Characterization of Phosphorus in Animal Manures Collected from Three (Dairy, Swine, and Broiler) Farms in China
Li, G. ; Li, H. ; Leffelaar, P.A. ; Shen, J. ; Zhang, F. - \ 2014
PLoS ONE 9 (2014)7. - ISSN 1932-6203
magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy - enzymatic-hydrolysis - organic phosphorus - northwest germany - poultry litter - forms - soil - diets - speciation - fractions
In order to identify the phosphorus species and concentration in animal manure, we comparatively characterized phosphorus in dairy manure, swine manure, and broiler litter, using a sequential procedure, a simplified two-step procedure (NaHCO3/NaOH+EDTA), and a solution Phosphorus-31 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (31P-NMR) spectroscopy procedure. In the sequential procedure, deionized water extracted 39, 22, and 32%; NaHCO3 extracted 48, 26, and 37%; NaOH extracted 8, 9, and 13.8%; and HCl extracted 3, 42.8, and 17% of the total phosphorus in dairy manure, swine manure and broiler litter, respectively. Total phosphorus extracted by the NaHCO3/NaOH+EDTA procedure was 7.5, 32.4, and 15.8 g P kg-1 for dairy manure, swine manure, and broiler litter, respectively. The solution 31P-NMR procedure detected that 9, 34, and 29% of total phosphorus was phytic acid in dairy manure, swine manure, and broiler litter, respectively. These results show that phosphorus forms, availability, and quantities differ between animal manures, which provides valuable information for P characterization of animal manures in China.
Characterization of Fen-Daqu Through Multivariate Statistical Analysis of H-1 NMR Spectroscopic Data
Van-Diep, L. ; Zheng, X. ; Ma, K. ; Chen, J.Y. ; Han, B.Z. ; Nout, M.J.R. - \ 2011
Journal of the Institute of Brewing 117 (2011)4. - ISSN 0046-9750 - p. 516 - 522.
magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy - principal component analysis - acid bacteria - fermentation - behaviors - starter - liquor - beer
J. Inst. Brew. 117(4), 516-522, 2011 Fen liquor is typical of Chinese light-flavour liquor (alcoholic spirit), which is fermented from sorghum with Fen-Daqu powder. Fen-Daqu is a saccharifying agent and fermentation starter in this fermentation process and in Fen traditional vinegar. To investigate the changes of biochemical components in Fen-Daqu during the incubation, samples at seven incubation stages were analyzed by H-1 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry and principal component analysis (PCA). This revealed clear separation of the samples obtained from different incubation stages in the principal component plots by combining PC1 and PC2, which cumulatively accounted for 93.27% of the variance. The major compounds that contributed to discrimination were acetate/alanine, arginine, ascorbate, betaine, choline, ethanol, fructose, galactose, glucose, glucitol, glycerate, lactate, maltose, mannitol, phenylalanine, proline, propylene glycol, threonine and tryptophan. These compounds were regarded as the representative metabolites or biomarkers characteristic for each incubation stage and were related with microbiological changes of importance for quality control in Fen-Daqu production.
Restoration of Muscle Mitochondrial Function and Metabolic Flexibility in Type 2 Diabetes by Exercise Training Is Paralleled by Increased Myocellular Fat Storage and Improved Insulin Sensitivity
Meex, R.C.R. ; Schrauwen-Hinderling, V.B. ; Moonen-Kornips, E. ; Schaart, G. ; Mensink, M.R. ; Phielix, E. ; Weijer, T. van de; Sels, J.P. ; Schrauwen, P. ; Hesselink, M.K.C. - \ 2010
Diabetes 59 (2010)3. - ISSN 0012-1797 - p. 572 - 579.
intramyocellular lipid-content - human skeletal-muscle - magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy - uncoupling protein-3 content - oxidative capacity - rosiglitazone treatment - triglyceride synthesis - substrate oxidation - glucose disposal - enzyme-activity
OBJECTIVE-Mitochondrial dysfunction and fat accumulation in skeletal muscle (increased intramyocellular lipid [IMCL]) have been linked to development of type 2 diabetes. We examined whether exercise training could restore mitochondrial function and insulin sensitivity in patients with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-Eighteen male type 2 diabetic and 20 healthy male control subjects of comparable body weight, BMI, age, and Vo(2max) participated in a 12-week combined progressive training program (three times per week and 45 min per session). In vivo mitochondrial function (assessed via magnetic resonance spectroscopy), insulin sensitivity (clamp), metabolic flexibility (indirect calorimetry), and IMCL content (histochemically) were measured before and after training. RESULTS-Mitochondrial function was lower in type 2 diabetic compared with control subjects (P = 0.03), improved by training in control subjects (28% increase; P = 0.02), and restored to control values in type 2 diabetic subjects (48% increase; P <0.01). Insulin sensitivity tended to improve in control subjects (delta Rd 8% increase; P = 0.08) and improved significantly in type 2 diabetic subjects (delta Rd 63% increase; P <0.01). Suppression of insulin-stimulated endogenous glucose production improved in both groups (-64%; P <0.01 in control subjects and -52% in diabetic subjects; P <0.01). After training, metabolic flexibility in type 2 diabetic subjects was restored (delta respiratory exchange ratio 63% increase; P = 0.01) but was unchanged in control subjects (delta respiratory exchange ratio 7% increase; P = 0.22). Starting with comparable pretraining IMCL levels, training tended to increase IMCL content in type 2 diabetic subjects (27% increase; P = 0.10), especially in type 2 muscle fibers. CONCLUSIONS-Exercise training restored in vivo mitochondrial function in type 2 diabetic subjects. Insulin-mediated glucose disposal and metabolic flexibility improved in type 2 diabetic subjects in the face of near-significantly increased IMCL content. This indicates that increased capacity to store IMCL and restoration of improved mitochondrial function contribute to improved muscle insulin sensitivity. Diabetes 59:572-579, 2010
Adipocyte Differentiation-Related Protein and OXPAT in Rat and Human Skeletal Muscle: Involvement in Lipid Accumulation and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Minnaard, R. ; Schrauwen, P. ; Schaart, G. ; Jorgensen, J.A. ; Lenaers, E. ; Mensink, M.R. ; Hesselink, M.K.C. - \ 2009
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 94 (2009)10. - ISSN 0021-972X - p. 4077 - 4085.
magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy - insulin-resistance - triglyceride content - fatty rats - sensitivity - droplets - rosiglitazone - pathogenesis - progression - inhibition
Setting: A disordered lipid metabolism is implicated in the development of skeletal muscle insulin resistance. Lipid droplet proteins of the PAT [perilipin, adipocyte differentiation-related protein (ADRP), and TIP47] family have been shown to regulate lipid accumulation and intracellular metabolism in other tissues. Objective: This study aimed to explore the role of the PAT proteins OXPAT and ADRP in skeletal muscle lipid metabolism and their putative role in modulating insulin sensitivity. Design: Muscle OXPAT and ADRP protein content was examined during the development of insulin resistance in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats and in type 2 diabetes patients and BMI-matched control subjects. Furthermore, we examined the effect of 8 wk of insulin sensitizing by rosiglitazone on muscle OXPAT and ADRP content. Results: OXPAT and ADRP protein expression is muscle fiber type specific in humans and rats, with highest protein content in fibers containing most intramyocellular lipids (IMCL). Muscle OXPAT and ADRP protein content was 2- to 3-fold higher in ZDF rats during the progression of type 2 diabetes than in lean normoglycemic control rats, which was paralleled by high IMCL levels. Muscle OXPAT and ADRP content, as well as IMCL level, was not different between type 2 diabetes patients and control subjects. ADRP content was negatively associated with insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (r = -0.50; P = 0.017). Interestingly, rosiglitazone treatment decreased muscle OXPAT (-29%) and ADRP (-28%) content in diabetes patients, without affecting IMCL. Conclusions: These results indicate involvement of OXPAT and ADRP in muscular lipid accumulation and type 2 diabetes
Characterization of Chinese Liquor Starter, ''Daqu", by Flavor Type with H-1 NMR-Based Nontargeted Analysis.
Wu, X.H. ; Zheng, X. ; Han, B.Z. ; Vervoort, J.J.M. ; Nout, M.J.R. - \ 2009
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 57 (2009)23. - ISSN 0021-8561 - p. 11354 - 11359.
magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy - fermentation
"Daqu" is a fermentation starter and substrate complex that is used to initiate fermentations for the production of Chinese liquor (alcoholic spirit). Several different types of Daqu are customary used, having different flavours, i.e. light, strong, or sauce flavor. With the aim to develop objective methods to characterize and distinguish such different types of Daqu, nontargeted analyses of extracts from three typical flavor types of Daqu were carried out using (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. A significant separation of spectra of Daqu of light-flavor, strong-flavor and sauce-flavor types was achieved using principal components analysis. The separation could be attributed to higher levels of glycerol, malate, acetate and N-acetylglutamine in light-flavor Daqu; higher levels of mannitol, betaine, trimethylamine and pyroglutamate in strong-flavor Daqu; and higher levels of lactate, isoleucine, leucine, isovalerate and valine in sauce-flavor Daqu. These metabolites were regarded as the representative metabolites or biomarkers characteristic for each type of Daqu and could be associated with some of the microorganisms that have been reported in Daqu. This study highlights the application of nontargeted analysis techniques based on NMR in process research and quality control in Daqu production and liquor fermentation
Metabolomic analysis of the interaction between plants and herbivores
Jansen, J.J. ; Allwood, J.W. ; Marsden-Edwards, E. ; Putten, W.H. van der; Goodacre, R. ; Dam, M. van - \ 2009
Metabolomics 5 (2009)1. - ISSN 1573-3882 - p. 150 - 161.
magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy - brassica-rapa leaves - jasmonic acid - pieris-rapae - induced resistance - induced responses - cell-cultures - defense - sequestration - insect
Insect herbivores by necessity have to deal with a large arsenal of plant defence metabolites. The levels of defence compounds may be increased by insect damage. These induced plant responses may also affect the metabolism and performance of successive insect herbivores. As the chemical nature of induced responses is largely unknown, global metabolomic analyses are a valuable tool to gain more insight into the metabolites possibly involved in such interactions. This study analyzed the interaction between feral cabbage (Brassica oleracea) and small cabbage white caterpillars (Pieris rapae) and how previous attacks to the plant affect the caterpillar metabolism. Because plants may be induced by shoot and root herbivory, we compared shoot and root induction by treating the plants on either plant part with jasmonic acid. Extracts of the plants and the caterpillars were chemically analysed using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography/Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (UPLCT/MS). The study revealed that the levels of three structurally related coumaroylquinic acids were elevated in plants treated on the shoot. The levels of these compounds in plants and caterpillars were highly correlated: these compounds were defined as the ‘metabolic interface’. The role of these metabolites could only be discovered using simultaneous analysis of the plant and caterpillar metabolomes. We conclude that a metabolomics approach is useful in discovering unexpected bioactive compounds involved in ecological interactions between plants and their herbivores and higher trophic levels
LC-UV-solid-phase extraction-NMR-MS combined with a cryogenic flow probe and its application to the identification of compounds present in Greek oregano
Exarchou, V. ; Godejohann, M. ; Beek, T.A. van; Gerothanassis, I.P. ; Vervoort, J.J.M. - \ 2003
Analytical Chemistry 75 (2003)22. - ISSN 0003-2700 - p. 6288 - 6294.
magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy - performance liquid-chromatography - high-resolution nmr - tandem mass-spectrometry - to-noise ratio - hplc-nmr - solvent-suppression - natural-products - plant-extracts - constituents
Structure elucidation of natural products usually relies on a combination of NMR spectroscopy with mass spectrometry whereby NMR trails MS in terms of the minimum sample amount required. In the present study, the usefulness of on-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) in LC-NMR for peak storage after the LC separation prior to NMR analysis is demonstrated. The SPE unit allows the use of normal protonated solvents for the LC separation and fully deuterated solvents for flushing the trapped compounds to the NAIR probe. Thus, solvent suppression is no longer necessary. Multiple trapping of the same analyte from repeated LC injections was utilized to solve the problem of low concentration and to obtain 2D heteronuclear NMR spectra. In addition, a combination of the SPE unit with a recently developed cryoflow NMR probe and an MS was evaluated. This on-line LC-UV-SPE-NMR-MS system was used for the automated analysis of a Greek oregano extract. Combining the data provided by the UV, MS, and NMR spectra, the flavonoids taxifolin, aromadendrin, eriodictyol, naringenin, and apigenin, the phenolic acid rosmarinic acid, and the monoterpene carvacrol were identified. This automated technique is very useful for natural product analysis, and the large sensitivity improvement leads to significantly reduced NAIR acquisition times.