Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Combining an in vitro reporter gene assay with metabolomics to identify tomato phytochemicals responsible for inducing electrophile-responsive element (EpRE)-mediated gene transcription
    Eekelen, H.D.L.M. van; Gijsbers, L. ; Maliepaard, C.A. ; Vreeburg, R.A.M. ; Finkers, H.J. ; Tikunov, Y.M. ; Gomez Roldan, M.V. ; Haan, L.H.J. de; Vos, R.C.H. de; Aarts, J.M.M.J.G. ; Rietjens, I. ; Bovy, A.G. - \ 2015
    Metabolomics 11 (2015)2. - ISSN 1573-3882 - p. 302 - 311.
    solanum-lycopersicon - mass-spectrometry - fruit - expression - health - metabolism - flavonoids - lycopene - deglycosylation - polyphenols
    The electrophile-responsive element (EpRE) is a transcriptional enhancer involved in cancer-chemoprotective gene expression effects of certain dietary compounds. In this study we measured the ability of extracts of glycosidase treated tomato fruits from 97 different accessions to induce EpRE-mediated luciferase expression using EpRE-LUX reporter cells and analyzed the same extracts using LC–MSbased untargeted metabolomics profiling. We were able to pinpoint those tomato compounds that were most correlated with EpRE-mediated luciferase induction, by combining reporter gene assay data with the metabolic profiles of the same extracts. Flavonoids were the compounds showing the strongest positive correlation with EpRE-LUX activity. These results were validated using a transgenic tomato line accumulating high levels of flavonoids. Results obtained corroborated that flavonoids are an important determinant of the ability of tomato fruit extracts to induce EpRE-mediated beneficial health effects. Overall, these results indicate that combining untargeted metabolomics with reporter gene assays provides a powerful tool for nutritionists, plant breeders and food chemists towards identification of potential health-beneficial constituents of tomato fruits, as well as of other crops and products derived thereof.
    Tomato quality: from the field to the consumer : interactions between genotype, cultivation and postharvest conditions
    Farneti, B. - \ 2014
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Ernst Woltering, co-promotor(en): Rob Schouten. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462570801 - 195
    solanum lycopersicum - tomaten - voedselkwaliteit - kwaliteit na de oogst - behandeling na de oogst - lycopeen - plantenveredeling - solanum lycopersicum - tomatoes - food quality - postharvest quality - postharvest treatment - lycopene - plant breeding

    The preservation of product quality in the marketing chain is of great importance for the final financial result of all stakeholders and consumer satisfaction. Improve product quality management requires an understanding of the various aspects of product and requires the availability of techniques to measure quality in an easy and objective way. The aim of the study was to obtain more insight of the effect of both pre-and post-harvest factors on the quality of tomatoes as experienced by the consumer.

    In this dissertation, the effect of growing conditions (especially in closed greenhouses) on post-harvest quality of different tomato varieties was discussed. It was also examined the effects of storage of fruits at low temperatures. For the measurement of volatile aroma compounds, essential for the taste, a new method was developed based on PTR-MS coupled to an “artificial mouth”. In this manner, the aroma substances profile could be measured as that released into the mouth during eating of the tomatoes. Cold storage leads to a rapid decrease of important flavor substances, and also shows the connection with the depletion of compounds important for the color red mainly lycopene. After warming up, not all flavors back to previous levels and less desirable substances (off-flavors) are also produced. The results provide guidance on how the cold tolerance of the varieties can be improved.

    Simple and rapid quantification of total carotenoids in lyophilized apricots (prunus armeniaca l.) by means of reflectance colorimetry and photoacoustic spectroscopy
    Doka, O. ; Ficzek, G. ; Luterotti, S. ; Bicanic, D.D. ; Spruijt, R.B. ; Buijnsters, J. ; Vegvari, G. - \ 2013
    Food Technology and Biotechnology 51 (2013)4. - ISSN 1330-9862 - p. 453 - 459.
    fruit - vegetables - cultivars - varieties - anthocyanin - pumpkins - maturity - lycopene - vitamin - quality
    Photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) and reflectance colorimetry are suggested as new tools for the analysis of total carotenoids in lyophilized apricot powders. The data obtained by these two techniques from seven apricot cultivars were compared to those acquired by spectrophotometry and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Best correlations were found between the total carotenoid (TC) content (obtained by VIS spectrophotometry: 1.2-3.4 mg per 100 g of fresh mass) and colorimetric index a* (a* represents the redness of the investigated sample), as well as either argon-ion laser- or xenon-lamp-based PAS. In all three cases linear correlations were comparable. However, according to the sensitivity and precision data, expressed via limit of detection (LOD) and measurement repeatability the Xe-lamp-based PAS is a preferred approach, followed by colorimetric index a* and Ar-ion laser PAS. Both PAS methods exhibit practically the same Pearson's correlation coefficient (R=0.987 and R=0.991) values. Nevertheless, residual sum of squares (RSS) and residual standard deviation of the linear regression (s(y/x)) differ markedly For Xe-lamp-based PAS these parameters were much lower than in the case of Ar-ion laser PAS. Likewise, analysis imprecision amounted to relative standard deviation (RSD) of 1-3 % for Xe-lamp PAS and 2-6 % for Ar-ion laser PAS. On the other hand, as expected, the calibration sensitivity achieved for the PAS signal induced by an Ar-ion laser at 481 nm was substantially higher than that of a Xe-lamp at 470 nm. Nevertheless, according to much lower sy/x, the corresponding LOD for Xe-lamp PAS was still two times lower than that of Ar-ion-based laser PAS (0.59 vs. 1.10 mg per 100 g). Unlike this, Ar-ion laser PAS showed more favourable instrumental precision and standard error of the weighed mean when compared to the Xe-lamp PAS (0.1-0.6 and 0.1-0.3 % vs. 0.5-8.0 and 0.4-1.7 %, respectively). As far as colorimetric indices are concerned, only a* proved to be analytically useful; excellent R but rather modest RSS and s(y/x) resulted in LOD value of 0.70 mg per 100 g and acceptable analysis imprecision of up to 3 %. The outcome of this research provides sufficient amount of evidence that analytical methods such as reflectance colorimetry and PAS without the use of any chemicals are feasible for reliable quantification of total carotenoids in freeze-dried apricot homogenates.
    Induction of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor ¿ (PPAR¿)-Mediated Gene Expression by Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) Extracts
    Gijsbers, L. ; Eekelen, H.D.L.M. van; Haan, L.H.J. de; Swier, J.M. ; Heijink, N.L. ; Kloet, S.K. ; Bovy, A.G. ; Keijer, J. ; Rietjens, I.M.C.M. ; Aarts, J.M.M.J.G. - \ 2013
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 61 (2013)14. - ISSN 0021-8561 - p. 3419 - 3427.
    improves insulin sensitivity - ppar-gamma - plasma-concentrations - hypertensive patients - blood-pressure - food-products - beta-carotene - cancer cells - fruit - lycopene
    Since beneficial effects related to tomato consumption partially overlap with those related to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ¿ (PPAR¿) activation, our aim was to test extracts of tomato fruits and tomato components, including polyphenols and isoprenoids, for their capacity to activate PPAR¿ using the PPAR¿2 CALUX reporter cell line. Thirty tomato compounds were tested; seven carotenoids and three polyphenols induced PPAR¿2-mediated luciferase expression. Two extracts of tomato, one containing deglycosylated phenolic compounds and one containing isoprenoids, also induced PPAR¿2-mediated expression at physiologically relevant concentrations. Furthermore, enzymatically hydrolyzed extracts of seven tomato varieties all induced PPAR¿-mediated expression, with a 1.6-fold difference between the least potent and the most potent variety. The two most potent varieties had high flavonoid content, while the two least potent varieties had low flavonoid content. These data indicate that extracts of tomato are able to induce PPAR¿-mediated gene expression in vitro and that some tomato varieties are more potent than others.
    Comparison of spectrophotometric and HPLC methods for determination of carotenoids in foods
    Luterotti, S. ; Markovic, K. ; Franko, M. ; Bicanic, D.D. ; Madzgalj, A. - \ 2013
    Food Chemistry 140 (2013)1-2. - ISSN 0308-8146 - p. 390 - 397.
    beta-carotene - human health - tomato fruits - lycopene - maize - extraction - products
    This report is aimed at intra-laboratory and inter-laboratory comparison of the results obtained during spectrophotometric and HPLC analyses of lycopene, ß-carotene and total carotenoids in tomato products and yellow maize flours/grits. Extensive statistical analyses are performed in order to identify the main sources of uncertainties which may occur when using: (i) different techniques/methods/approaches in the same/different laboratories, in various food samples, and (ii) to indicate the facts/conditions under which the biases between results may remain unidentified after applying statistical testing. Our data points to the inertness of t-test to detect significance of differences, particularly at low R values: in general, the higher correlation coefficient, the higher is sensitivity of statistical testing, especially of the paired t-test. Therefore, simple deviation of relationship line slope from unity could be used as additional evaluation parameter. This adds to reliable and objective quality assurance of foods in regard to carotenoids.
    Induction of electrophile-responsive element (EpRE)-mediated gene expression by tomato extracts in vitro
    Gijsbers, L. ; Eekelen, H.D.L.M. van; Nguyen, T.H. ; Haan, L.H.J. de; Burg, B. van der; Aarts, J.M.M.J.G. ; Rietjens, I.M.C.M. ; Bovy, A.G. - \ 2012
    Food Chemistry 135 (2012)3. - ISSN 0308-8146 - p. 1166 - 1172.
    flavonoid intake - lung-cancer - activation - lycopene - cells - risk - phytochemicals - products - women
    The market for food products with additional health benefits is increasing rapidly and tools for identification of bio-functional characteristics of food items are essential. To facilitate the detection of beneficial effects of tomato on gene expression, methods to prepare tomato extracts suitable to test in the EpRE LUX assay and other cell-based reporter gene assays for health-related bioactivity mechanisms, were developed. An isoprenoid-containing chloroform extract of tomato fruit and most individual isoprenoids did not induce electrophile-responsive element (EpRE)-mediated gene expression. A semi-polar extract of tomato fruits, enzymatically hydrolysed to remove the glycosyl residues from the phenolic ingredients was able to induce EpRE-mediated luciferase expression at both mRNA and protein level, which might be partly due to the presence of quercetin, kaempferol, naringenin and naringenin chalcone. It was concluded that induction of EpRE-regulated genes, such as detoxifying phase II and antioxidant enzymes, may contribute to the beneficial health effects of tomato.
    Induced point mutations in the phytoene synthase 1 gene cause differences in carotenoid content during tomato fruit ripening
    Gady, A.L.F. ; Vriezen, W. ; Wal, M.H.B.J. van de; Huang, P. ; Bovy, A.G. ; Visser, R.G.F. ; Bachem, C.W.B. - \ 2012
    Molecular Breeding 29 (2012)3. - ISSN 1380-3743 - p. 801 - 812.
    biosynthesis - expression - lycopene - cloning - plants
    In tomato, carotenoids are important with regard to major breeding traits such as fruit colour and human health. The enzyme phytoene synthase (PSY1) directs metabolic flux towards carotenoid synthesis. Through TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes), we have identified two point mutations in the Psy1 gene. The first mutation is a knockout allele (W180*) and the second mutation leads to an amino acid substitution (P192L). Plants carrying the Psy1 knockout allele show fruit with a yellow flesh colour similar to the r, r mutant, with no further change in colour during ripening. In the line with P192L substitution, fruit remain yellow until 3 days post-breaker and eventually turn red. Metabolite profiling verified the absence of carotenoids in the W180* line and thereby confirms that PSY1 is the only enzyme introducing substrate into the carotenoid pathway in ripening fruit. More subtle effects on carotenoid accumulation were observed in the P192L line with a delay in lycopene and b-carotene accumulation clearly linked to a very slow synthesis of phytoene. The observation of lutein degradation with ripening in both lines showed that lutein and its precursors are still synthesised in ripening fruit. Gene expression analysis of key genes involved in
    Thermal diffusivity of periderm from tomatoes of different maturity stages as determined by the concept of the frequency-domain open photoacoustic cell
    Velasco Soares, D. ; Baesso Mauro, L. ; Medina Neto, A. ; Bicanic, D.D. ; Koehorst, R.B.M. ; Hooft, J.J.J. van der; Bento, A.C. - \ 2011
    Journal of Applied Physics 109 (2011)3. - ISSN 0021-8979 - 9 p.
    skin - radiometry - parameters - emission - lycopene - samples - flour - foods
    The frequency-domain open photoacoustic cell (OPC) approach was used to determine room temperature thermal diffusivity of skins (pericarps) from the raw tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculetum Mill.) characterized by the three different stages of ripeness (from immature-green to a mature-red). Periodically interrupted 532 nm laser radiation was used to heat the dry tomato skins, typically 10 mm in diameter and up to 68 µm thick; the modulating frequency f varied from 8 to 150 Hz. Initially, a combined OPC-model that takes into account both, the thermoelastic bending and the effect of thermal diffusion (TD), has been applied. Preliminary results showed that until at least 40 Hz, the effect of TD dominates; above this value the combined model fits the experimental data only poorly. For this reason a less complex OPC-TD approach was applied to all investigated skins instead, which predicts an exponential decrease for the amplitude of measured photoacoustic signal S with increasing f. For a specimen that is simultaneously opaque and thermally thick, S depends on f as S~exp(-b f1/2) where b is a fitting parameter. The S versus f plot enables one to deduce the numerical value for b which, on its turn allows for the assessment of skin’s thermal diffusivity a. Thermal diffusivities obtained for the immature green, orange, and red skins (periderms) are 9.9×10-8 m2¿s-1, 7.2×10-8 m2¿s-1, and 4.6×10-8 m2¿s-1, respectively; the uncertainty was typically 5% of the measured value.
    Assaying total carotenoids in flours of corn and sweet potato flours by laser photoacoustic spectroscopy
    Luterotti, S. ; Bicanic, D.D. ; Kijak, K. ; Grbesa, D. ; Martinez, E. ; Spruijt, R.B. - \ 2011
    Food Biophysics 6 (2011)1. - ISSN 1557-1858 - p. 12 - 19.
    thermal-diffusivity - particle-size - beta-carotene - stability - lycopene
    This study describes the application of the laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) for quantification of total carotenoids (TC) in corn flours and sweetpotato flours. Overall, thirty-three different corn flours and nine sweetpotato flours were investigated. All PAS measurements were performed at room temperature using 488-nm argon laser radiation for excitation and mechanical modulation of 9 and 30 Hz. The measurements were repeated within a run and within several days or months. The UV–Vis spectrophotometry was used as the reference method. The concentration range that allows for the reliable analysis of TC spans a region from 1 to 40 mg kg-1 for corn flours and from 9 to 40 mg kg-1 for sweetpotato flours. In the case of sweetpotato flours, the quantification may extend even to 240 mg kg-1 TC. The estimated detection limit values for TC in corn and sweetpotato flours were 0.1 and 0.3 mg kg-1, respectively. The computed repeatability (n¿=¿3–12) and intermediate precision (n¿=¿6–28) RSD values at 9 and 30 Hz are comparable: 0.1–17.1% and 5.3–14.7% for corn flours as compared with 1.4–9.1% and 4.2–23.0% for sweetpotato flours. Our results show that PAS can be successfully used as a new analytical tool to simply and rapidly screen the flours for their nutritional potential based on the total carotenoid concentration
    Estimating rapidly and precisely the concentration of beta carotene in mango homogenates by measuring the amplitude of optothermal signals, values of chromaticity indices and the intensities of Raman peaks
    Bicanic, D.D. ; Dimitrovski, D. ; Luterotti, S. ; Tiwisk, C. van; Buijnsters, J.G. ; Doka, O. - \ 2010
    Food Chemistry 121 (2010)3. - ISSN 0308-8146 - p. 832 - 838.
    liquid-chromatography - lycopene - window - quantification - spectroscopy - vegetables - separation - fruits - hplc
    Rapid, quantitative information about the micronutrients (including beta carotene) in mango fruit is often desired. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and spectrophotometry (SP), the two widely used methods in practice to quantify carotenoids, both require a time consuming and expensive extraction of a pigment prior to the analysis itself. This paper compares the performances of the three candidate methods for the assessment of beta carotene in twenty one different mango homogenates to that of the HPLC as an established standard technique. The extraction is imperative in neither of the methods: the laser based optothermal window (OW), the resonance Raman spectroscopy and the tristimulus colorimetry. For the quantitative analysis however the availability of the calibration curve is a necessity. All candidate methods and in particular OW technique (compact instrument, low cost and the ease of operation) hold promise for a rapid screening/quantitative assessment of beta carotene in mango fruit
    Genes involved in carotene synthesis and mating in Blakeslea trispora
    Kuzina, V. ; Ramirez-Medina, H. ; Visser, H. ; Ooyen, A.J.J. van; Cerda-Olmedo, E. ; Berg, J.A. van den - \ 2008
    Current Genetics 54 (2008)3. - ISSN 0172-8083 - p. 143 - 152.
    beta-carotene - cdna-aflp - saccharomyces-cerevisiae - expression data - biosynthesis - phycomyces - light - mucorales - lycopene - mutants
    Mating of Blakeslea trispora and other molds of the order Mucorales requires the interaction of mycelia of opposite sex, (+) and (-), leading to the development of specialized structures and to an enhanced accumulation of beta-carotene. Industry obtains beta-carotene by co-cultivating appropriate strains of Blakeslea (mated cultures). Gene transcription in single and mated cultures was assayed by cDNA-AFLP, a technique to observe the differential expression of subsets of mRNA fragments. Overexpression in mated cultures is about ten times more frequent than underexpression. We obtained and sequenced fragments of 97 candidate genes that appeared to be overexpressed during mating and confirmed four of them by reverse transcription and real-time PCR. Comparisons with gene sequences from other organisms suggest functions in carotene biosynthesis (4 genes), energy metabolism (8), cell wall synthesis (1), transfer of acetyl groups (1), and regulatory processes (10). Sodium acetate inhibited sexual overexpression in about two-thirds of the candidate genes and acted as a signal with broad effects on the metabolism and the morphology of mated cultures. Our work offers new materials for the study of carotene biosynthesis and its regulation and for the improvement of carotene production with Mucorales.
    Changes in antioxidant and metabolite profiles during production of tomato paste
    Capanoglu, E. ; Beekwilder, M.J. ; Boyacioglu, D. ; Hall, R.D. ; Vos, C.H. de - \ 2008
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 56 (2008)3. - ISSN 0021-8561 - p. 964 - 973.
    capacity assays - phenolic-compounds - vitamin-c - lycopene - fruit - carotenoids - polyphenols - flavonoids - raspberry - power
    Tomato products and especially concentrated tomato paste are important sources of antioxidants in the Mediterranean diet. Tomato fruit contain well-known antioxidants such as vitamin C, carotenoids, flavonoids, and hydroxycinnamic acids. The industrial processing of this fruit into tomato paste involves several treatments that potentially affect the final profile of antioxidants and other metabolites in the commercial product. Here we have used both biochemical and metabolomic techniques to assess the effect of each separate step in the industrial production chain starting from fresh fruit to the final tomato paste. Material was collected from five independent tomato paste production events spread over two successive years. Samples comprised the intact ripe fruits and semifinished products after fruit-breaking, separation of the pulp from skin and seeds, evaporation, and finally after canning and pasteurization. The effect of each processing step was determined by different types of analysis. First, the total antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content were determined by commonly used spectrophotometric methods. Second, individual antioxidants in the extracts were identified and compared using an HPLC with online antioxidant detection. Third, in each sample the levels of the major individual antioxidants present, i.e., vitamin C, phenolic compounds (such as rutin and chlorogenic acid), tocopherols, and carotenoids, were quantified. Fourth, an untargeted metabolomic approach using LC-QTOF-MS was used to identify those production steps that have the largest impact on the overall metabolic profile in the final paste as compared to the original fruits. This multifaceted approach has revealed that each processing step induces specific alterations in the metabolic profile, as determined by the different analysis procedures, and that in particular the fruit-breaking step and the removal of seed and skin significantly affect the levels of antioxidants and many other metabolites present in commercial tomato paste.
    Photoacoustic spectroscopy and optothermal window as analytical tools to quantitate carotenes in margarines
    Luterotti, S. ; Bicanic, D.D. ; Jandragic, K. - \ 2008
    Food Chemistry 108 (2008)1. - ISSN 0308-8146 - p. 316 - 321.
    beta-carotene - liquid-chromatography - quantification - products - lycopene - identification - separation - palmitate - accurate - extracts
    Photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) and optothermal window (OW) with a cw Ar ion laser used as a radiation source at 476.5, 488 and 496 nm were applied to quantify total carotenes (TC) in margarines. Both techniques, being rapid and extremely simple, allow for direct measurement without any pretreatment of the sample. The PAS has proven precise and sensitive enough to allow quantitation of TC in margarines containing 1¿9 mg TC/kg, in applications such as the quality control of intermediate and final products. The sensitivity of OW is lower than that of PAS but the approach can still be used for quantitation of TC in margarine matrices at much higher concentrations.
    High-level production of beta-carotene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by successive transformation with carotenogenic genes from Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous
    Verwaal, R. ; Wang, J. ; Meijnen, J.P. ; Visser, H. ; Sandmann, G. ; Berg, J.A. van den; Ooyen, A.J.J. van - \ 2007
    Applied and Environmental Microbiology 73 (2007)13. - ISSN 0099-2240 - p. 4342 - 4350.
    yeast candida-utilis - coenzyme-a reductase - phaffia-rhodozyma - escherichia-coli - biosynthetic-pathway - erwinia-uredovora - hxt5 expression - astaxanthin - lycopene - synthase
    To determine whether Saccharomyces cerevisiae can serve as a host for efficient carotenoid and especially ß-carotene production, carotenogenic genes from the carotenoid-producing yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous were introduced and overexpressed in S. cerevisiae. Because overexpression of these genes from an episomal expression vector resulted in unstable strains, the genes were integrated into genomic DNA to yield stable, carotenoid-producing S. cerevisiae cells. Furthermore, carotenoid production levels were higher in strains containing integrated carotenogenic genes. Overexpression of crtYB (which encodes a bifunctional phytoene synthase and lycopene cyclase) and crtI (phytoene desaturase) from X. dendrorhous was sufficient to enable carotenoid production. Carotenoid production levels were increased by additional overexpression of a homologous geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) synthase from S. cerevisiae that is encoded by BTS1. Combined overexpression of crtE (heterologous GGPP synthase) from X. dendrorhous with crtYB and crtI and introduction of an additional copy of a truncated 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase gene (tHMG1) into carotenoid-producing cells resulted in a successive increase in carotenoid production levels. The strains mentioned produced high levels of intermediates of the carotenogenic pathway and comparable low levels of the preferred end product ß-carotene, as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. We finally succeeded in constructing an S. cerevisiae strain capable of producing high levels of ß-carotene, up to 5.9 mg/g (dry weight), which was accomplished by the introduction of an additional copy of crtI and tHMG1 into carotenoid-producing yeast cells. This transformant is promising for further development toward the biotechnological production of ß-carotene by S. cerevisiae.
    Tissue specialization at the metabolite level is perceived during the development of tomota fruit.
    Moco, S.I.A. ; Capanoglu, E. ; Tikunov, Y.M. ; Bino, R.J. ; Boyacioglu, D. ; Hall, R.D. ; Vervoort, J.J.M. ; Vos, C.H. de - \ 2007
    Journal of Experimental Botany 58 (2007)15-16. - ISSN 0022-0957 - p. 4131 - 4146.
    mass-spectrometry - plant metabolomics - h-1-nmr spectroscopy - database - perspective - lycopene - growth - accumulation - expression - flavonoids
    Fruit maturation and tissue differentiation are important topics in plant physiology. These biological phenomena are accompanied by specific alterations in the biological system, such as differences in the type and concentration of metabolites. The secondary metabolism of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit was monitored by using liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to photo-diode array (PDA) detection, fluorescence detection (FD), and mass spectrometry (MS). Through this integrated approach different classes of compounds were analysed: carotenoids, xanthophylls, chlorophylls, tocopherols, ascorbic acid, flavonoids, phenolic acids, glycoalkaloids, saponins, and other glycosylated derivatives. Related metabolite profiles of peel and flesh were found between several commercial tomato cultivars indicating similar metabolite trends despite the genetic background. For a single tomato cultivar, metabolite profiles of different fruit tissues (vascular attachment region, columella and placenta, epidermis, pericarp, and jelly parenchyma) were examined at the green, breaker, turning, pink, and red stages of fruit development. Unrelated to the chemical nature of the metabolites, behavioural patterns could be assigned to specific ripening stages or tissues. These findings suggest spatio-temporal specificity in the accumulation of endogenous metabolites from tomato fruit.
    An explorative study on the systematic development of tomato ketchup with potential health benefits using the Chain Information Model
    Benner, M. ; Linnemann, A.R. ; Jongen, W.M.F. ; Folstar, P. - \ 2007
    Trends in Food Science and Technology 18 (2007)3. - ISSN 0924-2244 - p. 150 - 158.
    carotenoid content - lycopene - products - food - cancer - plasma - fruit
    The Chain Information Model (CIM) was set up as a tool for the systematic design of food products with a health benefit; CIM helps to identify the information necessary for an efficient and effective product development process and to facilitate information exchange in food production chains. CIM was used to develop a lycopene-rich tomato ketchup. Results show that CIM is useful for structuring the information towards a scenario to realise the intended product. The model enables product developers to analyse the entire production process in a structured and systematic way. By following this approach, possible influences on the final product are mapped out beforehand
    Measuring surface distribution of carotenes and chlorophyll in ripening tomatoes using imaging spectrometry
    Polder, G. ; Heijden, G.W.A.M. van der; Voet, H. van der; Young, I.T. - \ 2004
    Postharvest Biology and Technology 34 (2004)2. - ISSN 0925-5214 - p. 117 - 129.
    least-squares regression - antioxidant activity - lycopene - vegetables - color - maturity - products - disease - lutein - fruits
    Tomatoes (Lycopersicum esculentum, Mill. cv. Capita F1) were harvested at different ripening stages. Spectral images from 400 to 700 nm with a resolution of 1 nm were recorded. After recording, samples were taken from the fruit wall and the lycopene, lutein, -carotene, chlorophyll-a and chlorophyll-b concentrations were measured using HPLC. The relation between the compound concentrations measured with HPLC and the spectral images was analyzed using partial least squares (PLS) regression. The Q2 error of the predicted lycopene concentration, determined from the PLS procedure, was 0.95 on a pixel basis, and 0.96 on a tomato basis. The Q2 error of the other compounds varied from 0.73 to 0.84. Pixel-based regression made it possible to construct concentration images of the tomatoes, which showed non-uniform ripening. The method can be applied in a conveyor belt system using sorting criteria such as concentration of the compounds and the uniformity of the distribution of the concentrations.
    Tomato sorting using independent component analysis on spectral images
    Polder, G. ; Heijden, G.W.A.M. van der; Young, I.T. - \ 2003
    Real-Time Imaging 9 (2003)4. - ISSN 1077-2014 - p. 253 - 259.
    algorithms - lycopene - products
    Independent Component Analysis is one of the most widely used methods for blind source separation. In this paper we use this technique to estimate the most important compounds which play a role in the ripening of tomatoes. Spectral images of tomatoes were analyzed. Two main independent components were found. These components resemble the actual absorption spectra of lycopene and chlorophyll. Concentration images of these compounds show increase of one compound and decrease of the other during ripening. The method can be implemented in an unsupervised real time sorting machine, using the total compound concentrations and the spatial distribution of the concentrations as criteria
    Vegetable consumption and carotenoids in plasma and adipose tissue in Malaga, Spain
    Gomez-Aracena, J. ; Bogers, R.P. ; Veer, P. van 't; Gomez-Gracia, E. ; Garcia-Rodriguez, A. ; Wedel, H. ; Fernandez-Crehuet Navajas, J. - \ 2003
    International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research 73 (2003)1. - ISSN 0300-9831 - p. 24 - 31.
    beta-carotene - human health - lycopene - cancer - tomato - women - fruit - population - absorption - tocopherol
    Objective: To study relationships between habitual dietary intake, adipose tissue concentrations of alpha-carotene; beta carotene and lycopene, and plasma concentrations of alpha- and beta-carotene. Design: Cross-sectional study including assessment of food habits by a food frequency questionnaire and 48-hour recall and determination of carotenoid concentrations in adipose tissue and plasma. Subjects: 51 women (mean age of 62 years) from the control group of the European Community Multicentre. Study on Antioxidants, Myocardial Infarction, and Breast Cancer (EURAMIC), Malaga, Spain. Results: In adipose tissue, beta-carotene was correlated with consumption of green pepper (r = 0.36; p <0.05) and lycopene with total fruit/vegetable intake (r = 0.28; p <0.05), green pepper (r = 0.31; p
    Ultratraces of carotenes in tomato purees : HPLC-TLS study
    Luterotti, S. ; Markovic, K. ; Franko, M. ; Bicanic, D.D. ; Vahcic, N. ; Doka, O. - \ 2003
    Review of Scientific Instruments 74 (2003)1. - ISSN 0034-6748 - p. 684 - 686.
    performance liquid-chromatography - thermal lens detection - trans-beta-carotene - ultrasensitive determination - lycopene - isomers - oxygen
    The present study was designed to provide information about (i) the profile of carotene pigments and (ii) trace quantities of lycopene and -carotene left in tomato purées. The ultrasensitive method comprising HPLC and thermal lens spectrometric (TLS) detection enabled us to detect as low as 0.3 and 1.1 ng ml¿1 lycopene and -carotene in purée extracts, respectively. Total concentration of -carotene and lycopene (varying from 3 to 170 ng g¿1) in the examined tomato purées may serve as an indicator of the carotene-specific antioxidative capacity of these products. Although conventional spectrophotometry can be used to rapidly assess the quality of products derived from tomatoes, a highly sensitive and selective method such as HPLC-TLS is needed for reliable analyses of samples such as, for example, those subjected to inappropriate storage and/or handling
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