Cooperative and uniform fish? : social interactions and variability in live body weight in the GIFT strain (Nile tilapia, Oreochromic niloticus) in Malaysia
Khaw, H.L. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Johan van Arendonk, co-promotor(en): Piter Bijma; R.W. Ponzoni. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462572157 - 161
oreochromis niloticus - sociaal gedrag - lichaamsgewicht - variatie - genetische effecten - inteelt - kenmerken - heritability - genotype-milieu interactie - genotypische variatie - genetische verbetering - veredelingsprogramma's - visteelt - maleisië - oreochromis niloticus - social behaviour - body weight - variation - genetic effects - inbreeding - traits - heritability - genotype environment interaction - genetic variance - genetic improvement - breeding programmes - fish culture - malaysia
Khaw, HL. (2014). Cooperative and uniform fish? Social interactions and variability in live body weight in the GIFT strain (Nile tilapia, Oreochromic niloticus) in Malaysia. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, the Netherlands.
Social interactions are present everywhere in the living world. Such social interactions may lead to indirect genetic effects (IGE), which are heritable effects of an individual on trait values of the other individuals its interacts with. IGEs may affect the direction and magnitude of response to selection in breeding programs. Moreover, social interactions may affect variability of traits. In aquaculture, competition for resources inflates size variation within populations. In this thesis, we used the Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia (GIFT; Oreochromis niloticus) strain to investigate the genetic basis for social interactions and variability in harvest weight for tropical finfish. Social interaction experiments were established for quantifying the genetic and non-genetic indirect effects on harvest weight in the GIFT strain. We found evidence for IGEs on harvest weight, and a negative direct-indirect genetic correlation, which suggesting heritable competitive interactions for harvest weight in GIFT. Hence, breeding schemes may need to be adapted to avoid an increase in competition. A stochastic simulation study was conducted to examine the effect of BLUP selection on the rate of inbreeding for socially affected traits. The rates of inbreeding for scenarios with IGEs were greater than for scenarios without IGE. Therefore, with IGEs there is a greater need for a selection algorithm that restricts the increase of mean kinship. In aquaculture industry, there is a wide range of commercial production environments, which may leads to genotype by environment (GxE) interaction, for example due to differential social interactions. The GIFT fish were tested in ponds and cages to study the GxE interaction. The genetic correlations between environments (0.73 to 0.85, for harvest weight and body measurements) indicate little GxE-interaction. The data collected from the social interaction experiments were also used to investigate the presence of genetic variation in uniformity for harvest weight. The genetic coefficient of variation for standard deviation of harvest weight (0.17) shows that uniformity of harvest weight is heritable and can be increased by selective breeding. In the General Discussion of this thesis, the uniformity study was extended to incorporate IGE. The result indicates that more cooperative fish are not necessary more uniform for harvest weight. Overall, our results suggest that genetic improvement in fish breeding programs can be increased by accounting for social interactions.
Interest grows for Dutch mid-tech and low-tech greenhouse technology : A greenhouse to suit all tropical conditions (interview with Anne Elings)
Kierkels, T. ; Elings, A. - \ 2014
In Greenhouses : the international magazine for greenhouse growers 3 (2014)2. - ISSN 2215-0633 - p. 28 - 29.
glastuinbouw - kassen - bouwtechnologie - bouwconstructie - teelt onder bescherming - tropen - ontwerp - maleisië - materialen - aangepaste technologie - greenhouse horticulture - greenhouses - construction technology - building construction - protected cultivation - tropics - design - malaysia - materials - appropriate technology
The Netherlands sets the standard for high-tech greenhouses worldwide. But increasingly suppliers are looking too at possibilities within the mid-tech and even the low-tech market segments. The Dutch government is supporting demonstration projects, for example in Mexico, East Africa and Malaysia. Technically it’s all going well.
Nederland krijgt belangstelling voor mid tech en low tech kassenbouw (interview met Anne Elings)
Kierkels, T. ; Elings, A. - \ 2013
Onder Glas 10 (2013)10. - p. 34 - 35.
glastuinbouw - kassen - bouwtechnologie - bouwconstructie - teelt onder bescherming - tropen - ontwerp - maleisië - materialen - aangepaste technologie - greenhouse horticulture - greenhouses - construction technology - building construction - protected cultivation - tropics - design - malaysia - materials - appropriate technology
Nederland zet de toon in high tech kassenbouw over de hele wereld. Maar in toenemende mate kijken de toeleveringsbedrijven ook naar mogelijkheden binnen het mid tech en zelfs het low tech segment. De Nederlandse overheid ondersteunt demonstratieprojecten in bijvoorbeeld Mexico, Oost-Afrika en Maleisië. Technisch lukt het allemaal goed.
|Neoliberal governance and International medical travel in Malaysia
Ormond, M.E. - \ 2013
Abingdon : Routledge (Routledge Pacific Rim Geographies 9) - ISBN 9780415502382 - 174
sociale geografie - internationale reis - gezondheidszorg - ontwikkelingslanden - maleisië - overheidsbeleid - social geography - international travel - health care - developing countries - malaysia - government policy
International medical travel (IMT), people crossing national borders in the pursuit of healthcare, has become a growing phenomenon. With many of the countries currently being promoted as IMT destinations located in the ‘developing’ world, IMT poses a significant challenge to popular assumptions about who provides and receives care since it inverses and diversifies presumed directionalities of care. This book analyses the development of international medical travel in Malaysia, by looking at the benefits and challenges of providing health care to non-Malaysians. It challenges embedded assumptions about the sources, directions and political value of care. The author situates the Malaysian case study material at the fruitful cross-section of a range of literatures on transnational mobility, hospitality, therapeutic landscapes and medical diplomacy to examine their roles in the construction of national identity. The book thus contributes to wider debates that have emerged around the changing character of global health governance, and is of use to students and scholars of Southeast Asian Studies as well as Politics and Health and Social Care.
Macro-economic Impact Study for Bio-based Malaysia
Meijl, H. van; Smeets, E.M.W. ; Dijk, M. van; Powell, J.P. ; Tabeau, A.A. - \ 2012
The Hague : LEI, part of Wageningen UR (Report / LEI : Research area International policy ) - ISBN 9789086155835 - 56
macro-economische analyse - biobased economy - economische ontwikkeling - palmoliën - maleisië - bio-energie - chemie op basis van biologische grondstoffen - macroeconomic analysis - biobased economy - economic development - palm oils - malaysia - bioenergy - biobased chemistry
This Macro-economic Impact Study (MES) provides quantitative insights into the macro-economic effects of introducing green, palmbased alternatives for electricity, fuels, chemicals and materials industries in Malaysia between now and 2030.
Malaysian water sector reform : policy and performance
Kim, C.T. - \ 2012
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Arthur Mol, co-promotor(en): Bas van Vliet. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461734563 - 242
waterbeleid - waterbeheer - waterrechten - milieubeleid - maleisië - zuidoost-azië - ontwikkelingslanden - water policy - water management - water rights - environmental policy - malaysia - south east asia - developing countries
One of the measures that can help developing countries in meeting Target 10 of the Millennium Development Goals – halving the number of people without access to water and adequate sanitation by 2015 – is through a water sector reform. In this research the Malaysian water sector reform is assessed by answering the following questions: • How can we understand and explain the policy process of the reform? • To what extent have the outputs of the reform contributed to the realization of the reform’s objectives? and • To what extent has the water sector reform improved the operational efficiency and environmental effectiveness of water utilities? This research was approached from two theoretical perspectives: the policy arrangement approach and the policy evaluation approach. The policy arrangement approach provides the analytical tools to ascertain answers to the first question. This is done by thoroughly investigating the main discourses underpinning the water sector reform, the resources-power nexus, the actors and the rules applied and created in the reform process. The policy evaluation approach answers the remaining two questions from two aspects. First, by assessing the output efficacy of four institutional outputs against the reform objectives. Second, by assessing seven quantitative indicators related to the performance of water utilities on operational efficiency and environmental effectiveness. Chapter 1 takes us through the historical development of the Malaysian water supply sector from as early as the 19th century. The first water supply development has taken place in the Federated Malay States and the Strait Settlement under the British administration. Over the years, continuous investments have put Malaysia amongst countries with high access to drinking water in the world. As the country developed and economic development accelerated, public funding proved no longer able to satisfy budgets needed for water infrastructure development. Turning to private sector assistance has neither solved this problem, nor relieved state governments from financial burdens. Political and socio-economic reasons prohibit water from being priced at its actual costs. Low tariffs (and subsidised tariffs) do not only hamper water conservation, but also deprive water utilities from generating extra revenues to sustain operation and to expand services to new areas. Chapter 2 consists of two parts. The first part presents a general overview of water supply reform processes and explains the key concepts – equilibrium levels, efficiency, effectiveness, equity, competition and unbundling – which are highly relevant to the analysis of water supply reform in Malaysia and beyond. The second part discusses two theoretical frameworks used in this research: (1) the policy arrangement approach for understanding and analysing the reform process; and (2) the policy evaluation approach for measuring the outcomes of the reform on seven indicators: four for operational efficiency – non-revenue water, collection efficiency, unit production cost and customer complaints – and three for environmental efficiency – sludge management, water quality and information disclosure. The last section of this chapter formulates a theoretical framework for this research and explains how this framework helps to answer the research questions. Also Chapter 3 is divided into two parts. The first part reflects on the leading events of and driving forces behind the reform process. This includes re-visiting the policy decision of the National Water Resources Council made in 2003, the formation of the Ministry of Energy, Water and Communications right after the 2004 general elections, the commissioning of a major study and the amendment to the Federal Constitution. The reform accelerated the desire to address the presence of high non-revenue water, low water tariffs, weak regulation and the unviable financial mechanism for coping with the issue of under-investment and over-dependency on public funding in the water sector. The second part analyses the outcomes of the reform from four perspectives: regulation, water resource management, financial and operational issues. The analysis produced mixed results. Considerable positive achievements are clearly visible with regard to the role of the central regulator on regulation oversight, the financial mechanism of the PAAB and the corporatisation of state water departments. But the state water resources regulator has not shown promising results in safeguarding water resources. In Chapter 4, the water supply sector reform is analysed using the policy arrangement approach. The analysis shows a shift in water management towards the public control both at the federal and state government levels. This can be seen from the dominating corporatisation discourse, showing a growing tendency towards centralisation of water management. The shared-responsibility approach gives the federal government powers on water regulation and financing matters while reinforcing the dominant role of state governments on water provisioning and water resources. The dominant role of state actors in water is aided by their possession of vast resources – legal, water rights, financial – thus undermining the presence of market actors (private water utilities) in the sector. By the same token, several unprecedented rules emerged from the reform. The most noticeable one is the participation of the Prime Minister and his Deputy during the reform process. Others include the declassification of the public documents, drafts of WSIA and SPANA, from the official secret law to solicit public feedback, and the public hearings process involving members from the opposition parties as well as civil society. Chapter 5 presents the assessment of four operational efficiency indicators: non-revenue water, collection efficiency, unit production costs and customer complaints. The assessment was furthered investigated in two cases studies – PBAPP and SADA. It became evident that private water utilities are superior in managing water losses and collection efficiency compared to their counterparts in the public sector, while there is no clear distinction with regard to their capability in managing costs and customer complaints. This research re-affirms the contribution of nonreform factors to the performance of water utilities before and after the reform, and between private and public water utilities. The findings from the two cases studies confirm the general findings of this research. This chapter also highlights the importance of performance indicators (as a regulation tool) in the water sector in which successful reform depends considerably on the presence of reliable information. Chapter 6 analyses the performance of water utilities on three environmental effectiveness indicators: sludge management, water quality and information disclosure. Similar to Chapter 5, private water utilities demonstrate a higher compliance level to sludge management under the Environmental Quality Act 1974 and information disclosure requirements than their counterparts in the public sector. Both private and public utilities have a good compliance level in relation to the National Guideline for Drinking Water Quality Standard 2001 for water quality. Findings from the two case studies confirm the presence of a weak relation between the reform and the performance of water utilities on environmental effectiveness indicators. This chapter highlights the call from water utilities to the government to establish sludge treatment companies to spearhead the research and development activities in sludge recycling and to avoid direct discharge of raw sludge into streams. The majority of water utilities are aware of the mandatory information requirement under Section 29 WSIA. By the same token, civil society groups such as CAWP call for a greater information disclosure transparency by making all documents related to the function of NWSC and water utilities available to the public. Lastly, this chapter proposes for adoption of environmental indicators in measuring the performance of water utilities as well as to strengthen the link between information holders/disclosers and information users to facilitate greater transparency and democratic practices in the water sector. In conclusion, Chapter 7 answers the research questions as follows: (1) the policy process of the Malaysian water sector reform represents the current global trend in centralising water management within the public domain with a clear division of tasks between policy formulation, regulation oversight and service provision. State actors – the federal government on policy formulation, regulation and financing; state governments (through state water companies) on water provisioning and water resources – become dominant players in the water sector; it reduces the role of private water utilities to only a fraction of activities (i.e. treatment) within the entire value chain of water; and it strengthens close regulation oversight from the regulator. Lastly, there is a growing influence of civil society groups on the water sector; (2) the output effectiveness analysis (of the reform) has produced mixed results. Despite the fact that the central regulator, water corporations and the financier are proven to be the important institutions that meet the objectives, the state water resources regulator has not (yet) shown to be a significant institution in meeting the objective of safeguarding water resources; and (3) due to the timing of this research and limited data availability, it proved difficult to link the performance of water utilities on operational efficiency and environmental effectiveness to the reform. This study further concluded that the relevance of the policy arrangement approach and the policy evaluation approach frameworks for policy evaluation research are enhanced when they are used in combination. Moreover, the application of the latter to assess water sector performance in the data-poor environments experienced in this research presses for more use of expert judgments to complement incomplete and unreliable quantifiable datasets. It is suggested that further research be carried out over a longer time interval when required data are available, laws are fully enforced and the reform institutions are well functioning. Such research should involve a wider selection of case studies of the entire domain of water utilities using both theoretical frameworks. The immediate policy recommendations include the call to the government to consider measures to facilitate greater public participation in the policy making process of the reform, the consolidation of water management under a single water body and the establishment of a national and disclosed data bank for the water sector.
Steun voor Aziatische melksector
Wouters, A.P. - \ 2012
Kennis Online 9 (2012)aug. - p. 9 - 9.
melkveehouderij - melkproductie - melkveebedrijven - zuivelbedrijven - zuivelcoöperaties - melkveevoeding - kennisoverdracht - maleisië - thailand - vietnam - dairy farming - milk production - dairy farms - dairies - dairy cooperatives - dairy cattle nutrition - knowledge transfer - malaysia - thailand - vietnam
In Zuid-Oost Azië groeit de vraag naar verse melk en melkproducten. Wageningen UR Livestock Research helpt melkveehouders in Maleisië, Thailand en Vietnam bij het verhogen van hun productie en de melkkwaliteit.
Workshop kassenteelt in Suriname
Maaswinkel, R.H.M. ; Prado, G. del - \ 2011
Bleiswijk : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (Rapporten ) - 59
glasgroenten - teelt onder bescherming - slasoorten - lactuca - bladgroenten - workshops (programma's) - paprika's - capsicum - tomaten - solanum lycopersicum - substraten - suriname - maleisië - indonesië - greenhouse vegetables - protected cultivation - lettuces - lactuca - leafy vegetables - workshops (programs) - sweet peppers - capsicum - tomatoes - solanum lycopersicum - substrates - suriname - malaysia - indonesia
Van 15 tot en met 17 november 2011 is in Paramaribo op het Ministerie van Landbouw, Veeteelt & Visserij een eerste workshop gehouden voor telers en adviseurs, die nauw betrokken zijn bij teelten onder beschermde omstandigheden. Tijdens de workshop zijn de volgende onderwerpen aan de orde gekomen: kassenteelt in de tropen, sla op NFT, de teelten van paprika en tomaat en telen op substraat. Tijdens het onderwerp kassenteelt in de tropen werd inzage gegeven in de verschillende kastypen en ervaring daarmee in Indonesië en Maleisië. Ook werd stilgestaan bij het integraal kasontwerp.
A demonstration greenhouse for Malaysian horticulture: Trip report February 2011
Elings, A. ; Blomne Sopov, M. - \ 2011
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw (rapporten GTB 1067) - 27
glastuinbouw - kastechniek - kassen - tropen - maleisië - greenhouse horticulture - greenhouse technology - greenhouses - tropics - malaysia
Dutch trade and biodiversity; Biodiversity and socio-economic impacts of Dutch trade in soya, palm oil and timber
Kamphuis, B.M. ; Arets, E.J.M.M. ; Verwer, C.C. ; Berg, J. van den; Berkum, S. van; Harms, B. - \ 2011
The Hague : LEI Wageningen UR (Alterra report 2155) - ISBN 9789086155002 - 146
reductie - export - indonesië - brazilië - maleisië - landbouwgrond - reduction - exports - indonesia - brazil - malaysia - agricultural land
Nederland is een grote importeur van soja, palmolie en tropische houtproducten. Voor de import van soja uit Brazilië, palmolie uit Indonesië en Maleisië en hout uit Indonesië is in deze landen ruwweg dezelfde landoppervlakte nodige als de totale oppervlakte aan landbouwgrond in Nederland. Op die manier draagt Nederland bij aan het verlies van biodiversiteit in deze landen. Door duurzame intensivering van de productie, uitbreiding van de productie in gedegradeerde gebieden en geïntegreerde landinrichting in de exportlanden et stimuleren, kan de Nederlandse overheid de ecologische en socio-economische impact van de Nederlandse import reduceren
A demonstration greenhouse for Malaysian Horticulture : trip report October 2010
Elings, A. ; Stijger, I. - \ 2010
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Greenhouse Horticulture - 10
glastuinbouw - tuinbouw - modernisering - productiekosten - gewasopbrengst - maleisië - greenhouse horticulture - horticulture - modernization - production costs - crop yield - malaysia
This report results from the project “Tropical Horticulture in Malaysia”. Modernization of the greenhouse horticulture sector in Malaysiar is required in order to realize better quality of the product, higher yields and less production costs.
Melkvee houden in Zuidoost-Azië is een hele uitdaging
Wouters, A.P. - \ 2010
V-focus 7 (2010)5. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 18 - 19.
melkveehouderij - kleine landbouwbedrijven - zuivelindustrie - regionale ontwikkeling - indonesië - maleisië - thailand - dairy farming - small farms - dairy industry - regional development - indonesia - malaysia - thailand
Zuidoost-Azië is een groeimarkt voor zuivelproducten. Veel landen zijn sterk afhankelijk van import, maar proberen ook de lokale melkveehouderij te stimuleren. Wageningen UR Livestock Research heeft onderzoek gedaan naar de zuivelketens in Indonesië, Maleisië en Thailand. Verlaging van de kostprijs, verbeteren van de melkkwaliteit, verlagen van de transactiekosten in de keten zijn uitdagingen in deze landen.
Capacity building Malaysian greenhouse horticulture
Elings, A. - \ 2009
[Wageningen] : Wageningen UR Greenhouse Horticulture
kassen - glastuinbouw - kastechniek - gewasteelt - tropen - maleisië - greenhouses - greenhouse horticulture - greenhouse technology - crop management - tropics - malaysia
A demonstration greenhouse is being realized at Serdang in Malaysia, under the responsibility of the Department of Agriculture (DoA). The general goal is to demonstrate good horticultural practices. This is very valuable, and forms the nucleus of future horticultural developments. Focus crops are chilli, tomato, cucumber and melon. Once the greenhouses have been constructed, crops will be planted, installations will be fine,tuned, staff will gain experience, and interaction with growers will commence.
Greenhouse production in Malaysian lowlands needs special care (interview met Anne Elings)
Reinders, U. ; Elings, A. - \ 2009
FlowerTECH 12 (2009)7. - ISSN 1388-8439 - p. 12 - 14.
maleisië - laaglandgebieden - warmte - tuinbouw - vochtigheid - glastuinbouw - kastechniek - malaysia - lowland areas - heat - horticulture - humidity - greenhouse horticulture - greenhouse technology
Horticulture production in Malaysia is located mainly in the highlands. Further expansion in this area is not possible. Growers are having to move to the lowlands, but the particularly high temperatures and humidity make this area less favourable for greenhouse cultivation. A recent study by Wageningen UR Greenhoude Horticulture in the Netherlands however, demonstrated that greenhouse production is certainly possible in this area, if good use is made of technical possibilities.
Options for sustainability improvement and biomass use in Malaysia : Palm oil production chain and biorefineries for non-food use of residues and by-products including other agricultural crops
Dam, J.E.G. van - \ 2009
Wageningen : Agrotechnology & Food Sciences Group (Rapport AFSG 1084) - 37
oliepalmen - maleisië - bijproducten - biomassa - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - non-food producten - biobased economy - agro-industriële ketens - bioraffinage - biobrandstoffen - oil palms - malaysia - byproducts - biomass - sustainability - non-food products - biobased economy - agro-industrial chains - biorefinery - biofuels
The Division Biobased Products of the WUR institute A&F was approached by the Dutch Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality with a policy support question about the potential of Bio-based economic developments in Malaysia. Malaysia is one of the major international trade partners of the Netherlands. Annually 4.500 – 5.000 million euro’s worth of goods are imported from Malaysia. The Netherlands are Malaysia’s most important trading partner within the EU. The volume of agricultural commodities and especially palm oil products are substantial and the use of biobased resources for the generation of energy or biofuel has created a fierce debate on the sustainability of expansion of use of the biomass resources. In the context of the international policy to support the transition towards a biobased economy the potential resources that can be used for production of materials, chemicals and energy needs to be indentified. This report is reviewing the options that the current Malaysian agro-forestry sector may provide for sustainable developments. The main conclusions are that especially the currently underutilized residues and polluting wastes from the palm oil production have big potential for value addition and technical product development that also could substantially contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Examples can be found in fermentation of residues and effluents to produce bio-gas / ethanol or bioplastics but also fibre boards and building materials. Demonstration on pilot scale of such technologies could create new business and bilateral interactions between Malaysia and The Netherlands.
Options for Greenhouse Horticulture in Malaysia : trip report December 2008
Elings, A. ; Campen, J.B. - \ 2008
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Greenhouse Horticulture - 17
kassen - glastuinbouw - tropen - maleisië - greenhouses - greenhouse horticulture - tropics - malaysia
Options for Greenhouse Horticulture in Malaysia : trip report March 2008
Elings, A. ; Hemming, S. - \ 2008
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Greenhouse Horticulture - 28
glastuinbouw - tuinbouw - maleisië - greenhouse horticulture - horticulture - malaysia
Protected greenhouse horticulture is a growing activity in Malaysia that has been prioritized by the Malaysian government as an area of cooperation with The Netherlands. Also, the private sector sees business opportunities and initiates modernization. Traditional horticultural production takes place in the highlands, where land is scarce and production competes with tropical rainforest. However, there are opportunities in the lowlands. For example, in Terengganu, greenhouses that are modern to Malaysian standards have been successfully realized in 2007. Most relevant crops are currently cucumber, chillies, sweet pepper and tomato. Consumer’s demand or export opportunities may lead to the introduction of other crops. It is desired that these first developments are taken further, also for the highland regions where the majority of horticultural production is located.
Review of carbon flux estimates and other greenhouse gas emissions from oil palm cultivation on Tropical peatlands - Identifying the gaps in Knowledge
Verwer, C.C. ; Meer, P.J. van der; Nabuurs, G.J. - \ 2008
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 1731) - 44
oliepalmen - bosplantages - koolstofcyclus - veengebieden - tropen - maleisië - luchtverontreiniging - oil palms - forest plantations - carbon cycle - peatlands - tropics - malaysia - air pollution
This report provides an independent review that clarifies current confusion on carbon dioxide emissions resulting from oil palm cultivation on tropical peatlands in Malaysia, that was brought about by two recent publications. It describes the processes of carbon flow in forests, degraded forests and oil palm plantations on peat and depicts uncertainties in existing datasets. The report identifies the gaps of knowledge and offers recommendations for further research to be commissioned by the Joint Committee on Carbon Emissions (JCCE), Malaysia-The Netherlands
A quantitative methodology to test ecological modernization theory in the Malaysian context
Er Ah Choy, - \ 2007
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Arthur Mol; Kris van Koppen. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085047643 - 392
milieubeleid - ecologie - modernisering - palmoliën - textielindustrie - kleding - maleisië - agro-industriële ketens - vergelijkend onderzoek - environmental policy - ecology - modernization - palm oils - textile industry - clothing - malaysia - agro-industrial chains - comparative research
The rapid economic development accompanied by increasing manufacturing output in Malaysia for the past two decades is not balanced with sufficient environmental management. Although pollution control measures have been formulated and implemented by the Malaysian government, the improvements and achievements in environmental performance vary from one industrial sector to another. This raises the question on the reasons for the differences in environmental performances of industrial sectors in one country. In addition, most of the studies using Ecological Modernization Theory - a prevailing theory for analyzing and understanding environmental reform in western countries - have a national character, in the sense that the studies do not differentiate between sectors in analyzing and explaining environmental management and performance. And these Ecological Modernization Theory studies have prevailed up till now in Western OECD countries, and hardly in Asian developing economies. Moreover, most studies in the Ecological Modernization Theory tradition are more qualitative by making interesting use of case study research in analyzing environmental reform and further building theory. Limited quantitative research has been done up till now to test the central tenets laid down in Ecological Modernization Theory and no methodology has been developed yet to carry out a more substantive quantitative testing. Against this background, the current study aims to make a scientific contribution. This study aims to understand the differences in sectoral environmental performance in Malaysian industries by applying Ecological Modernization Theory. In investigating sectoral performances, the study has two objectives. The first objective is to develop a quantitative methodology for investigating the claims of successes and failures of environmental reform as hypothesized by Ecological Modernization Theory. This quantitative methodology focuses on two central tenets of Ecological Modernization Theory. The first central tenet pertains to the claim that environmental reforms are stimulated and triggered by transformations in environmental policy, also known as political modernization. The second central tenet relates to the increasing importance of market dynamics and economic agents in successful industrial environmental management in the era of globalization. The second objective of this study is to understand sectoral variations with regard to the drivers for environmental reform and to understand why a particular sector is better than another in environmental performance. The palm oil production chain (POPC) and the textile and apparel production chain (TAPC) in Malaysia are the foci of this study. The POPC in Malaysia is a high priority resource-based industry with heavy government involvement, whereas the TAPC has more laissez faire characteristics with limited government involvement in its economic activities. Based on the two objectives, three research questions emanate. The first research question relates to how the policy and economic tenets of Ecological Modernization Theory can be operationalized into testable factors that contribute to improved environmental performances in industrial sectors. The second question relates to the factors in the policy and economic domains explaining sector variations with respect to environmental performance. The third research question pertains to the recommendations for the development of sector- based industrial development policy in Malaysia, most notably the POPC and the TAPC. The development of a quantitative methodology starts with the operationalization of Ecological Modernization Theory into hypotheses to enable the validity of the Ecological Modernization Theory claims to be tested in a developing country. All the hypotheses formulated are either consistent or consonant with ecological modernization characteristics. The central tenet of political modernization gives birth to the Government-Industry (G-I) linkage which in turn looks at the Ecological Modernization Theory characteristics of policy formulation, technology, regulatory efforts, advocacy of preventive approaches, and local communities' involvement. Likewise, the central tenet of the role of market dynamics and economic actors gives birth to the Industry-Industry (I-I) linkage, which focuses on the Ecological Modernization Theory characteristics of international trade, vertical integration, international relationship, and local collaboration (localization). Each characteristic in the G-I linkage and the I-I linkage is translated into an independent variable and linked to hypotheses. Each of the independent variables is then statistically tested against environmental performance, operationalized as a composition of Environmental Performance Indicators (EPIs) or alternatively known as dependent variables. Hypothesis testing provides the means to support or refute the hypothesis. As hypothesis testing via statistical data analysis is required, the independent and dependent variables are operationalized in a measurable form. To overcome the problem of data limitations for the dependent variables - quite common in developing countries, five categories of EPIs were formulated and merged into one final environmental performance variable. The basic five categories of EPIs offer the advantage of robustness in compensating for data variability and limitation. A minimum of 35 and 36 companies for the POPC and the TAPC respectively were selected via disproportionate stratified random sampling, making over 5% of the population in each sector. The primary purpose of adopting disproportionate stratified random sampling is that it is much more efficient statistically as compared to simple random sampling and in the worst scenario is equal to it. Kendall's tau-b, a non-parametric test, is used as it is the most appropriate tool in view of data characteristics and less stringent requirements. Data were collected at the company sites of each company via interviewing, at the statistical offices of Malaysia, at the offices of the environmental authorities in the districts the sampled companies were located, and with (academic) experts. This research shows that two out of five hypotheses are statistically significant in the G-I linkage for the POPC. However, none are statistically significant in the G-I Linkage for the TAPC. This is mainly due to the fact that the POPC is designated as a high priority industry by the government. Thus political modernization has taken roots in the POPC. In the I-I linkage, three out of four hypotheses are statistically significant for both the POPC and the TAPC. This also signifies the impact of the increasing importance of market dynamics and economic actors in ecological reform in Malaysia palm oil and textile production chains. Studies using Ecological Modernization Theory in China, Vietnam and Thailand showed limited applicability of Ecological Modernization Theory in these countries. The main findings of this research on Malaysia, a developing economy in Southeast
Overview FLEGT related stakeholder processes and initiatives in the European Union and The Netherlands
Bodegom, A.J. van; Hijweege, W.L. - \ 2006
Wageningen : Wageningen International - 19
europese unie - houthandel - maleisië - politiek - rechtsgang - european union - timber trade - malaysia - politics - legal procedure
This review gives an overview of FLEGT related stakeholder processes and initiatives in the European Union and The Netherlands. The EU and Malaysia are in a process of preparing a Voluntary Partnership Agreement within the FLEGT process that is aimed at guarantied supply to the EU of legal timber. This is a process in which various groups of stakeholders have a keen interest and look very critically at what governments are doing