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Effects of dietary protein and carbohydrate on life-history traits and body protein and fat contents of the black soldier fly Hermetia illucens
Barragan-Fonseca, Karol B. ; Gort, Gerrit ; Dicke, Marcel ; Loon, Joop J.A. van - \ 2019
Physiological Entomology 44 (2019)2. - ISSN 0307-6962 - p. 148 - 159.
Body nutrient composition - fecundity - food quality - larval performance - macronutrients - nutrition
We investigate how the black soldier fly Hermetia illucens L. (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) responds to dietary protein (P) and carbohydrate (C) contents and the P:C ratio in terms of both immature and adult life-history traits, as well as effects on larval body composition. Nine chicken-feed based diets varying in their P:C ratio are formulated. We test three protein concentrations (10%, 17% and 24%) and three carbohydrate concentrations (35%, 45% and 55%) and their combinations. All nine diets support the complete development and reproduction of this species. Survival is high on all diets. Development time, larval yield, larval crude fat and egg yield are more influenced by P and C contents than by the P:C ratio. Low contents result in a shorter development time. Larval yield is higher on diets with higher C-contents. Pupal development is faster on a low dietary P-content for all three C-contents. Egg yield only increases when P-content increases, although it also varies with the P:C ratio. Larval crude protein content is similar on all nine diets but increases when C-content is low (10%) in P10 and P17. Larval crude fat content is high at P24-diets irrespective of C-content. We conclude that a high macronutrient content combined with a low P:C ratio positively affects H. illucens performance. The diet P17:C55 supports the highest larval and adult performance and results in a high larval body protein content and an intermediate crude fat content.
Effects of macro and micronutrients on neutral lipid accumulation in oleaginous microalgae
Ghafari, Mohsen ; Rashidi, Behzad ; Haznedaroglu, Berat Zeki - \ 2018
Biofuels 9 (2018)2. - ISSN 1759-7269 - p. 147 - 156.
lipid accumulation - macronutrients - micronutrients - Oleaginous microalgae - optimization
In this study, effects of key macro and micronutrients on neutral lipid accumulation of six oleaginous microalgae species were investigated. For each nutrient, three different concentrations (0.5×, 1×, and 2×) were tested individually and compared to the most commonly utilized growth medium recipes. Neutral lipid accumulation was quantified using specific nonpolar dyes with long-wavelength absorption and fluorescence. Tested microalgae species showed different lipid accumulation responses to changes in nutrient concentrations. Optimum concentrations of nutrients were selected for each species based on either the most lipid productive case or no significant difference to the lipid contents. Selected optimal conditions were also validated where Chlorella sorokiniana, Chlorella vulgaris, Dunaliella tertiolecta, and Tetraselmis suecica showed 4, 10, 34, and 39% higher lipid productivities per unit volume, respectively. Botryococcus sudeticus and Ettlia oleoabundans did not show improved lipid productivities. Extensive optimization of macro and micronutrient concentrations offers several benefits of decreased material inputs and waste generation, improved biomass productivity, and overall cost savings.
Effects of Nutrient Antagonism and Synergism on Yield and Fertilizer Use Efficiency
Rietra, René P.J.J. ; Heinen, Marius ; Dimkpa, Chistian O. ; Bindraban, Prem S. - \ 2017
Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 48 (2017)16. - ISSN 0010-3624 - p. 1895 - 1920.
Antagonism - fertilizer - macronutrients - micronutrients - synergism
Interaction among plant nutrients can yield antagonistic or synergistic outcomes that influence nutrient use efficiency. To provide insight on this phenomenon, peer-reviewed articles were selected that quantified the interaction effects of nutrients on crop yield levels. In total 94 articles were selected that described 117 interactions between all macro- and micronutrients for different agricultural crops. In 43 cases the interaction was synergistic, in 17 cases the interaction was antagonistic, and in 35 cases the interaction was zero-interaction; the other 23 cases were non-significant (16) or showed a negative response (7). Generally: (a) when the availability of two nutrients is characterized as deficient, a large increase in yield can be expected by diminishing these deficiencies: (b) for most macronutrients the mutual interactions on yield levels are synergistic; and (c) antagonistic effects on yield are often found for divalent cations. Knowledge of nutrient interactions can guide fertilizer design and optimization of fertilization strategies for high yields and high nutrient use efficiencies.
“Everything tastes different” : The impact of changes in chemosensory perception on food preferences, food intake and quality of life during chemotherapy in cancer patients
Vries, Yfke Carlijn de - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Kees de Graaf; H.W.M. van Laarhoven, co-promotor(en): R.M. Winkels; Sanne Boesveldt. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436090 - 169
perception - sensory evaluation - food intake - quality of life - food preferences - neoplasms - taste - macronutrients - drug therapy - breast cancer - perceptie - sensorische evaluatie - voedselopname - kwaliteit van het leven - voedselvoorkeuren - neoplasma - smaak - macronutriënten - geneesmiddelenbehandeling - borstkanker
Taste and smell changes are common side effects during chemotherapy in cancer patient and may have an impact on food preferences, food intake and quality of life. However, these relations have hardly been studied systematically in specific cancer populations. The overall aim of this thesis was to assess how the sense of taste and smell change upon treatment with chemotherapy in breast cancer and oesophagogastric cancer patients, and to investigate their consequences in terms of food preferences, food intake and quality of life.
To measure food preferences for both macronutrients and tastes, the Macronutrient and Taste Preference Ranking Task (MTPRT) was developed. in chapter 2, it was shown that by inducing sensory specific satiety for a standardized sweet and savoury meal, it is possible to detect shifts in preferences for both tastes and macronutrients with the MTPRT, and that these results are reproducible.
In Chapter 3 we studied objective and subjective taste and smell perception and food preferences in advanced oesophagogastric cancer patients undergoing palliative chemotherapy. The result showed that only objective taste function decreases during chemotherapy, but other chemosensory measures were unchanged. A lower subjective taste perception was related to a lower preference for high-protein products. Therefore it is important to consider patients’ taste perception, when providing dietary advice to OGC patients
Chapter 4 describes a study with similar outcome measures as chapter 3, but in breast cancer patients at several time points during and after chemotherapy, and compared to a healthy control group. The study showed that breast cancer patients like high-protein, high-fat, sweet and savoury products less during chemotherapy, thus showing altered preferences for macronutrients, but not for tastes. Furthermore, results showed a temporary decrease in taste and smell perception during chemotherapy. These findings show that patients should be informed prior to treatment on chemosensory changes, and that these changes should be monitored during treatment due to the consequences for nutritional intake and quality of life
In chapter 5 we assessed the dietary intake of breast cancer patients before and during chemotherapy compared to a healthy control group, and associations with experienced symptoms during chemotherapy. It was shown that symptoms induced by chemotherapy were associated with lower total energy, protein and fat intake, which was manifested by a lower intake of specific food groups. Therefore, to ensure an optimal dietary intake during chemotherapy, it is important to monitor nutritional status and symptom burden during chemotherapy in breast cancer patients.
To better understand the impact of chemosensory changes during chemotherapy on daily life, 13 advanced oesophagogastric cancer patients were interviewed (see chapter 6). Patients described a substantial impact of chemosensory and food-related changes on daily life (by changing daily routines), social life (eating being less sociable) and roles in the household (changing roles in cooking and grocery shopping).
Finally, in chapter 7, we assessed the association between self-reported taste and smell perception and quality of life in breast cancer patients. A worse taste and smell perception was associated with a worse global quality of life, role, social and emotional functioning shortly after chemotherapy. In patients treated with trastuzumab, a worse taste and smell perception was still associated with quality of life, social and role functioning half a year after chemotherapy had ended.
From the studies in this thesis we can conclude that chemotherapy mainly affects the sense of taste. The subjective perception of taste was associated with a lower preference for food products and lower energy intake. This indicates that it is not necessarily an actual change in the sense of taste or smell that has an impact on patients, but flavour perception as a whole and potentially a lower enjoyment of food. Moreover, these perceived changes in taste and smell can have a substantial impact on cancer patients’ lives, in a practical way by changing daily patterns of eating, but also socially and in roles in the household. A changed chemosensory perception during chemotherapy may lead to a worsened nutritional status, and could thereby negatively impact the response to chemotherapy. Therefore chemosensory perception should be monitored during chemotherapy. Future studies should further investigate the mechanisms behind chemosensory changes, factors that contribute to subjective taste perception and possible interventions to alleviate chemosensory changes during chemotherapy.
Small intestinal targets involved in food intake regulation : 'from nutrient to satiety signal'
Ripken, D. - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Renger Witkamp; H.F.J. Hendriks. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576438 - 180
obesity - preventive nutrition - small intestine - ileum - duodenum - jejunum - satiety - appetite control - food intake - safflower oil - vagus nerve - casein - stevia rebaudiana - sucrose - macronutrients - serotonin - animal models - human feeding - obesitas - preventieve voeding - dunne darm - ileum - duodenum - jejunum - verzadigdheid - eetlustcontrole - voedselopname - saffloerolie - nervus vagus - caseïne - stevia rebaudiana - sucrose - macronutriënten - serotonine - diermodellen - humane voeding
Background and aim: The worldwide increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity raises concerns for health. There is a clear need for preventive strategies, because current preventative interventions have proven to be unsuccessful in the long term. New strategies may be developed based on targets in the small intestine by activating satiety signals. The thesis aimed to investigate small intestinal targets contributing to food intake regulation. These targets included serotonin, the vagal nerve and the intestinal brake mechanism.
Methods: The effects of ileal stimulation with safflower oil (lipid mixture), casein (protein), sucrose (carbohydrate) and rebaudioside A (non-caloric sweetener) on GLP-1 and PYY release were investigated by applying an porcine ex vivo intestinal segment model. The same model was also used to investigate if serotonin is involved in (non-)nutritional-induced GLP-1 and PYY release.
The contribution to satiation of GLP-1 and CCK receptors at the vagal nerve, was studied by investigating the effects of GLP-1 and CCK receptor antagonists on ad libitum food intake in a pig model of subdiaphragmatic vagotomy.
Two placebo controlled randomized crossover studies were performed in healthy volunteers to investigate the effects of small intestinal macronutrient delivery on ad libitum food intake and satiety signals. The first study compared the effects of duodenal, jejunal and ileal casein delivery on ad libitum food intake and satiety signals. The second study investigated if ileal delivery of all three macronutrients results in activation of satiety signals and reduction in ad libitum food intake. In addition, it was investigated if ileal delivery of native casein is efficiently digested and absorbed and does not result in adverse effects. In both studies the nutrients were delivered to the small intestine by inserting a nasointestinal feeding tube in healthy volunteers.
Results: All macronutrients and rebaudioside A stimulated GLP-1 and PYY release from ileal tissue segments. Protein and fat stimulated serotonin release. Inhibiting the reuptake of serotonin resulted in enhanced nutrient induced GLP-1, PYY and CCK release. Serotonin stimulated GLP-1 release from enteroendocrine cells via a serotonin receptor mediated process.
Results of the in vivo pig study showed that antagonism of the CCK receptor increased food intake in both vagotomized and sham operated pigs. Blocking the GLP-1 receptor did not affect food intake in both groups.
The human studies showed that ileal protein delivery inhibited food intake and activated satiety signals as compared to duodenal or jejunal protein delivery. Also, ileal delivery of small quantities (51.7 kcal) of each macronutrient decreased food intake and activated satiety signals. In addition, it was shown that ileal delivery of native casein resulted in a time and concentration depended increase in plasma concentrations of amino acids and did not result in activation of immune responses nor in gastrointestinal complaints.
Conclusions: The data presented in this thesis show that ileal delivery of all macronutrients results in activation of satiety signals and reduction of food intake. Stimulation of the ileum resulted in the strongest activation of satiety signals and inhibition of food intake compared to duodenal and jejunal stimulation. Besides direct nutrient-receptor interaction, the ileum senses (non-)nutritional stimuli via serotonin mediated processes resulting in GLP-1 release. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that targeting the ileum with small amounts of macronutrients is safe and has potential as a weight management strategy.
Effect of dietary protein on lipid and glucose metabolism: implications for metabolic health
Rietman, A. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Frans Kok; D. Tomé, co-promotor(en): Marco Mensink. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462573482 - 160
voeding en gezondheid - stofwisselingsstoornissen - eiwitinname - dieet - metabolisme - lipiden - glucose - macronutriënten - nutrition and health - metabolic disorders - protein intake - diet - metabolism - lipids - glucose - macronutrients
Background: Diet is an important factor in the development of the Metabolic Syndrome (Mets) and type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Accumulation of intra hepatic lipid (IHL) can result in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is sometimes considered the hepatic manifestation of Mets. Manipulation of the dietary macronutrient composition – altering either fat or simple carbohydrates – has the potential to change lipid storage in the liver. Protein also has this ability, however human data is scarce. Moreover, high dietary protein intake is linked with an increased type 2 Diabetes risk. Therefore, it is essential to study the metabolic consequences of changes in macronutrient composition focussing on altering dietary protein quantity.
Objective: In this thesis the effects of dietary protein on metabolic health focusing on lipid and glucose metabolism were investigated in both observational studies as well as in a human dietary intervention trial.
Methods: In an observational study (n=1283), Fatty Liver Index (FLI) was calculated and related to macronutrient consumption from dietary assessment data. In a controlled dietary intervention, participants (n=27) were assigned to either a control-diet for 4 weeks, or a high-fat, hypercaloric diet, with either a high-protein or a normal-protein content for two weeks, and vice versa. Measurements of IHL (1H-MRS) and blood plasma glucose and lipid concentrations were performed, both in the fasting state and following a meal.
Results: In the observational study, the prevalence of fatty liver as indicated by an FLI>60, was 22.0%. Compared to persons with a normal FLI score of <30, protein intake was positively related with high FLI score >60 (OR: 1.26 per 1 en%, 95%CI 1.16-1.37). This was in particular the case for protein intake from animal sources. In the dietary intervention study, the high-protein diet compared to the normal-protein diet resulted in lower IHL and plasma TG concentrations (IHL: 0.35 ± 0.04 % vs. 0.51 ± 0.08 %; p=0.08; TG: 0.65 ± 0.03 vs. 0.77 ± 0.05 mmol/L; p=0.07). Furthermore, after the meal challenge the free fatty acids (FFA) response was significant different between all three intervention diets (p=0.03). Moreover, the postprandial glucose response was significantly lower after adaptation to NP compared with HP (p=0.03), without differences in the postprandial insulin responses (p=0.37).
Conclusions: From data of the intervention study and observational studies reported in this thesis, it can be concluded that dietary protein intake is associated with alterations in metabolic profile, with both favourable and potential unfavorable health outcomes. On the short term increasing dietary protein in healthy subjects improved lipid metabolism, as seen by lower TG and IHL levels, but not glucose metabolism. On the long term, however, a high-protein intake was related to a fatty liver, and associated to insulin resistance.
Feed intake and oxygen consumption in fish
Subramanian, S. - \ 2013
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Johan Verreth, co-promotor(en): Johan Schrama; S.J. Kaushik; I. Geurden. - Wageningen : Wageningen UR - ISBN 9789461737571 - 163
vissen - voeropname - zuurstofconsumptie - energieopname - voer - samenstelling - energiemetabolisme - macronutriënten - visvoeding - visteelt - aquacultuur - voedingsfysiologie - fishes - feed intake - oxygen consumption - energy intake - feeds - composition - energy metabolism - macronutrients - fish feeding - fish culture - aquaculture - nutrition physiology
In fish, the voluntary feed intake is influenced by dietary, environmental and/or physiological factors. It is well known that under hypoxia the concentration of oxygen in the water (DO) determines the feed intake of fish. However at non-limiting water DO levels (normoxia), several other mechanisms might play a role in feed intake regulation. Under hypoxia feed intake and oxygen consumption are interrelated. In this thesis we proposed the ‘oxystatic’ concept of feed intake regulation, which states that even at normoxia and in the absence of other constraints, the long term (weeks) voluntary feed intake of fish can be constrained by a set-point value of oxygen consumption. Dietary macronutrient composition affects the ‘dietary oxygen demand’ (i.e., amount of O2 consumed per unit of feed). This oxystatic concept implies that fish fed to satiation with diets differing in ‘dietary oxygen demand’ (mg O2/ g or kJ feed) will have a different digestible energy intake but a similar oxygen consumption. The validity of the oxystatic concept was assessed in two species, Nile tilapia and rainbow trout. These fish were fed diets which had large contrasts in nutrient composition (i.e., protein to energy ratio; type of the non-protein energy source (starch vs. fat); amino acid composition) in order to create contrasts in dietary oxygen demand. In all conducted studies with both species, the digestible energy intake was affected by the diet composition. However, in some studies oxygen consumption was similar and in others it differed between the diets, which respectively supports and contradicts the oxystatic concept. In all studies with both species, the digestible energy intake of tilapia and trout was negatively related to dietary oxygen demand and positively related to efficiency of oxygen utilization for energy retention. Furthermore it was observed in tilapia that the within-day variation in feed intake was affected by dietary macronutrient composition. The variation in within-day feed intake was related to pre-feeding oxygen levels. Based on the combined results, it is suggested that even at normoxia voluntary feed intake in fish is limited/determined by oxygen consumption and/or the oxidative metabolism. Overall, the oxystatic concept appears to be valid for certain conditions, but its generic application remains questionable. Yet, the oxystatic concept enables the combination of dietary, environmental and fish factors into one concept. Further it provides a conceptual insight for better understanding of feed intake regulation in fish.
Intake of total protein, plant protein and animal protein in relation to blood pressure: a meta-analysis of observatinoal and intervention studies
Tielemans, S.M.A.J. ; Altorf-van der Kuil, W. ; Engberink, M.F. ; Brink, E.J. ; Baak, M.A. van; Bakker, S.J. ; Geleijnse, J.M. - \ 2013
Journal of Human Hypertension 27 (2013). - ISSN 0950-9240 - p. 564 - 571.
low-fat diet - randomized-trial - weight-loss - carbohydrate intake - obese women - hypertension - risk - overweight - supplementation - macronutrients
There is growing evidence from epidemiological studies that dietary protein may beneficially influence blood pressure (BP), but findings are inconclusive. We performed a meta-analysis of 29 observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of dietary protein and types of protein in relation to BP or incident hypertension, published until January 2012. The analysis included eight cross-sectional studies (n=48¿985), four prospective studies (n=11¿761) and 17 RCTs (n=1449). A modest inverse association between total protein intake and BP (-0.20¿mm¿Hg systolic (95% CI: -0.39, -0.01) per 25¿g (~1¿s.d.)) was found in cross-sectional studies, but not in prospective studies (relative risk of 0.99 (95% CI: 0.96, 1.02)). For RCTs that used carbohydrate as a control treatment, the pooled BP effect was -2.11¿mm¿Hg systolic (95% CI: -2.86, -1.37) for a weighed mean contrast in protein intake of 41¿g per day. A non-significant inverse association of -0.52¿mm¿Hg systolic (95% CI: -1.10, +0.05) per 11¿g (~1¿s.d.) was found for plant protein in cross-sectional studies, whereas animal protein was not associated with BP. In prospective studies and RCTs, however, the associations of plant protein and animal protein with BP were broadly similar. These findings suggest that increasing the intake of protein at the expense of carbohydrates may have a beneficial effect on BP. The BP effect of specific types of protein remains to be established.
Analytical standards for the measurement of nutrients in infant formula : macronutrients, minerals, carnitine, taurine and nucleotides
Capuano, E. ; Alewijn, M. ; Ruth, S.M. van; Verkaik-Kloosterman, J. - \ 2012
Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen UR (Report / RIKILT Wageningen UR 2012.019) - 54
flesvoedingsamenstelling - analytische methoden - globale analyse - macronutriënten - mineralen - taurine - carnitine - nucleotiden - voedingsstoffenbehoeften - recht - infant formulae - analytical methods - proximate analysis - macronutrients - minerals - nucleotides - nutrient requirements - law
Adequate methods with known performance characteristics for the assessment of the concentration of nutrients in infant and follow-on formula (referred to as "formula") are essential in the evaluation whether the composition deviates from the compositional provisions as laid down by law. Many standardized analytical methods for the analysis of nutrients in infant formula are internationally available.