Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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Trajectories of agricultural change in southern Mali
Falconnier, G.N. - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Ken Giller, co-promotor(en): Katrien Descheemaeker; T.A. van Mourik. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462577596 - 209
agriculture - agricultural development - farms - classification - self sufficiency - food - income - intensification - farming systems - intensive production - mali - landbouw - landbouwontwikkeling - landbouwbedrijven - classificatie - zelfvoorziening - voedsel - inkomen - intensivering - bedrijfssystemen - intensieve productie - mali

Key words: longitudinal study, farm typology, food self-sufficiency, income, legumes, ex-ante analysis, participatory research, scenario.

Smallholder agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa provides basis of rural livelihoods and food security, yet farmers have to cope with land constraints, variable rainfall and unstable institutional support. This study integrates a diversity of approaches (household typology and understanding of farm trajectories, on-farm trials, participatory ex-ante trade-off analysis) to design innovative farming systems to confront these challenges. We explored farm trajectories during two decades (1994 to 2010) in the Koutiala district in southern Mali, an area experiencing the land constraints that exert pressure in many other parts of sub-Saharan Africa. We classified farms into four types differing in land and labour productivity and food self-sufficiency status. During the past two decades, 17% of the farms stepped up to a farm type with greater productivity, while 70% of the farms remained in the same type, and only 13% of the farms experienced deteriorating farming conditions. Crop yields did not change significantly over time for any farm type and labour productivity decreased. Together with 132 farmers in the Koutiala district, we tested a range of options for sustainable intensification, including intensification of cereal (maize and sorghum) and legume (groundnut, soyabean and cowpea) sole crops and cereal-legume intercropping over three years and cropping seasons (2012-2014) through on-farm trials. Experiments were located across three soil types that farmers identified – namely black, sandy and gravelly soils. Enhanced agronomic performance was achieved when targeting legumes to a given soil type and/or place in the rotation: the biomass production of the cowpea fodder variety was doubled on black soils compared with gravelly soils and the additive maize/cowpea intercropping option after cotton or maize resulted in no maize grain penalty, and 1.38 t ha−1 more cowpea fodder production compared with sole maize. Farm systems were re-designed together with the farmers involved in the trials. A cyclical learning model combining the on-farm testing and participatory ex-ante analysis was used during four years (2012-2015). In the first cycle of 2012-2014, farmers were disappointed by the results of the ex-ante trade-off analysis, i.e marginal improvement in gross margin when replacing sorghum with soybean and food self-sufficiency trade-offs when intercropping maize with cowpea. In a second cycle in 2014-2015 the farm systems were re-designed using the niche-specific (soil type/previous crop combinations) information on yield and gross margin, which solved the concerns voiced by farmers during the first cycle. Farmers highlighted the saliency of the niches and the re-designed farm systems that increased farm gross margin by 9 to 29% (depending on farm type and options considered) without compromising food self-sufficiency. The involvement of farmers in the co-learning cycles allowed establishment of legitimate, credible and salient farm reconfiguration guidelines that could be scaled-out to other communities within the “old cotton basin”. Five medium-term contrasting socio-economic scenarios were built towards the year 2027, including hypothetical trends in policy interventions and change towards agricultural intensification. A simulation framework was built to account for household demographic dynamics and crop/livestock production variability. In the current situation, 45% of the 99 households of the study village were food self-sufficient and above the 1.25 US$ day-1 poverty line. Without change in farmer practices and additional policy intervention, only 16% of the farms would be both food self-sufficient and above the poverty line in 2027. In the case of diversification with legumes combined with intensification of livestock production and support to the milk sector, 27% of farms would be food self-sufficient and above the poverty line. Additional broader policy interventions to favour out-migration would be needed to lift 69% of the farms out of poverty. Other additional subsidies to favour yield gap narrowing of the main crops would lift 92% of the farm population out of poverty. Whilst sustainable intensification of farming clearly has a key role to play in ensuring food self-sufficiency, and is of great interest to local farmers, in the face of increasing population pressure other approaches are required to address rural poverty. These require strategic and multi-sectoral approaches that address employment within and beyond agriculture, in both rural and urban areas.

Organising trade : a practice-oriented analysis of cooperatives and networks trading cereals in South Mali
Mangnus, E.P.M. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Cees Leeuwis, co-promotor(en): Sietze Vellema. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574311 - 178
coöperaties - voedselcoöperaties - graansoorten - handel - katoen - geschiedenis - platteland - landbouw - agrarische handel - mali - west-afrika - cooperatives - food cooperatives - cereals - trade - cotton - history - rural areas - agriculture - agricultural trade - mali - west africa

Abstract

Farmer organisations have become the centrepiece of pro-poor market development strategies in Africa. Assumed to facilitate scale, quality of produce and professionalism they are regarded as a solution for farmers that are hampered from economic opportunities. In Mali public as well as private actors encourage farmers to trade through one specific organisational form, namely cooperatives. Nevertheless, in reality the landscape is much more diverse. A wide array of organisations can be observed and the models stimulated by external actors do not always succeed in improving the position of farmers. Considering the gap in knowledge, this dissertation poses the following question:

How and in what ways do people organise trading of cereals in South Mali?

The central aim of this thesis is to contribute to a better understanding of organisation of food trade in rural markets, by examining how and in what ways people in South Mali organise trade in cereals and sesame. Trading includes the procurement of cereals or sesame, organisation of finance, information gathering, bargaining, the organisation of transport and selling.

Organisation of trade has been studied from different angles. Studies taking a structural approach explain organisation as emerging from context. Studies that approach organisations from an instrumental perspective regard organisation as a means for efficiently solving a shared problem. Both strands provide insights for understanding organisational functioning and performance but leave open questions regarding how people organise to realise trading and why this results in organisational diversity. This thesis examines organising trade by adopting a practice-oriented approach, which has as entry point that organisation takes shape in the realization of everyday practice. Focus is on what people actually do to realise trading.

Two case study organisations are central to the study. Both are typical for how trade in rural Mali is organised. The first is a cooperative engaged in the trading of sesame in Miena, South-East Mali. The second is a cereal trading network in N’golobougou, in the centre of South Mali. Both provide an example of people collaborating and coordinating to perform trading and as such are excellent cases for tracing the formation of organisational traits that explain performance and diversity in trading cereals in South Mali.

Empirical Chapters

Chapter 2 presents a historical overview of how the organisation of trade of cereals and cotton at farmer level developed in Mali on extensive literature research. It focuses on the efforts of the Malian state to organise rural society, how producers responded, and how the interaction between the two shaped organisation. The analysis starts in the 18th century, in which cotton and cereal trade was intertwined and likewise organised. From the colonial period onwards, organisation dynamics in food and export crops evolved distinctly. For both sectors the most important events and changes are detailed. The chapter found that the political economy at stake influences the set of organisational options people can choose from and that imposed models rarely get adopted in practice.

Chapter 3 traces the emergence and development of the sesame cooperative in Miena. It builds on two strands of literature that emphasize the specific socio-historical context of an organisation. The first body highlights the resilience of existing relations and institutions by showing how these get reproduced in new organisations. The second body of literature claims that individuals involved in collective action have the capacity to influence which institutions get reproduced and which new ones get adopted, also called ‘blended’. To collect the data 35 in depth interviews with cooperative members, (ex) officials from the cotton company CMDT, local officers and NGO-workers active in the research location were collected over a period of three months. Time was spent at the weekly market, in village meetings and at peoples’ homes. Moreover 20 informal talks with villagers and traders on the market were afterwards noted down. Three distinct processes - the historical organisation of cotton farmers, the interaction between state and society and the local trade practices - are found to underlie the current functioning of the cooperative. This chapter shows how both the reproduction and blending happen purposively; in order to (continue) performance in trading.

Chapter 4 addresses the question: How do traders in Mali perform collectively? Following the methodological orientation, labelled as technography, the chapter zooms in on the use of skills and know-how by a group of people coordinating the collection and trade of cereals. Data were collected through 24 in-depth interviews with traders and 37 semi-structured interviews with pisteurs and interviews with key resource persons. Moreover, trade practices were observed during 10 market days in a row. The analysis shows that the success of the traders’ network can be explained by: (i) the use of skills and know-how for adapting to changing economic, social and environmental contexts; (ii) the network’s ability to select capable people and distribute the many trading tasks; and (iii) the network’s effective governance, based on a strict code of conduct specific to each role. The chapter shows how rules steering the distribution of tasks and collaboration in the traders’ network emerge out of the daily practice of trading.

Chapter 5 uses evidence from a network of cereal traders in the market of N’golobougou to examine how the characteristics of traders, their positions within different networks, and different kinds of relationships between traders influence performance in trading. 26 traders were extensively interviewed on the history, functioning and the size of their business. Semi-structured interviews focused on their relations in trading. A social network analysis (SNA) is applied to describe the positions of individual traders in the networks and the type of relations that link them. Qualitative analysis is used to understand the motivations underlying their position and collaboration. The findings demonstrate that trading is a complex and multifaceted activity. Within the network distinct networks have emerged to organise the collection of cereals, to arrange finance and to acquire information. Pre-existing social relations facilitate trading but do not guarantee individual success. Proven ability and reputation are equally important in cooperation and relate to the way powerful members of the network acquire a central position, which goes stepwise and takes time.

Conclusions

Collaboration is crucial for trading under the circumstances of rural Mali. Both case studies highlight the role of key individuals who spotted opportunities and mobilised others to collaborate. Different trading activities require specific skills, know-how and tools and people tend to specialise. Most skills are acquired in practice; few of them can be taught by instruction. Accordingly to what is present in terms of capacities, people’s availability and know-how, and tools, groups will distribute tasks among their members.

People also need to coordinate how skills, know-how and tools are distributed over time and space. Trading in South Mali requires bridging of long distances, adaptation to seasonality, securing finance and transport, and finding buyers. The temporal dimension of trading is visible in how traders adapt to seasonality and to how it is adjusted to people’s availability in time. Trading is also spatially situated. Poor infrastructure and long travel distances are characteristic of rural South Mali. Both the cooperative as well as the trading network therefore have a layered structure of actors close to the field, actors in the central village or market where the sesame or cereals are collected, and actors in the city to which the sesame or cereals are transported.

People do not organise in a random constellation. The range of options they can choose from are importantly influenced by the institutions active in decision-making at village level, the relationship between state and rural communities, the social networks people operate in, and the historically developed rules and regulations in market transactions. Also, previous ways of organising play a role in today’s way of organising. The empirical analyses demonstrate that organising trade is ‘path dependent’. Nevertheless, people only reproduce those procedures, habits and actions that are deemed necessary to perform. They blend old and new ways of coordination and collaboration to allow the practice of trade to continue.

The findings in this thesis show that collaboration does not rely on social relations only. Cooperating to achieve a practical end, i.e. to trade, is also skill and competence based. Organisational sustainability depends on how grouped or networked actors coordinate actions in response to changing circumstances and opportunities. Hence, organisational diversity can be understood from the fact that organisation emerges from a situated practice.

Recommendations

Organisation in trade emerges gradually and adaptively from what is present in terms of skills, capacities, know-how and experience in trading. As this is situation specific it is essential to recognize the uniqueness of each organisational form and suggests reconsidering the one-size-fit-all approaches often promoted in development interventions. Imposed organisational structures may be enabling to some extent but they leave little room for exploring the range of possible ways to achieve trading. For understanding how people organise trade it is important to understand the way they perform the actual practice in the specific social and material circumstances. The empirical chapters argue in favour of tutor–apprentice relations between experienced actors and new members, leaving decision-making power and rule setting in the hands of the most experienced traders. Current development projects supporting links between farmers and buyers often aim to be ‘inclusive’ and ‘pro-poor’, meaning that they should be accessible to anyone. The field research shows that organisations in trade in Mali are very selective in membership to assure the group achieves its objectives. Governments and other development actors should be aware of the trade-offs between inclusive, democratic organisational models, and effectiveness and performance in trading.

School feeding contributes to micronutrients adequacy of Ghanaian schoolchildren
Abizari, A.R. ; Buxton, C. ; Kwara, L. ; Mensah-Homaih, J. ; Armar-Klemesu, M. ; Brouwer, I.D. - \ 2014
The British journal of nutrition 112 (2014)6. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 1019 - 1033.
improve dietary quality - iron-absorption - child undernutrition - nutrient adequacy - ascorbic-acid - food variety - rural kenya - programs - mali - diversity
Without gains in nutritional outcomes, it is unlikely that school feeding programmes (SFP) could improve cognition and academic performance of schoolchildren despite the improvements in school enrolment. We compared the nutrient intake adequacy and Fe and nutritional status of SFP and non-SFP participants in a cross-sectional survey involving 383 schoolchildren (aged 5–13 years). Quantitative 24 h recalls and weighed food records, repeated in 20 % subsample, were used to estimate energy and nutrient intakes adjusted for day-to-day variations. The probability of adequacy (PA) was calculated for selected micronutrients and the mean of all PA (MPA) was calculated. The concentrations of Hb, serum ferritin, and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) and anthropometric measurements were used to determine Fe and nutritional status. Energy and nutrient intakes and their adequacies were significantly higher among SFP participants (P<0·001). The MPA of micronutrients was significantly higher among SFP participants (0·61 v. 0·18; P<0·001), and the multiple-micronutrient-fortified corn soya blend was a key contributor to micronutrient adequacy. In SFP participants, 6 g/l higher Hb concentrations (P<0·001) and about 10 % points lower anaemia prevalence (P= 0·06) were observed. The concentration of sTfR was significantly lower among SFP participants (11·2 v. 124 mg/l; P= 0·04); however, there was no difference in the prevalence of Fe deficiency and Fe-deficiency anaemia between SFP and non-SFP participants. There was also no significant difference in the prevalence of thinness, underweight and stunting. In conclusion, the present results indicate that school feeding is associated with higher intakes and adequacies of energy and nutrients, but not with the prevalence of Fe and nutritional status indicators. The results also indicate an important role for micronutrient-dense foods in the achievement of micronutrient adequacy within SFP.
Let the numbers speak : Comparing Better Cotton Fast Track Program participants and non-participants in India, Mali, and Pakistan using agronomic data of the Better Cotton Initiative
Ge, L. ; Waarts, Y.R. - \ 2014
The Hague : LEI Wageningen UR (LEI report 2013-067) - ISBN 9789086156672 - 82
katoen - katoenindustrie - duurzame landbouw - duurzaam bodemgebruik - milieu - arbeid (werk) - watergebruik - pesticiden - landbouwproductie - india - mali - pakistan - cotton - cotton industry - sustainable agriculture - sustainable land use - environment - labour - water use - pesticides - agricultural production
Aid and trade for livestock development and food security in West Africa
Lee, J. van der; Schiere, J.B. ; Bosma, R.H. ; Olde, E. de; Bol, S. ; Cornelissen, J.M.R. - \ 2014
Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 745) - 101
vee - veehouderij - economische ontwikkeling - ontwikkelingshulp - internationale handel - nigeria - ghana - benin - burkina faso - mali - livestock - livestock farming - economic development - development aid - international trade
Livestock keeping traditionally is very important in West Africa, occurring in many forms and fulfilling roles that change over time and from north to south. This report presents the results of a quickscan done by Wageningen UR Livestock Research and La Ventana consulting, mainly for policy discussions, but also giving suggestions for action by the private sector. The report is written for the Dutch Ministries of Economic Affairs (Department of European Agricultural Policy and Food Security, Directorate-General Agro) and Foreign Affairs (Directorate-General of International Cooperation). The central issue in this study is the search for opportunities for livestock development to enhance food security in West Africa through aid and trade. The report discusses win-win and trade-offs between aid and trade, reflecting a rather traditional divide between development aid and economic development. Nowadays the notion public and private might replace that of aid and trade.
Analysis of collective performance in the Malian shea sector: from fields to markets
Sidibe, A. - \ 2013
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Thomas Kuijper, co-promotor(en): Sietze Vellema; B. Te´me´; H. Yossi. - Wageningen : Wageningen UR - ISBN 9789461738011 - 124
vitellaria paradoxa - participatie - collectivisatie - prestatieniveau - vrouwen - coöperaties - landbouwcoöperaties - markten - mali - vitellaria paradoxa - participation - collectivization - performance - women - cooperatives - agricultural cooperatives - markets - mali

Shea butter extracted from kernels can be found in cosmetic and food products. Organising women to make butter for international markets has been central to development strategies in the Malian shea sector. However, only a limited number of women are actually member of and benefit from such groups. Detailed study of cooperatives revealed that non-members played an important role, and a case study cooperative showed how their interests were accommodated by becoming less dependent on a single, international market and by re-arranging its linkages with traders. Hence, rather than pushing women into a pre-defined practice, the making of butter, this thesis shows the relevance of understanding how women with different social positions engage in the performance of collective tasks in fields and markets. I conclude that co-operation emerges in evolving practices rather than from formal organisational models.

Farmers on the move : mobility, access to land and conflict in Central and South Mali
Nijenhuis, K. - \ 2013
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Han van Dijk, co-promotor(en): M.M.A. Kaag. - Wageningen : Wageningen UR - ISBN 9789461737205 - 290
boeren - mobiliteit - politieke processen - landgebruik - grondrechten - landbouw bedrijven - conflict - toegang - land - mali - farmers - mobility - political processes - land use - land rights - farming - conflict - access - land - mali
In contrast to their sedentary image, farmers in Central and South Mali are surprisingly mobile. Many have settled in scattered farming hamlets where they are rapidly expanding the areas under agriculture. This study focuses on farmers’ mobility in relation to accessing land in two regions in Mali where farming conditions are very different regarding rainfall, population growth and opportunities for income generation. It is shown that differences in farming conditions in the two regions have shaped the different temporal and spatial dimensions of farmers’ mobility. This mobility is, however, not just a reaction to changing farming conditions but also part of local political processes, including conflict, that mediate farmers’ access to land. By highlighting the crucial role of farming conditions and farmers’ mobility in these political processes, this study adds a fresh geographical dimension to ways of thinking about access to land, land use and conflict in West Africa and beyond.
The role of local institutions in adaptive processes to climate variability. The cases of southern Ethiopia and southern Mali
Crane, T.A. - \ 2013
Boston : Oxfam America (Oxfam research report ) - 34
klimaatverandering - landbouw - ethiopië - mali - climatic change - agriculture - ethiopia
Livestock in the rice-based economy of Office du Niger: The development potential for increased crop–livestock integration through multi-actor processes
Doumbia, D. ; Paassen, A. van; Oosting, S.J. ; Zijpp, A.J. van der - \ 2012
NJAS Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences 60-63 (2012). - ISSN 1573-5214 - p. 101 - 114.
innovation systems - mali - irrigation - management - impact
A diagnostic study of the development potential of livestock for the rice-based economy of the Office du Niger (ON) was conducted in Mali. The functioning of selected farming systems and value chains were studied by means of interviews, surveys and farmer group discussions. The findings show that in the ON rice remains the prime agricultural activity; although half of the farm households own cattle (for capital insurance and draught power), livestock management is troublesome because of a lack of grazing land and water points. Rice production is lucrative but approximately half of the farmers in the area studied do not have the land or capital to obtain a good harvest or sell at a profit. The ON supports rice farming through the provision of infrastructure and subsidies but the hierarchical structure of the ON’s services and limited human resources hinder the timely availability and quality of its services. More affluent farmers do cope but poorer farmers have a problem to make ends meet. Diversification towards intensive livestock production might offer a new opportunity. The research station, dairy processing unit and dairy co-operatives are dynamic organizations and farmers appear eager to explore this opportunity but our analysis shows the revenue remains modest. We conclude that in order to improve the livelihood of the farmers, especially of the poor, it is critical to focus on institutional change within the rice sector. New forms of collaboration between the ON and the rice farmer organizations might solve most service delivery problems. However, this would require a long process of delicate brokerage, farmer organization and advocacy training. It would be important in the meantime to support activities that generate shortterm visible results in the rice or dairy sector.
Indigenous Knowledge of Shea Processing and Quality Perception of Shea Products in Benin
Honfo, G.F. ; Linnemann, A.R. ; Akissoe, N.H. ; Soumanou, M.M. ; Boekel, M.A.J.S. van - \ 2012
Ecology of Food and Nutrition 51 (2012)6. - ISSN 0367-0244 - p. 505 - 525.
karite vitellaria-paradoxa - butter - extraction - cameroon - mali
A survey among 246 people belonging to 14 ethnic groups and living in 5 different parklands in Benin revealed different practices to process shea kernels (namely boiling followed sun drying and smoking) and extract shea butter. A relation between parklands, gathering period, and sun-drying conditions was established. Moisture content and appearance of kernels were the selection criteria for users of shea kernels; color was the main characteristic to buy butter. Constraints to be solved are long processing times, lack of milling equipment and high water requirements. Best practices for smoking, sun drying, and roasting operations need to be established for further improvement.
Fonio (Digitaria exilis) as a staple food in Mali : an approach to upgrade nutritional value
Fanou-Fogny, N.M.L. - \ 2012
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Frans Kok, co-promotor(en): Inge Brouwer; R.A.M. Dossa. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461732927 - 188
digitaria exilis - mali - ijzer - fortificatie - ijzerabsorptie - voedingstoestand - sporenelementtekorten - voedingswaarde - vrouwen - digitaria exilis - mali - iron - fortification - iron absorption - nutritional state - trace element deficiencies - nutritive value - women

Background
With the increasing nutritional and health problems related to the global food crisis, the potential contribution of traditional foods to alleviation of poverty, nutritional deficiencies and health issues has been emphasized. Fonio (Digitaria exilis) is the most ancient West African cereal representing a key crop in food supply during crop shortfall periods. Less is known about the potential of fonio to contribute to nutrition and health in West Africa. The value chain approach for nutritional goals is a set of strategies through which values are added to products for improvement of nutrition among vulnerable groups, while creating benefits for stakeholders. Strategies in a value chain approach comprise agricultural strategies, processing, and consumer-oriented actions to enhance acceptability.

Objectives
In this thesis we explored value chain strategies as possible solutions to existing nutritional problems among West African women, using fonio as product. To achieve this objective, specific research questions were investigated through the following cross-sectional studies: i) baseline assessment of nutrition (iron) status, iron intake and adequacy to define the nutritional context for operating the value chain approach; ii) assessment of socio-cultural acceptability of fonio as strategic entry point for consumer-oriented activities; iii) investigating processing (dephytinisation and fortification) as strategy for adding nutritional value to fonio.

Methods
Subjects involved were women of reproductive age randomly selected in Bamako, the capital city of Mali (108 women aged 15-49 y-old from 3-stage cluster sampling procedure), and Cotonou, the largest city of Benin (16 women aged 18-30 y-old from simple random sampling for an iron absorption study). Data collection included anthropometric and blood indicators measurement; dietary assessment based on a duplicate 24-h dietary recall, indirect and rapid assessment techniques; food ethnography focused on fonio, including an availability survey on market, a food consumption survey on the uses of fonio, and an acceptability survey based on a behavioral model; and an iron absorption study using stable isotopes.
consumption (68% consuming 1 to 3 times/month) and daily portion size of fonio (152 g) was relatively low as compared to other staples like rice and millet. Fonio consumption was strongly predicted by intention to consume (r = 0.78, P < 0.001), which was influenced by positive beliefs and attributes (β = 0.32, P < 0.05). Subjective norms, namely the opinion of the husband, the family and the neighborhood motivated intention to consume fonio (r = 0.26, P < 0.001). Perceived barriers such as time-consuming processing and lack of skills in cooking fonio had a significant interaction between intention to consume and fonio consumption (β = -0.72, P < 0.05). Exploring processing as strategy for adding nutritional value to fonio showed that dephytinisation with intrinsic wheat phytase reduced phytate-to-iron molar ratio from 23.7:1 to 2.7:1 and iron fortification decreased the molar ratio to 0.3:1. Dephytinisation with wheat phytase and fortification significantly increased iron absorption from 2.6% to 8.2% in fonio porridges.

Conclusions and recommendations
Dephytinisation with native wheat phytase and iron fortification appeared relevant for adding nutritional value to fonio. Nonetheless, the achievement in iron absorption might not be sufficient to consider fonio as an appropriate food for improving iron status through iron fortification. However, as staple food contributing to food security, consumer-oriented activities for enhancing fonio consumption should emphasize positive attitudes and opinions of men, family and neighbors, while strengthening skills of women in cooking good quality fonio meals. For the value chain approach to be relevant, the impact of value-added fonio products on smallholders’ income should be assessed, as well as the effect of the improved income on the nutritional outcome of vulnerable communities

Mapping yield variability of sorghum and millet in Mali
Conijn, J.G. ; Hengsdijk, H. ; Rutgers, B. - \ 2012
Wageningen : Plant Research International (Report / Plant Research International 440) - 14
sorghum - pennisetum - gierst - gewasopbrengst - weersgegevens - weer - landgebruik - bodem - simulatiemodellen - mali - millets - crop yield - weather data - weather - land use - soil - simulation models
Kansen voor het Nederlands Agro-Midden en Klein Bedrijf in Ghana, Mali en Mozambique
Mheen-Sluijer, J. van der; Waardenburg, R. ; Rothuis, A.J. - \ 2011
Den Haag : Ministerie van Economische Zaken, Landbouw en Innovatie - 78
middelgrote bedrijven - kleine bedrijven - landbouwindustrie - internationale handel - investering - voedselzekerheid - ghana - nederland - mali - mozambique - medium sized businesses - small businesses - agribusiness - international trade - investment - food security - ghana - netherlands - mali - mozambique
Het kabinet heeft besloten voedselzekerheid te verheffen als een prioritair thema binnen ontwikkelingssamenwerking. Dit heeft geleid tot, binnen de huidige vijftien partnerlanden, een selectie van zes landen te weten, Ethiopië, Kenya, Rwanda, Ghana, Mali en Mozambique. In deze zes landen willen de ministeries van Buitenlandse Zaken en Economische Zaken, Landbouw en Innovatie gezamenlijk pilot projecten starten. Een belangrijke factor voor de kans van slagen van initiatieven in deze zes landen is de mate van betrokkenheid van bedrijfsleven in het doelland, maar ook het bedrijfsleven in Nederland. De grotere Nederlandse bedrijven maken hun wensen met betrekking tot dit traject wel kenbaar, maar het is lastiger te identificeren waar de kansen liggen binnen deze zes landen voor het Nederlandse MKB actief in de agrarische sector (zowel primaire productie als verwerkende industrie en toeleverende industrie (machinerie, veevoeder e.d.)). Het lijkt dat dit segment onvoldoende op de hoogte is van de kansen en mogelijkheden in (sommige van) deze landen, en om die reden nog geen grote interesse in het traject heeft getoond. Om vanuit de programmatische inzet op voedselzekerheid een betere link met het Nederlandse bedrijfsleven (MKB) te realiseren, heeft de Directie Agroketens en Visserij de volgende kennisvraag geformuleerd: identificeren van 4-5 sub sectoren binnen de Nederlandse landbouwsector (zowel primair, verwerkend als toeleverend) waarop het Nederlandse agro-MKB het meest actief is in haar internationale handels- en investeringsstromen, m.n. gericht op midden- en lagere inkomenslanden. Hiertoe zoveel mogelijk gebruik makend van bestaand onderzoek; identificeren van het marktpotentieel (voor zowel handel als investeringen) voor het Nederlandse agro-MKB voor de onder 1) geïdentificeerde sub sectoren in de landen Ghana, Mali en Mozambique. Middels de beantwoording van deze kennisvraag wil de Directie Agroketens en Visserij in staat gesteld worden het Nederlandse agro MKB gerichter te kunnen benaderen teneinde ze te betrekken in deze rijks brede programmatische inzet op het thema voedselzekerheid. Omdat bestaand onderzoek over deze onderwerpen ontbrak, hebben de auteurs van dit rapport hun eigen netwerk in deze drie landen en het Nederlands bedrijfsleven ingezet. Naast het in kaart brengen van de kansen in deze landen, zoals beschreven in documenten van de overheden en internationale organisaties, hebben we onze contacten geïnterviewd. Zij hebben informatie gegeven over specifieke kansen die zij zagen voor investeringen in deze landen en de obstakels die ze hierbij ondervonden. Ook werden we soms doorverwezen naar andere bedrijven die ook (interesse hebben in) actief zijn in deze landen. Door deze sneeuwbalmethode te gebruiken is er zeer waarschijnlijk een bias opgetreden naar Nederlandse bedrijven die zich concentreren op handel met (import uit en export naar) deze landen, in plaats van bedrijven die investeren in productie voor de lokale- en regionale markt. Ook is niet duidelijk welk percentage Nederlandse bedrijven dat daadwerkelijk actief is (of wil worden) in deze landen we via deze sneeuwbalmethode bereikt hebben.
Le lait, de l'or blanc? : amélioration de la productivité des exploitations mixtes cultures-élevage à travers une meilleure gestion et alimentation des vaches laitières dans la zone de Koutiala, Mali
Sanogo, O. - \ 2011
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Herman van Keulen; Ken Giller; Nico de Ridder; Mariana Rufino. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789085859505 - 157
bedrijfssystemen - melkveehouderij - veehouderij - dry farming - dierlijke productie - diervoedering - systeemanalyse - simulatiemodellen - mali - farming systems - dairy farming - livestock farming - dry farming - animal production - animal feeding - systems analysis - simulation models - mali
Mapping maize yield variability in Mali
Conijn, J.G. ; Hengsdijk, H. ; Rutgers, B. ; Jongschaap, R.E.E. - \ 2011
Wageningen : Plant Research International (Report / Plant Research International 375) - 18
zea mays - maïs - opbrengsten - simulatiemodellen - gewasgroeimodellen - mali - maize - yields - simulation models - crop growth models
Simple Food Group Diversity Indicators Predict Micronutrient Adequacy of Women's Diets in 5 Diverse, Resource-Poor Settings
Arimond, M. ; Wiesmann, D. ; Becquey, E. ; Carriquiry, A. ; Daniels, M.C. ; Deitchler, M. ; Fanou-Fogny, N.M.L. ; Joseph, M.L. ; Kennedy, G.L. ; Martin-Prevel, Y. ; Torheim, L.E. - \ 2010
The Journal of Nutrition 140 (2010)11. - ISSN 0022-3166 - p. 2059S - 2069S.
nutrient intake - variety - quality - determinants - perspective - cutoff - adults - mali
Women of reproductive age living in resource-poor settings are at high risk of inadequate micronutrient intakes when diets lack diversity and are dominated by staple foods. Yet comparative information on diet quality is scarce and quantitative data on nutrient intakes is expensive and difficult to gather. We assessed the potential of simple indicators of dietary diversity, such as could be generated from large household surveys, to serve as proxy indicators of micronutrient adequacy for population-level assessment. We used 5 existing data sets (from Burkina Faso, Mali, Mozambique, Bangladesh, and the Philippines) with repeat 24-h recalls to construct 8 candidate food group diversity indicators (FGI) and to calculate the mean probability of adequacy (MPA) for 11 micronutrients. FGI varied in food group disaggregation and in minimum consumption required for a food group to count. There were large gaps between intakes and requirements across a range of micronutrients in each site. All 8 FGI were correlated with MPA in all sites; regression analysis confirmed that associations remained when controlling for energy intake. Assessment of dichotomous indicators through receiver-operating characteristic analysis showed moderate predictive strength for the best choice indicators, which varied by site. Simple FGI hold promise as proxy indicators of micronutrient adequacy.
Climate change in Mali en Brazil : towards an evaluation method of climate change and land use policies
Verburg, R.W. ; Chen, L. ; Cissé, Y. ; Filho, S.R. ; Keita, B. ; Lindoso, D. ; Demba, M. ; Gucciardi, C. ; Diarra, A.T. ; Debortoli, N. - \ 2009
The Hague : LEI Wageningen UR (Rapport / LEI : Werkveld 5, Milieu, natuur en landschap ) - ISBN 9789086153572 - 108
landgebruik - landgebruiksplanning - klimaatverandering - ontwikkelingslanden - adaptatie - mali - brazilië - duurzame landbouw - duurzaam bodemgebruik - land use - land use planning - climatic change - developing countries - adaptation - mali - brazil - sustainable agriculture - sustainable land use
Long-term management of Striga hermonthica: strategy evaluation with a spatio-temporal population model
Mourik, T.A. van; Bianchi, F.J.J.A. ; Werf, W. van der; Stomph, T.J. - \ 2008
Weed Research 48 (2008)4. - ISSN 0043-1737 - p. 329 - 339.
control technologies - northern nigeria - weed - scrophulariaceae - dynamics - mali - constraints - farmers - seeds - yield
The parasitic weed Striga hermonthica poses a serious threat to cereal production in sub-Saharan Africa. Striga hermonthica seedbanks are long-lived; therefore, long-term effects of control strategies on the seedbank only emerge after several years. We developed a spatially explicit, stochastic model to study the effectiveness of control strategies in preventing invasion of S. hermonthica into previously uninfested fields and in reducing established infestations. Spatial expansion of S. hermonthica and decrease in millet yield in a field was slower, on average, when stochasticity of attachment of seedlings to the host was included and compared to the deterministic model. The spatial patterns of emerged S. hermonthica plants 4¿7 years after point inoculation (e.g. seeds in a dung patch) in the spatial-stochastic model resembled the distribution typically observed in farmers' fields. Sensitivity analysis showed that only three out of eight life cycle parameters were of minor importance for seedbank dynamics and millet yield. Weeding and intercropping millet with sesame or cowpea reduced the seedbank in the long term, but rotations of millet with trap crops did not. High seedbank replenishment during years of millet monoculture was not sufficiently offset by seedbank depletion in years of trap crop cultivation. Insight from simulations can be employed in a participatory learning context with farmers to have an impact on S. hermonthica control in practice
Aeolian and fluviolacustrine landforms and prehistoric human occupation on a tectonically influenced floodplain margin, the Méma, central Mali
Makaske, B. ; Vries, E. de; Tainter, J.A. ; McIntosh, R.J. - \ 2007
Netherlands journal of geosciences 86 (2007)3. - ISSN 0016-7746 - p. 241 - 256.
eolische afzettingen - geomorfologie - geologische sedimentatie - rivieren - landschap - stroomvlakten - mali - aeolian deposits - geomorphology - geological sedimentation - rivers - landscape - floodplains - mali - niger - holocene - africa
The Méma is a semi-arid region in central Mali with a rich archaeological heritage indicating the former existence of large urban settlements. The archaeological data suggest millennia of occupation history of the Méma preceding relatively sudden abandonment by the 14th or 15th century AD. Population numbers have remained low since then and today's human presence in the area is sparse and largely mobile. Geomorphologically, the Méma can be characterized as a graben hosting various generations of aeolian landforms and (presently mostly dry) interdunal channels and lakes, linked to the neighbouring Inland Niger Delta floodplain. Given this setting, and the variability of the Sahelian climate, climatic contributions to the region's sudden abandonment are likely. A geomorphological survey of the region, and interpretation of the observed geomorphological record in terms of climatic history, aimed at providing a basis for understanding the intensive occupation and subsequent abandonment of the Méma. The results of this study underscore dramatic Holocene climatic variability, leading to the region's present geomorphological diversity, but also suggest that neotectonic movements constitute an important additional cause of regional desiccation. Both may have encouraged prehistoric people to abandon the Méma after a long period of occupation.
Striga hermonthica seed bank dynamics: process quantification and modelling
Mourik, T.A. van - \ 2007
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Martin Kropff, co-promotor(en): Tjeerd-Jan Stomph; Wopke van der Werf. - Wageningen : S.n. - ISBN 9789085046929 - 123
striga hermonthica - zaden - zaadbanken - populatiedynamica - onkruidbestrijding - parasitaire onkruiden - geïntegreerde bestrijding - systeemanalyse - simulatiemodellen - mali - striga hermonthica - seeds - seed banks - population dynamics - weed control - parasitic weeds - integrated control - systems analysis - simulation models - mali
Key words: Weed control, integrated management, parasitic weed, population, sorghum, millet. This thesis presents a study on the quantification of seed bank dynamics of the parasitic weed Striga hermonthica. The main objectives were to quantify transition rates between different stages of the life cycle, determine these under different conditions and control strategies and to develop and use a population model to project long-term seed bank dynamics. To this end, field experiments were performed in Mali, with sorghum in 2002, 2003 and 2004, and Niger, with millet in 2004. Three demographic processes behind Striga hermonthica seed bank replenishment were determined and quantified, namely (1) recruitment of Striga plants, (2) survival of emerged Striga plants to maturity and (3) fecundity (number of seeds produced per mature plant). Striga seed production was highly variable between years and sites, because of high variability in recruitment. Different control strategies reduced Striga at different stages in the life cycle. Intercropping the host cereal with non-host trap crops mainly reduced recruitment and survival while late weeding acted almost solely on survival to maturity. A critical re-assessment of the seed bag method used to determine Striga seed mortality in the soil, led to the conclusion that the method overestimates seed mortality. It was suggested to adapt the seed bag method in order to measure seed mortality more accurately. An adapted seed bag burial method and a soil sampling method were used simultaneously to determine processes and rates of seed bank depletion under bare soil, fallow and different crop covers. Results suggested that the main cause of seed bank depletion was germination of seeds. Both methods yielded similar seed bank depletion percentages and most germination was found in soil under host crops, sorghum and millet, followed by intercrops of a host and a non-host trap crop, non-host crops, fallow and bare soil. The information and insights obtained were used to develop a spatially explicit, stochastic Striga population model, with which long-term effects of crop systems and control was modelled. The spatial patterns of emerged Striga plants after point inoculation with stochasticity in the attachment stage of Striga resembled spatial distribution of Striga that is typically observed in farmers’ fields. Sensitivity analysis showed that only two slope parameters for the dispersal curve of seeds and seed death other than germination in response to millet roots were of minor importance for population growth. The model indicated that intercrops of host cereals and non-host crops showed higher potential to reduce the Striga seed bank than did rotations of these. The implications of the findings are discussed in the context of integrated Striga management and participatory research.
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