the Russian Federation the total emission estimate seems to be inaccurate. We developed a relatively simple method to identify inventory inaccuracies based on differences between the air quality model and atmospheric measurements. However, it was also shown that the method is primarily a tool for identifying relatively inaccurate parts of the inventory. The method cannot be used to analyse causes of the inaccuracies, such as inaccurate structure or input values. Furthermore, it was concluded that the method is more a qualitative than a quantitative approach.
There are three ways to use FRAULEIN in practice. First, in situations where the method for uncertainty assessment is prescribed, FRAULEIN clarifies the sources of uncertainty that can be identified, qualified or quantified. Second, if the objective of a study is to assess a specific source of uncertainty, FRAULEIN may serve as a guide for selection of the appropriate methods. Third, if the aim is to perform a full assessment of inaccuracy, FRAULEIN forms the basis of a four-step approach: (1) identification, qualification (2) and quantification (3) of the sources of inaccuracy, followed by evaluation to prioritise further research (4).
Toxic potency and effects of diffuse air pollution
Hamers, T.H.M. - \ 2002
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): J.H. Koeman; A.J. Murk. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789058087096 - 176
luchtverontreiniging - luchtverontreinigende stoffen - toxiciteit - genotoxiciteit - mutageniciteit - xenobiotica - air pollution - air pollutants - toxicity - genotoxicity - mutagenicity - xenobiotics
Diffuse air pollution consists of an omnipresent complex mixture of pollutants that is emitted from many widely dispersed sources as traffic, industries, households, energy plants, waste incinerators, and agriculture. It can be deposited in relatively remote areas as a result of (long-range) airborne transport. It has a heterogeneous composition in time and space and consists of many known and unknown compounds. Given the unknown chemical identity and toxicity of many constituents of this mixture, it is virtually impossible to make a toxicological characterization of diffuse air pollution based on evaluations of the individual compounds. Alternatively, in the present thesis the integrated toxic potency and the subsequent effects have been studied of the air polluting mixture as a whole. Three objectives were defined:
To meet these objectives, the integrated toxic potency has been qualified and quantified in small-scale in vitro bio-assays (exposure assessment) and the possible changes in biochemical and physiological endpoints have been quantified by measuring biomarkers in organisms exposed to airborne pollution in the field (effect assessment). Biomarkers were selected based on their specific response to toxicants with a specific mode of action. Selected toxicants were  genotoxic compounds, including PAHs,  arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists including dioxin-like compounds,  estrogenic compounds, and  esterase inhibitors. Most of these toxicants were known to be relevant airborne pollutants, except for the estrogenic compounds, of which the atmospheric presence had hardly been studied yet. Exposure and effects of diffuse air pollution have been compared between background locations and locations with notoriously exposure to traffic or to pesticide emissions.
Genotoxic and AhR-activating potency was demonstrated for almost any of the of airborne particulate matter (APM) samples studied. APM collected at a relatively ghway, but differences were amply within one order of magnitude. In general, genotoxic potency could mainly be attributed to direct genotoxicants, rather than to compounds that first need to be metabolized to become genotoxic. However, during easterly wind conditions some APM samples contained relatively high indirect genotoxic potency with little differences between a highway and a background location. Trajectory analysis suggested that the different composition of pollutants in these samples is due to industrial pollutants that have been transported over long distances through the atmosphere. The AhR activating potency of APM was completely attributed to readily biodegradable compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and not to stable congeners as dioxins or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).
Differences among toxic potencies of APM collected next to a highway and in a background location were too small to be reflected in biomarker responses in small mammals. Actually, relatively high levels of aromatic DNA adduct in heart, lung, and liver and relatively low hepatic retinyl-palmitate levels were found in herbivorous bank voles ( Clethrionomys glareolus ) from the background location compared to the sampling locations closer to the highway. As these differences were not found in carnivorous common shrews ( Sorex araneus ), they were attributed to oral exposure to an actual deposition of airborne pollutants on the vegetation.
Esterase inhibiting potency was demonstrated in rainwater using a specially adapted bio-assay. Esterase inhibition correlated with analyzed concentrations of organophosphate and carbamate insecticides in rainwater and significantly depended on sampling location, with highest potency in an area with intense horticultural practice (greenhouses). Maximum concentrations of individually analyzed pesticides and maximum esterase inhibiting potencies (expressed as dichlorvos equivalent concentrations) incidentally exceeded EC 50 -values for Daphnia and maximum permissible concentrations (MPCs) set for surface water in The Netherlands. Estrogenic potency was observed in all rainwater samples tested and differed significantly with sampling season. Highest estrogenic potency was found in spring, and correlated significantly with the presence of organochlorine compounds in the rainwater, although it could not be explained by the analyzed concentrations of these compounds. Incidentally, estrogenic potency (expressed as estradiol equivalent concentrations ) exceeded lowest observed effect concentrations reported in literature for vitellogenesis in male rainbow trout. In conclusion, rainwater was frequently polluted with estrogenic and esterase inhibiting compounds at concentrations above MPCs for surface water and incidentally at effect levels for aquatic organisms, also in relatively remote and seemingly unpolluted areas. Because rainwater pollutants are diluted by surface water and adsorbed by particles after deposition, aquatic ecosystems will be exposed to lower concentrations and are probably not directly at risk. Possibly, shallow and mainly rainwater-fed water pools are an exception, and further studies should focus on such pools, especially in remote areas.
Based on the experiences gained in the present study,a strategic research concept is proposed for the risk characterization of diffuse air pollution. The strategy includes several steps:  Relevant environmental samples are collected and adequately processed and their toxic potency is tested in bio-assays.  Bio-assay responses are compared to threshold levels for toxic effects.  For active environmental samples, a Toxicity Identity and Evaluation (TIE) procedure is proposed to identify the compounds that contribute most to its toxic potency.  In vivo responses should be studied in indicative organisms that are exposed via relevant routes of exposure to those compounds or groups of pollutants that exceeded thresholds levels in the bio-assays.  A risk assessment of diffuse air pollution can be made, based on the outcome of the exposure and effect assessments.
Onderzoek naar de emissies van de brand bij ATF in Drachten
Bruggen, M. van; Baars, A.J. ; Traag, W.A. - \ 2001
Bilthoven etc. : RIVM [etc.] (Rapport RIKILT 2001.010) - 42
verbranding - bemonsteren - luchtverontreinigende stoffen - gezondheidsgevaren - risicoschatting - melk - grassen - nederland - combustion - sampling - air pollutants - health hazards - risk assessment - milk - grasses - netherlands
Technisch functioneren van de Air Pathogen Free (APF)-stal: luchtbehandeling en hygienemaatregelen
Huijben, J.J.H. ; Loo, D.J.P.H. van de; Wagenberg, A.V. van; Swinkels, J.W.G.M. ; Vesseur, P.C. - \ 1998
Rosmalen : Praktijkonderzoek varkenshouderij (Proefverslag / Praktijkonderzoek Varkenshouderij P1.209) - 44
varkenshouderij - varkensstallen - luchtreinigers - luchtfilters - luchtverontreinigende stoffen - pathogenen - milieuhygiëne - pig farming - pig housing - air cleaners - air filters - air pollutants - pathogens - environmental hygiene