Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Step-change: how micro-entrepreneurs enter the upcoming middle-class market in developing and emerging countries
    Babah Daouda, Falylath - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): J.C.M. van Trijp, co-promotor(en): P.T.M. Ingenbleek. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436298 - 225
    marketing - developing countries - entrepreneurship - small businesses - medium sized businesses - economic development - economic situation - gender relations - gender - marketing - ontwikkelingslanden - ondernemerschap - kleine bedrijven - middelgrote bedrijven - economische ontwikkeling - economische situatie - man-vrouwrelaties - geslacht (gender)

    In developing and emerging (D&E) countries, the large number of poor people, most of whom are female, earn a living based on small-scale self-employed units established in subsistence marketplaces in the large informal sector. With the recent rise of middle-classes in developing and emerging countries, micro-entrepreneurs, can potentially lift themselves out of poverty by seizing the opportunities provided by the new upcoming middle-class (UMC) customers. To exploit these opportunities micro-entrepreneurs have to make a step-change away from their current customers in subsistence marketplaces to create higher value propositions for UMC customers. As a strategic marketing decision, the step-change inherently comes with challenges in developing resources and capabilities required to cater to UMC customers. It hosts potential conflicts between informal- and formal-sector stakeholders as it requires both new resources and continued access to existing resources. The findings suggest that step-change is a three-step process consisting of three market entries, into, “passing-by customers”, UMC, and business markets. The value propositions associated with these markets are also hierarchical in terms of quality, quantity, consistency, and complexity. Although the processes within the steps (motivations, opportunity recognition, assessing the need of resources, resource accumulation and (re-)integration, value proposition, and market entry) have a similar structure, their content differs between steps. The findings also indicate that gender issues vary by step. Whereas, in step 1 and 3 gender differences are less remarkable, they are more pronounced in step 2, where women mainly use their relationships with individuals to access resources whereas men use both individuals and groups to access resources. The thesis suggests that to initiate and sustain step-changes, both female and male entrepreneurs have to invest in capability-building.

    Navigating obstacles, opportunities and reforms: women’s lives and livelihoods in artisanal mining communities in eastern DRC
    Bashwira Nyenyezi, Marie Rose - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): D.J.M. Hilhorst, co-promotor(en): G. van der Haar; J.G.R. Cuvelier. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431996 - 228
    livelihoods - livelihood strategies - mining - women - women workers - gender - gender relations - empowerment - congo democratic republic - central africa - middelen van bestaan - strategieën voor levensonderhoud - mijnbouw - vrouwen - vrouwelijke werknemers - geslacht (gender) - man-vrouwrelaties - empowerment - democratische republiek kongo - centraal-afrika

    For more than two decades, the exploitation and trade of minerals has fuelled armed conflict and fostered a climate of insecurity that has led to the deaths of thousands of people in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) (Katanga, Ituri, Maniema, North and South Kivu). This has been seen as a consequence of prolonged socioeconomic and political instability since the late 1980s and 1990s, when a civil war led to the collapse of the Zairian state and there were civil wars in neighbouring countries.

    As a result of this situation, many armed groups prospered in this region. Mineral exploitation, especially of tin, tantalum, tungsten and gold, formed an incentive for these groups to stay in the strategic areas of the territory (e.g. mining areas and those on the main transport routes) and to continue the fighting. The diggers and the local populations were the first victims of conflict over the control of the natural resources that directly or indirectly support the war. These people have been subjected to permanent violence and illegal taxation. Massacres, kidnappings, looting, forced labour and insecurity have been part of their everyday lives. Violence was primarily directed at those involved in the supply chain—from extraction to trading minerals outside the mining sites. In the eastern provinces of DRC, transporters, traders and diggers, as well as women and children attached to auxiliary work, such as crushing or washing the minerals, were taxed and ransomed under threats and subjected to the use of violence.

    Faced with this critical situation in DRC, the international community did not remain silent. A growing movement for greater accountability of multinational companies regarding human rights and greater transparency of supply chains of minerals exploited in DRC has emerged and become a reality in the global market. From simple voluntary initiatives to international norms, these approaches are based on the same principle: due diligence applied to ‘conflict minerals’.

    When conflict in DRC is discussed, two things seem to stand out systematically. First, there is the ‘resource curse’, referring to the impoverishment of local populations living in mining zones, corruption and poor governance. Second is the discussion of ‘sexual violence as a weapon of war’ against women. Little is said about the women who work at artisanal mining sites, except to draw a simplistic portrait of passive victims. The truth is that the mining community is far more complex than what has been pictured, and the high-risk mining sector is sometimes considered a source of opportunity for certain women.

    Indeed, in DRC, it is estimated that the artisanal mining sector accounts for 90% of the national production and directly or indirectly furnishes the livelihoods of almost 20% of the population, including many women. Traditionally, in several local cultures in DRC, women are not allowed to enter the mines. Instead, they are assigned to secondary tasks in the processing phase of mineral exploitation: transporting, crushing, washing and reprocessing. Some women sell alcoholic beverages or other goods, and others are engaged in prostitution.

    This thesis focuses on women and mining. Instead of viewing women at the mining sites as victims, the study took an actor-oriented perspective. This starts from the idea that all women at the mining sites have agency and are creating room for manoeuvre to overcome the difficult situations they face in the world of mining. However, there are large disparities in the room for manoeuvre available to different women; some women have very few options, whereas others can diversify and expand their opportunities.

    Taking this approach, the study sought to answer the main research question: How do differentially positioned women navigate and negotiate the transformations of artisanal mining in the context of mining reforms in eastern DRC?

    The research took place from 2013 to 2014, partly in the province of South Kivu (Nyabibwe and Kamituga) and partly in North Katanga, in the current province of Tanganyika (Kisengo and Manono). Two mining sites were chosen in each area, either because they were pilot sites for implementation of the reform initiatives (Nyabibwe and Kisengo) or because of large numbers of women working as miners (Kamituga and Manono).

    This research is part of the ‘Down to earth: Governance dynamics and social change in artisanal and small-scale mining in DRC’ research programme. This programme aims to understand the negotiated outcomes of the implementation of conflict mineral policy in the eastern Congolese artisanal mining sector on three important topics: gender, livelihoods and governance. This thesis project addressed the first aspect in particular and aimed to contribute to the debate on mining reforms from a gender perspective.

    Chapter 1 starts with a general introduction to the research objectives, questions and methods. It describes the process through which the studied mining sites were selected based on either the presence of iTSCi initiatives or a great number of women working in the mineral supply chain. This research has essentially relied on qualitative methods, such as interviews, focus groups, life histories and observation. This chapter also describes some of the personal experiences during the fieldwork period.

    Chapter 2, which was jointly written with J. Cuvelier, D. Hilhorst and G. Van der Haar, introduces the debate around the conflict-related discourse on women’s integration in the mining sector. We examined the rise in international-level attention from international NGOs regarding international norms and the ban of ‘conflict minerals’ exploited in DRC. The resulting reforms, which were intended to improve women’s lives, were observed to also ultimately have negative side effects. The prohibition of pregnant women from the mines was generalised to all women, and access to the mining economy become a matter of negotiation for women. In the same vein, taking the particular case of Nyabibwe, women working as intermediaries between traders and diggers, although their work was an illegal practice in the government’s view (especially because of traceability issues), managed to negotiate recognition for their activities by creating their own organisation and forming political alliances. The thesis sheds light on the consequence of protectionist measures on women in mining and lays the groundwork for the following chapters, which further explore the research problem.

    Chapter 3, jointly written with G. Van der Haar, introduces the world of women in the mining areas by presenting reasons that lead women to move to and install themselves in mining centres. The analysis examines push and pull factors and also considers the concept of social navigation. The findings demonstrate that there are multiple, interrelated reasons to migrate to and to install oneself in the mining areas. Push and pull factors have merged over time and resulted in complex motives. This chapter adds to the understanding of how women create new sources of revenue and seek, with varying levels of success, to mitigate situations of vulnerability.

    In Chapter 4, I analyse the activities that women perform in the mining areas in more depth and describe what differentiates these women. The chapter begins with a descriptive analysis of the activities directly and indirectly related to mineral exploitation, together with a description of prostitution in the mining areas. The study identified social capital, financial assets and credit, and livelihood diversification among the factors that may differentiate these women. The findings also show that the reform process itself is a factor of differentiation, because it creates unbalanced power relations between those who are able to afford an identification card (a requirement of the formalisation process) and those who are not. The chapter concludes that, although many scholars have argued that women are working in the dire situation of perilous, exploitative and marginalised conditions, some women gain power positions and manage to save money and invest in other activities. Through their social networks, some women are able to gain access to the mining economy and improve their situation.

    In Chapter 5, jointly written with J. Cuvelier, we explore how, as is the case for men, there are also elites among women. These elites can be considered ‘big women’. Their power is based on either customary or official authority. With the implementation of the reform initiatives, the importance of official authority increases, to the detriment of customary authority. Based on the case of Kisengo and, in particular, on two female elites—one based on customary and the other on official power—we analyse how elite women negotiate and maintain power. Especially interesting for this study was how both ‘big women’ took advantage of their privileged access to the public authorities to negotiate informal arrangements for a group of women working in the coltan supply chain, allowing their clients (followers) to circumvent certain restrictive regulations concerning women’s access to mining activities. These elite women managed to control access to labour opportunities for women in the local mining economy.

    Chapter 6, jointly written with D. Hilhorst, explains that, following the developments of the reform initiatives, there was no longer only one discourse (conflict-related) to be taken into account when analysing the problem of women’s access to the mining economy. At international level, there is also a more inclusive discourse (gender mainstreaming). This coexists with the local ideology based on culture, in which women are marginalised and discriminated against. The civil servants who must implement the law regarding the integration of women in mining activities must face the coexistence of these different ideologies, which are sometimes contradictory. This has direct consequences for women’s access to the mining economy, although some women do create room for manoeuvre by forming alliances with civil servants.

    Concluding this thesis, Chapter 7 responds to the concerns raised in the introduction. Starting from the concept of agency, and taking an actor-oriented approach, the thesis concludes with three key points about how the reform initiatives affect the positions of woman: 1) The research has demonstrated that the socio political situation in the DRC has given rise to different types of gender discourses at international level which in addition to local culture and believe have impacted on the access of women to the mineral exploitation. 2) The research discovered that women in mining have different needs and different ways of dealing with their situations: they are agents who make decisions based on either strategic opportunity or survival.3). Finally, the research demonstrated that the reform process is likely to increase particular forms of marginalisation in the mining labour regimes. They may also allow for the creation of power dynamics based on new social networks that discriminate against those who were already vulnerable. Nevertheless, the research witnesses cases of women, who have benefited from the presence of the reform initiatives to improve their conditions and create more opportunities.

    Women’s participation in tourism in Zanzibar : an enactment perspective
    Maliva, Nelly Samson - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Rene van der Duim, co-promotor(en): Karin Peters. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579231 - 206
    tourism - zanzibar - participation - women - emancipation of women - labour - income - entrepreneurship - women workers - family life - society - tourist industry - swahili - standards - social values - gender relations - toerisme - zanzibar - participatie - vrouwen - vrouwenemancipatie - arbeid (werk) - inkomen - ondernemerschap - vrouwelijke werknemers - gezinsleven - samenleving - toeristenindustrie - swahili - normen - sociale waarden - man-vrouwrelaties

    To shed more light on the position of women in tourism, in this thesis I examined the ways women in Zanzibar have incorporated working in tourism in their daily lives by comparing those who work in tourism as entrepreneurs with employees, working in hotels and restaurants. Conceptually my thesis is framed within Weick’s theory of enactment, with special focus on the concept of sensemaking. I used this particular framework to understand how women either reinforce or resist gendered identities by constantly ‘enacting’ their environments. My research showed that the position of women in Zanzibar is highly influenced by religion, marital status and level of education. However, since women make sense of the environment in different ways, perceive different opportunities and constraints, and on the basis of these make different choices, I recommended that programmes customised according to the differences among women should be developed. Second, I argued that these tailor-made programmes should focus on four interventions: education and training, working conditions, self-organisation and microcredit.

    Behind the veil of agricultural modernization : gendered dynamics of rural change in the Saïss, Morocco
    Bossenbroek, L. - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Jandouwe van der Ploeg; Margreet Zwarteveen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578982 - 171
    agricultural development - modernization - gender relations - women - social change - rural areas - family farms - morocco - north africa - landbouwontwikkeling - modernisering - man-vrouwrelaties - vrouwen - sociale verandering - platteland - familiebedrijven, landbouw - marokko - noord-afrika

    The Moroccan countryside is marked by rapidly changing rural realities. The Moroccan government frames and promotes these changes as linear development towards modernity and progress for all thereby only focusing on the experiences of some audacious men – ‘entrepreneurs’ and ‘modernizing farmers’. The aim of the study is to unveil Morocco’s agricultural modernization plan by illustrating how agrarian processes in the agricultural plain of the Saïss are not a logical, self-evident or smooth transition to a higher stage of development or modernity. They are a form of globalizing capitalist development which is messy and contradictory, and which is marked by, and re-produces existing gender social hierarchies. By putting the experiences that often “fall away” from agrarian analysis at the heart of my study I am to explore how gender and social differences come to matter in process of agrarian change and are intimately linked.

    Inspiring Women at WUR
    Ris, Karien - \ 2016
    Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research centre - ISBN 9789462578128 - 96
    gender relations - gender - women - emancipation of women - female equality - netherlands - universities - gelderland - man-vrouwrelaties - geslacht (gender) - vrouwen - vrouwenemancipatie - gelijke behandeling van de vrouw - nederland - universiteiten - gelderland
    Le mouvement des femmes au Sud-Kivu, République démocratique du Congo : Une analyse de la société civile
    Hilhorst, Thea ; Bashwira Nyenyezi, M.R. - \ 2016
    Wageningen : Wageningen University, Wageningen UR (Publication occasionelle 11) - 79
    women - woman and society - organizations - gender relations - grassroots organizations - civil society - congo democratic republic - east africa - vrouwen - vrouw en samenleving - organisaties - man-vrouwrelaties - grassroots organisaties - maatschappelijk middenveld - democratische republiek kongo - oost-afrika
    The report is the result of a research among women's organisations in the civil society of South-Kivu.
    Could nutrition sensitive cocoa value chains be introduced in Ghana? Report of a brief study that identifies opportunities and bottlenecks
    Vries, K. de - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report CDI / Wageningen UR, Centre for Development Innovation 15-105) - 22
    food consumption - households - gender relations - women - cocoa - undernutrition - nutrition - ghana - africa - west africa - voedselconsumptie - huishoudens - man-vrouwrelaties - vrouwen - cacao - ondervoeding - voeding - ghana - afrika - west-afrika
    This study looks at whether introducing nutrition sensitive cocoa value chains in Ghana is feasible and recommends how this could be done. After establishing the cocoa farming and nutrition context in Ghana, the study zooms in on one cocoa producing sub-district to collect detailed data in order to provide recommendations.
    Everyday social dynamics and cultural drivers of women's experiences with HIV/AIDS : voices from Buhaya, Tanzania
    Foster Githinji, V.E. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Paul Richards, co-promotor(en): Todd Crane; Harro Maat. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462575806 - 124
    gezondheidszorg - humane immunodeficiëntievirussen - acquired immune deficiency syndrome - huishoudens - man-vrouwrelaties - vrouwen - voedselzekerheid - tanzania - oost-afrika - afrika - health care - human immunodeficiency viruses - acquired immune deficiency syndrome - households - gender relations - women - food security - tanzania - east africa - africa

    Everyday social dynamics and cultural drivers of women’s experiences with HIV/AIDS: voices from Buhaya, Tanzania is based on ethnographic research conducted in the village of Nsisha in northwestern Tanzania. Like most households in this region, Nsisha has been indirectly or directly affected by HIV/AIDS, meaning that either household members have been infected by HIV/AIDS, or households have absorbed children from their extended family and clan who have been orphaned by HIV/AIDS. In whole, the tiers of research and the in-depth questions asked and detailed answers recorded yield four different cross-sectional analyses of the ‘ecology’ of poverty and HIV/AIDS in Buhaya: (1) one which cuts across social stratification within the community, arguing who has more social capital and how this affects their vulnerability; (2) a second which focuses primarily on food and agricultural issues, and more specifically – bananas; (3) a third cross sectional category which centers on climate factors; (4) and a fourth and final category for this thesis which cuts across age categories and focuses on the social variation of widowhood.

    Aspirations and everyday life of single migrant women in Ghana
    Tufuor, T. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Anke Niehof, co-promotor(en): Hilje van der Horst; Chizu Sato. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462575578 - 187
    migratie - rurale migratie - ruraal-urbane migratie - platteland - stedelijke gebieden - vrouwen - man-vrouwrelaties - samenleving - gezinsstructuur - ghana - west-afrika - migration - rural rural migration - rural urban migration - rural areas - urban areas - women - gender relations - society - family structure - ghana - west africa

    Female labour migrants in West Africa including Ghana have been widely perceived as followers of male relatives. Since the late 1990s, the increasing movement of young women to cities in the region has drawn attention to this phenomenon and this study discovered females as actors in the migration process. Women have been moving from the rural North to the urban South, especially to Accra, to live in the city’s slums. Their migrations are not associational; these journeys are now independently pursued by women with aspirations to realise their ideals of a better life. Female migrations make up a growing share of migrant labour streams within Ghana. Among the migrants who arrive in Accra every day there is an increasing number of single young women as well as divorced women and neglected as wives from the North of Ghana. Economic explanations do not fully account for such moves, because men and women perform different productive and reproductive roles within the northern households. The varying degrees of gender and intra-household inequality and the women’s anticipation of life changes after migration spur the motivations and aspirations behind the journeys.

    This study on single migrant women (SMW) was conducted in two sites. The first site was in four districts in the Northern Region with its capital Tamale. The Dagomba are the pre­dominant ethnic group here. They practise subsistence farming and most of them are Muslims. The second study site was the Old Fadama (OF) market in Accra. By tracking the migrant women from the North to OF, the study connected the spaces of area of origin and area of destination in the migration process. A mixed-methods approach was applied in data collection, combining qualitative methods such as focus group discussion, case study and life history with a survey in the OF market.

    While in the past the restrictions on women’s sexuality and autonomy prevented women from migrating alone, now northern households provide an incentive for young women to migrate. The women cited a gain in autonomy and freedom as the most important motivation for their move. In the household of their fathers or future husbands in the North, their autonomy is constrained. However, through their earnings in Accra, the women prepare themselves for an expensive religious marriage ceremony, invest in housing or education and also buy modern goods. Young migrant women from the rural Dagomba communities primarily engage in accumulating goods for their dowry, whereas older women accumulate capital for investment in their children’s education. The older women who have no plans anymore of returning to the North to marry, especially those who are successful in Accra and have achieved the status of ‘market mummies’, seek enjoyment in the present but also use their wealth to secure construction of rooms of their own in the North. The women save money, assemble housewares and send remittances with their own independent income.

    In Accra, most young women engage in petty trading. In the OF market in Accra these single migrant women from the North generate livelihoods through the adoption of both market and non-market based strategies by extending and prioritising moral obligations to community members beyond their immediate households, instead of just focusing on maximisation of profits. Communities of old and young market women have built a ‘moral community economy’ through, among others, engaging in reciprocal labour, gift giving, and childcare and food sharing. This contributes positively to household food security and social well-being among the market women and migrant settlers in the OF community. SMW’s livelihood generation is sustained through social relations among women, in which also age, ethnicity and regional background play crucial roles. SMW give support to and receive benefits from the community through moral obligations and ethnic commitment. The analysis of these strategies contributes to the understanding of the intersections of household, livelihood strategies, gender and markets in urban settings.

    In Accra, these women not only need to find income earning activities, they also have to reinvent themselves as consumers because of the abundant and varied consumption options in Accra as compared to the North. Through consumption of food, hairdos and leisure activities, they shape their new urban identities. However, through consumption they also try to secure the desired next phase in their life course. Despite earning very modest amounts of money with activities such as hawking or food vending, SMW save for their future and adapt their consumption to enable such savings. They save in money and in kind, buying items to set up their own hearths in the North for the preparation of meals, an iconic married woman’s activity, and to be able to enter a preferred, i.e. religious, marriage. They also spend money on dressing, styling their hairdos and looking good in order to attract suitable marriage candidates. Alternatively, the successful older women in the market place invest in conspicuous consumption to enact their informal position of ‘market mummies’, women who are well established and suitable mentors to more recent arrivals. The women shape their own life courses through consumption. The consumption practices SMW engage in are crucial for understanding the dynamics of single migrant women’s agency.

    After migration, SMW are more likely to exert influence on the timing of their marriage and the choice of the partner. In the place of origin there are transformations of the gendered subjectivities women experience after having produced livelihoods away from home. The investigation of the reintegration experience of SMW who return to their place of origin revealed the everyday experience of returned migrant women within their households in rural northern Ghana. The study found the household to be an ‘arena of everyday life’; the word arena indicates dynamics and even struggle. These are visible in the provision for daily needs, and also in the income generating activities the women try to initiate to exercise their agency in generating livelihood. In this household arena, we recognized the gender dynamics around decision-making on livelihood generation as key to under­standing the reintegration experience of returned migrant women. The analysis drew on feminist geographers’ insights of gender as process situated in a specific place. Critical attention was paid to how gender and household are co-constituted, to shed light on the multiple and contradictory ways in which gender, livelihood, and household are constructed.

    Applying the lens of gender as situated process enabled capturing the significance of everyday micro transformations, resulting in a framework that wove together the domains of gender, household and livelihood. Contingent formations of intra-household dynamics revealed variations in the ways subjection and activation are enacted. The boundaries of women’s triple shifts (household work, farming, income generation) are not fixed but are constantly negotiated. On an everyday basis women have to juggle multiple subjectivities, such as being wives, daughters-in-law, mothers and petty commodity producers and traders. They do the work their husbands and senior women require them to do in order to secure their marriage, which is considered a lifelong security in this specific context, but they try to set limits to this work.

    The general conclusion this study highlights is that the young women in the North successfully negotiate to realize their aspirations to migrate and, upon return, both subject themselves to the domestic and patriarchal order and contest it by using the means and skills they acquired to improve their bargaining position. This causes cracks in the prevailing order, which suggest the malleability of the patriarchal system. The observed processes underpin the relevance of conceptualising migration as an intrinsic factor in broader processes of development and social transformation.

    Institutional change and economic development : evidence from natural and artefactual field experiments in Ethiopia
    Melesse, M.B. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Erwin Bulte. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574137 - 193
    ontwikkelingseconomie - plattelandsontwikkeling - landbouwontwikkeling - experimenteel veldonderzoek - landbouwproductie - man-vrouwrelaties - landgebruik - land - ethiopië - oost-afrika - afrika - instellingen - development economics - rural development - agricultural development - field experimentation - agricultural production - gender relations - land use - land - ethiopia - east africa - africa - institutions

    Thesis title: Institutional Change and Economic Development: Evidence from Natural and Artefactual Field Experiments in Ethiopia

    Mequanint Biset Melesse


    Institutions are the essential underpinning of economic development. A large volume of empirical literature has documented conclusive evidence supporting this hypothesis. Yet, our knowledge on how to bring about institutional change and improvement is still quite imperfect. Moreover, putting in place good institutions that have undergirded the growth of the developed world has not always produced desired results in developing countries. This thesis studies the complex relationship between institutional change and economic development. Its primary focus is on the endogenous formation of institutions and outcomes of institutional changes on the quality and sustainability of other institutions and the dynamics of economic development. It employs randomized field experiments, propensity score matching and instrumental variables approaches to tackle the problem of causal inference. The results indicate that an effective institutional development requires a good knowledge of the interaction between formal and informal institutions and the complex dynamics that such interaction entails. Customary institutions are malleable. Local institutions condition the success and effects of formal institutional changes in important ways. Institutional change is a nonlinear, complex and non-ergodic process, where multiple intended and unintended outcomes are possible. Overall, the results indicate that formal and informal institutions interact out of entrenched corners with both constructive and deleterious repercussions for economic development.

    Decision making under the tree: gender perspectives on decentralization reforms in service delivery in rural Tanzania
    Masanyiwa, Z.S. - \ 2014
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Anke Niehof; Katrien Termeer. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461738998 - 195
    decentralisatie - overheidssector - dienstensector - plattelandsgemeenschappen - geslacht (gender) - man-vrouwrelaties - tanzania - afrika - decentralization - public sector - services - rural communities - gender - gender relations - tanzania - africa

    In recent decades, decentralization has been upheld by governments, donors and policy makers in many developing countries as a means of improving people’s participation and public services delivery. In 1996, the government of Tanzania embarked on major local government reforms reflecting the global trends and as part of the wider public sector reforms. The reforms aim at improving the access, quality and equitable delivery of public services through a policy of ‘decentralization by devolution’. Since then, many studies have examined the fiscal, administra­tive, legal and political aspects of the reforms. However, the gender dimensions of both the process and outcomes of the reforms have been less examined. In Tanzania, like in other sub-Saharan African countries, little is documented about decentrali­zation and gender, especially at the village level. This study, therefore, examines the impact of decentralization reforms on service delivery in rural Tanzania using a gender perspective.The study addresses the question of how decentralization affects the user-provider interactions and gender-sensitivity of water and health services in the rural villages. Specifically, it focuses on the institu­tional characte­ristics for decentralized service delivery, the impact of the reforms on service users’ participation in decision-making processes, on access to gender-sensitive water and health services, and on cooperation and trust at the village level.

    To investigate this, the study draws on governance theory and sociological theory, including an institutional, principal-agent, an actor and a gender perspective. In this study, gender is seen as a cross-cutting perspective taking in account the wider socio-cultural and political structures that influence the process and outcomes of decentralization in a specific context. The study is based on quantitative and qualitative data obtained at district, village and household levels in the districts of Kondoa and Kongwa in the Dodoma Region in Tanzania. The fieldwork consisted of three overlapping phases: an exploratory phase, house­hold survey and in-depth qualitative study. Mixed data collection methods were used because they enrich our understanding of the topic and contribute to the validity and reliability of findings. A house­hold survey was used to collect quantitative data, whereas semi-structured and unstruc­tured interviews, focus group discussions, observations, case studies and life histories were used to collect qualitative data. Overall, 513 respondents (236 men and 277 women) were involved in the study: 332 in the survey (115 men and 227 women), 69 in the focus group discussions (44 men and 25 women), 107 in the interviews (77 men and 30 women) and five women in life histories. In addition, review and analysis of available data at district and village levels provided secondary data to complement the primary data.

    The study found that the reforms have resulted in a number of institutional changes by restructuring the district and village councils, and by establishing service boards and commi­ttees at each administrative level or service delivery point. These changes have incre­ased local govern­ments’ autonomy to plan and imple­ment service delivery functions, and service users’ participation in planning and managing public services. However, the existing central-local relations limit local governments’ autonomy to fully exercise their decentralized mandates and to address local service delivery needs. Local govern­ments have limited financial and technical capacity, and the central government controls their functions through intergovernmental trans­fers, guidelines and national priorities. At the village level, conflicting roles and responsi­bi­lities of village councils and service committees limit the latter to fun­ction effectively. Thus, decent­ralized service delivery in Tanzania takes on different forms where the nature of sector is an important factor in the kind of institutional arrangements.

    It was revealed that decentralization reforms have created spaces for service users’ participation in planning and decision-making processes. Men and women participate in these spaces through attending meetings, contributing labour, cash or both, in construction of service infrastructures, membership in committees, speaking up and influencing decisions in meetings. The majority of women participate passively by attending meetings, consultation or through activity-specific spaces. Although the proportion of women in village councils and committees has increased because of the quota-based representation, local decision-making processes conti­nue to be largely male dominated. Women’s participation contributes to meeting practical gender needs, but to a lesser extent addresses their strategic gender needs because of the gende­red power rela­tions which have been largely untouched by the reforms. The main const­raints to effective women’s participation include patriarchy, household respo­nsibilities, compli­cated elec­tion proce­dures, lack of self-confidence and less experience in public affairs. Gender also inter­sects with religion, ethnicity, age and marital status, and may compound women’s disadva­ntaged position in local decision-making structures. While dece­nt­ralization is expected to address gender inequalities, instead it repro­duces them, because it does not address the socio-cultural barriers that inhibit women’s effec­tive participation in local structures.

    The study shows that the impact of reforms on water and health services delivery is mixed. Access to the services has improved for some users but decentralization has also led to marginalization of other users. The number of water and health services infrastructure has increased, thereby raising the service coverage. However, there is still inade­quate infrastructure to provide full service coverage, and the situation is more critical in the health sector because most villages do not have their own health facilities. Despite improvements in coverage, less has been achieved in other respects, such as adequate staffing and availability of drugs and other essential supplies. Comparatively, more users are satisfied with water services than with health services. For both services, there are overlaps and differences between the users’ and the gender perspectives. Men and women hold similar opinions on some aspects, but there are also marked differences. This confirms the fact that men and women are actually different users because they have different needs, and are positioned differently regarding their access to basic services. Understanding these simi­larities and differences is, thus, an important step in making basic services ‘gender-sensitive’.

    It was shown that the reforms have strengthened formal cooperation aimed at improving public services and the informal mechanisms of social networks and groups. Decentralization outcomes in terms of increased citizen’s participation in decision-making processes and improved services influence political trust, and also here gender relations proved to play an important role. There is a two-way interface between trust and decentra­lization reforms: trust enhances participation in local institutions and ‘good’ decentrali­zation outcomes can generate trust. Conversely, ‘bad’ decentralization outcomes decrease trust. The study further revealed that political trust is a multi-layered concept where citizens judge local leaders and service providers at different administrative levels differently. These levels are crucial in analysing political trust and the impact of gender on political trust at different levels.

    The general conclusion of this study is that the current decentralization reforms in Tanzania present both opportunities and challenges for increasing service users’ participation, cooperation and trust, addressing gender equality issues and, for improving service delivery. In order to improve the user-provider interactions and service delivery, a number of design and implementation issues should be addressed. At the national level, policy makers need to address the existing imbalance in central-local relations by redefining the relationship, functions and roles of central and local governments. District councils need to clarify the roles and responsibi­lities of service committees in relation to those of village councils, provide regular gender-sensitive training to service committees, and integrate local needs into district plans. Village leaders should consider holding meetings at times and in locations that are convenient for women, announce meetings and agenda in advance, and address village concerns adequately and transparently in the meeti­ngs. Actors at all levels need to explore effective strategies for transforming the socio-cultural norms that underlie women’s subordinate position in decision-making processes, and in their access to basic services.

    Feminization of agricultural production in rural China : a sociological analysis
    Meng, X. - \ 2014
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Jandouwe van der Ploeg, co-promotor(en): J. Ye; H. Wu. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461738158 - 178
    vrouwelijke arbeidskrachten - landbouwproductie - plattelandsvrouwen - familiebedrijven, landbouw - feminisme - sociologie - geslacht (gender) - man-vrouwrelaties - positie van de vrouw - vrouwenemancipatie - vrouwen - landbouw - plattelandsontwikkeling - china - female labour - agricultural production - rural women - family farms - feminism - sociology - gender - gender relations - woman's status - emancipation of women - women - agriculture - rural development - china
    Rural-urban migration of male labour force is an unstoppable process in China. Although some women also migrate to work in cities, most of these women return to the villages after marriage. They need to take care of the children and the family and to work on their smallholder farms. In general, women‟s labour participation in agriculture has increased due to the migration of the male labourers and they have become the main labour force in smallholder agriculture. This thesis is a sociological analysis on the impact of this change on the situation of these women and on smallholder agriculture from the women‟s perspective.
    Diverting the flow : gender equity and water in South Asia
    Zwarteveen, M.Z. ; Ahmed, S. ; Gautam, S.R. - \ 2012
    New Delhi : Zubaan - ISBN 9789381017203 - 615
    man-vrouwrelaties - vrouwen - geslacht (gender) - beschikbaar bodemwater - toegangsrecht - waterbeheer - zuid-azië - gender relations - women - gender - available water - right of access - water management - south asia
    Across the South Asian region, water determines livelihoods and in some cases even survival. However, water also creates exclusions. Access to water, and its social organization, are intimately tied up with power relations. This book provides an overview of gender, equity and water issues relevant to South Asia. The essays empirically illustrate and theoretically argue how gender intersects with other axes of social differences such as class, caste, ethnicity, age and religion to shape water access, use and management practices. Divided into six thematic sections, each of which starts with an introduction of relevant concepts, debates and theories, the book looks at laws and rights, policies, technologies and intervention strategies. In all, the book clearly shows how understanding, and changing the use, distribution and management of water is conditional upon understanding and accommodating gender relations.
    Behind the Scene : the enactments of human sexuality in Tehuantepec, Mexico
    Rodriguez, V. - \ 2011
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Leontine Visser, co-promotor(en): Gerard Verschoor. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085858072 - 324
    sociologie - ontwikkeling - ontwikkelingsstudies - seksueel gedrag - vrouwen - man-vrouwrelaties - oefening - voortplantingsgedrag - mexico - centraal-amerika - agressief gedrag - inheemse volkeren - gebruiken - sociology - development - development studies - sexual behaviour - women - gender relations - practice - reproductive behaviour - mexico - central america - aggressive behaviour - indigenous people - customs
    This work deals with human sexuality in Tehuantepec, Oaxaca, Mexico, based on the practices performed by the actors in their everyday lives. Here sexuality is not conceived of as a spontaneous or autonomous phenomenon, nor as something that is pre-existing or established, but as the result of complex practices that go beyond the human and the sexual, which are assembled by a set of actors; that is to say, by networks.
    The argument is based on the construction of case studies which account for the production of complexities in human sexuality in Tehuantepec. This community was selected because of the notoriety of its women, That belong to the Zapotec ethnic group, often considered to be dominant in the Isthmus.
    The purpose of the research was to look beyond the superficial appearance of the Isthmus and its people and to explore in depth the critical moments, achievements and concerns of those who contribute to the enactment of a distinct region and its society. No claim is made, then, to deprive generalizations of their veracity. Instead of focusing on particularities the work concentrates on specificities, or rather, the possible connections that are produced in the interactions between humans and the various elements by which they are surrounded.
    The study considers five themes commonly associated with human sexuality: beauty, gendered spatiality, sexual life, motherhood and intimate violence in Tehuantepec had been chosen as axis which articulate the practices and discourses of local actors. Through them, it is argued that sexuality does not form part of something abstract but something that is produced by the interactions that take place on daily life.
    Methodologically and conceptually, feminism (above all in its post-structuralism guise), the Actor Oriented Approach, and Actor Network Theory all supported this task. On certain occasions, these schools of thought allowed the identification of deterministic statements and on others the recognition of the binary oppositions or dualisms upon which many of the general perspectives, stereotypes and common positions related to the Isthmus are erected. However, it was Actor Network Theory which led me to non-conventional forms of approaching and understanding the complexity of the human and the social’.
    The introduction, or chapter one, presents the historical, economic and cultural processes, which often characterize the region. It becomes clear just how easy it is to fall prey to stereotyped images, as well as the importance of being able to see behind the foreground in order to observe the details, or the specific nature of these traditional landscapes.
    The second chapter provides the theoretical and methodological reflection which supports the recognition of the importance of the diverse, the voice of the actors and their connectivity with their surroundings. The chapter arrives at the assembly of associations and the production of complexities in which concepts such as networks, bodies and enactments become keys to the recognition of the assemblages related to human sexuality.
    The third chapter introduces the notion of ‘enacting beauty’ in order to suggest that the different Isthmus beauties are produced through a series of dynamic, heterogeneous, multiple and hybrid associations. It also proposes the consideration of Isthmus beauty as something that is malleable and transformable.
    The fourth chapter covers the polemical association of spatiality and gender. Here if a link between spatiality and gender is recognized, it is nonetheless considered unstable, impure and fluid, in correspondence with the dynamics that the actors themselves succeed in assembling in their daily lives. Hence, it is suggested that both categories repeatedly crosscut, interweave and overlap; something which is captured by the term ‘entangled boundaries’.
    The fifth chapter focuses on some of the possible connections between the Isthmus customs and the practices of the local actors with respect to sexual life. ‘Sexual bodies’ captures these multiple and dynamic connections where the biological, ethnic, cultural and social are neither omnipresent nor exclusive when human sexual life is enacted and re-enacted in Tehuantepec.
    The sixth chapter questions the tendency to associate motherhood with the woman, alongside another series of diverse determinisms. The cases explored illustrate how motherhood is a battlefield, in the sense that the actors must remain in constant action, often facing struggles in order to assemble, provide continuity or disconnect from maternal networks. It also touches on additional connections in which motherhood forms part of wider and complex networks.
    The seventh chapter considers another of the practices associated with human sexuality that actors confront in their everyday life in Tehuantepec: intimate violence. Here the notion of ‘counteracting intimate violence’ argues for a broader conception of this topic as a complex network. It also highlights actors’ actions in order to make clear that they are not passive victims but dynamic actors who enact other networks which counteract chains of intimate violence.
    The eighth chapter, or conclusion, covers the trajectory followed throughout the course of this research in order to make the production of complexities associated with human sexuality visible. It recognizes the necessary shift in reference points in order to move away from a focus on commonplaces. It also identifies human sexuality as a set of practices which can, in turn, be related to different themes and links, or, in other words, as the result of associations.

    Targeting married women in microfinance programmes: transforming or reinforcing gender inequalities? : evidence from Ethiopia
    Bekele, H. - \ 2010
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Henk Folmer, co-promotor(en): Bettina Bock. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085855309 - 234
    vrouwen - laag inkomen - armoede - financiën - krediet - man-vrouwrelaties - empowerment - marginale gebieden - ontwikkelingslanden - efficiëntie - ethiopië - microfinanciering - getrouwde personen - geslacht (gender) - gelijke behandeling van de vrouw - women - low income - poverty - finance - credit - gender relations - empowerment - less favoured areas - developing countries - efficiency - ethiopia - microfinance - married persons - gender - female equality
    With the expansion of microfinance programmes in the low-income countries, millions of poor women in these countries have been able to access microfinancial services, particularly microcredit and savings. The provision of microfinance services to women has been largely premised on the assumption that credit facilitates or expands women’s selfemployment opportunities, and consequently leads to their empowerment. In recent years, however, this proposition is under scrutiny and debate, as the available studies provide
    conflicting evidence. This study explores whether and how microfinance granted to married women affects the intra-household division of labour and decision-making power. It also investigates the effect of an HIV/AIDS infection on microfinancing results. The study compared the effects across two regions in Ethiopia in order to understand the role of local socio-cultural practices and economic structures. Simultaneously, the effects across two (regional) microfinancing institutions were compared, which differed in institutional regulations and strategies. The study took as its point of departure the bargaining theory approach of the household and the differentiation between cooperative and non-cooperative models, in order to examine how women’s access to microfinance services affected women’s bargaining power within the household. The study employed a (comparative) case study research strategy in order to understand the complexity of (structural, cultural and individual) factors shaping the outcomes of microfinance programmes with regard to gender relations. A mix of research methods and data collection techniques, including key informant interviews, in-depth interviews, a small-scale household survey, and focus group discussions were used to understand the resource allocation and bargaining dynamics within the household. The study focused on the Amhara Credit and Saving Institution (ACSI) and the Omo Microfinance Institution (OMFI), which were operational in the Amhara and Southern Nations and Nationalities People’s (SNNPR) regions during 2004, respectively. Both of them worked with female clients in the rural areas and had five or more years of experience in microfinancing. In the Amhara region, the study was conducted in the Mangudo Kebele, located in the Moretena Juru district, of the North Shoa zone, while in the SNNPR, the study was conducted in the Dirama, Wita and Wolenshu Kebeles, located in the Meskan district of the Gurage zone. The case study’s locations were selected because of their distinctiveness in socio-cultural practices and economic structures, and because of accessibility. The study aimed to answer the following research questions.
    Environmental degradation and intra-household welfare: the case of the Tanzanian rural South Pare Highlands
    Dimoso, R.L. - \ 2009
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Gerrit Antonides. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085852889 - 182
    milieuafbraak - allocatie van arbeid - welvaartseconomie - huishoudonderzoeken - huishoudens - platteland - landbouwhuishoudens - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - man-vrouwrelaties - vrouwen - tanzania - gedrag van huishoudens - environmental degradation - labour allocation - welfare economics - household surveys - households - rural areas - agricultural households - natural resources - gender relations - women - tanzania - household behaviour
    Key words: Environmental degradation, intrahousehold labour allocation, intrahousehold welfare.
    Rural south Pare highlands in Tanzania experience a deteriorating environmental situation. Of particular importance is the disappearance of forests and woodlands. The consequence are declining amounts and reliability of rainfall, declining amounts of water levels and loss of biodiversity. Deterioration of environmental resources increases costs of collecting environmental products, which in many respects have no feasible close substitutes. One of the major components of the increased costs is labour time allocated by household members to collecting environmental products and/or grazing activities.
    This study presents an empirical investigation of the impact of this reallocation of intra-household labour resources on livelihood for different members of a household. We used the cross-sectional data. To analyse how variations in the environmental degradation affect intra-household labour allocation, three types of areas are distinguished: severely-degraded, medium-degraded, and non-degraded environments.
    Our findings show that (1) the environmental products collection and/or grazing activities are gender biased with husbands specializing in grazing while wives and children working mainly on fetching water and fuel wood; and that the labour time allocation is significantly influenced by environmental condition; (2) environmental degradation is limiting the production and consumption potentials in the area and that a limited adoption of agricultural modernization further aggravates this problem; (3) factors like school crowdedness, illness, bad weather, poor school quality, and school absenteeism due to street vending contribute much negatively to the probability of primary school attainment for a child apart from the environmental degradation situation; and that (4) subjective welfare and well-being of the household members are affected by the quality of the environment.
    This study contributes to the understanding of the situation and setting proper measures towards solving the problems of sustainable development, poverty alleviation, environmental policy, human capital formation in south Pare.

    Irrigation-based livelihood challenges and opportunities : a gendered technology of irrigation development intervention in the Lower Moshi irrigation scheme Tanzania
    Kissawike, K. - \ 2008
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Paul Richards; Linden Vincent, co-promotor(en): Margreet Zwarteveen. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085049135 - 235
    ontwikkeling - irrigatie - irrigatiesystemen - watertoewijzing - modernisering - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - man-vrouwrelaties - landbouw met irrigatie - waterbeheer - participatie - tanzania - afrika ten zuiden van de sahara - geslacht (gender) - schaarste - middelen van bestaan - development - irrigation - irrigation systems - water allocation - modernization - sustainability - gender relations - irrigated farming - water management - participation - tanzania - africa south of sahara - gender - scarcity - livelihoods
    This thesis is a study of a modernised irrigation scheme in Tanzania. It aims to
    understand how irrigation and agricultural technologies have interacted with local
    society to transform production, paying particular attention to gender relations and
    changes for women farmers. The thesis seeks to contribute to a better understanding
    of what kinds of livelihood and production changes (negative and positive)
    eventuate under ‘modernised’ irrigation systems, and how these contrast with
    conditions under the older local irrigation systems the scheme has replaced. The
    central research question of the thesis is to understand how irrigation modernisation
    in the 1980s shaped, and has been reshaped by, the livelihood needs and options of
    water users. The thesis analyses the initiatives and interactions of agents at various
    levels – i.e. international, national, community and farm levels – as they attempt to
    make use of and adjust to the technical and operational demands of a modern
    scheme. In methodological terms, this thesis is guided by a technographic approach,
    as advocated by Richards (2002), Richards (2007) and Bolding (2005). A
    technographic approach ‘focuses on the complex interactions between social groups,
    collective representations, innovation processes, technical artifacts and nature’. In
    this case technography is applied to a socio-technical institution, the Lower Moshi
    irrigation scheme, located in semi-arid lowland terrain at the foot of Mount
    The research work took place over three seasons. In addition to careful
    examination of project documentation, and interviews with project staff, the study
    also undertook a randomised sample survey of 300 farmers in the four main project
    area settlements, and made detailed observational studies across the agricultural
    cycle of a smaller number of farm holdings owned and operated by both men and
    women farmers. Since only about 30% of farmers within the scheme actually
    cultivate irrigated plots sampling was designed to ensure proper representation of
    non-irrigating farmers, since the activities of this poorer (non-irrigating) group is
    crucial to the understanding the socio-economic dynamics of the scheme more
    generally. Finally, some attention was paid to off-scheme communities. Many of the
    technical problems experienced by the scheme (notably, the failure to distribute
    water in volumes originally planned) relate to concurrent socio-economic and
    technical changes taking place in up-stream communities, in particular, and an
    account is offered of some aspects of these off-project agro-technical changes, and of
    the disputes that then arose over water rights.
    The thesis first offers an historical summary of irrigation in the Kilimanjaro
    region, based on secondary sources and project documentation. In this part of Africa
    the mountains are wet and forested, and the surrounding plains are dry. The Chagga
    people (Wa-Chagga) were densely populated on the mountain, farming the wetter
    slopes intensively in the 19th century, and it was an aim of colonial government to
    resettle “excess” population in the plains. Some development of irrigation took place
    from the 1920s to encourage this relocation of population, and a diverse population
    (mainly but not exclusively Wa-Chagga) settled in Lower Moshi district to farm,
    assisted by possibilities of irrigation. After independence, the Japanese government
    offered funding and technical assistance to the Tanzanian government to modernise,
    re-develop and extend irrigation in Lower Moshi, and a new scheme came into
    operation in the 1980s, with a strong emphasis on intensive rice production, using
    high-yielding (Green Revolution) semi-dwarf varieties such as IR54.
    22 7
    The central finding from this part of the analysis (covered mainly in Chapters 1
    and 2) is that the planners did not sufficiently take into account that irrigation in
    Lower Moshi and among Wa-Chagga and neighboring populations was no new
    thing. Many of the technical and social problems the scheme subsequently faced can
    be traced to the fact that farmers were already familiar with irrigation techniques and
    had developed traditional institutional arrangements to handle water rights and
    labour burdens. Farmers outside the scheme undercut it by being quick to adopt
    some project innovations, and to adapt their own practices accordingly. They also
    diverted water from flowing into the scheme, arguing that access to water from the
    mountain was an established traditional right under British rule, and still respected
    by the independent government of Tanzania. The scheme thus failed to develop the
    area originally intended, and is chronically short of water, undermining the
    confidence of farmers within the scheme in its management procedures. A further
    important finding is that women were largely excluded from the associations
    involved in traditional irrigation water management (apart from providing labour on
    specific occasions) and gendered notions of task and property rooted in local
    tradition have continued to influence land inheritance and water rights within the
    modern scheme.
    Actual as opposed to planned workings of the scheme are addressed in Chapters 3
    and 4, and an account is offered of the introduction of new agricultural technology.
    Impacts or changes in relation to crop production, hired employment and other
    production strategies, and income distribution among population are discussed,
    along with impact on livelihoods. The scheme has had a highly layered impact.
    Those able to secure plots with reliable water do, indeed, make money out of
    intensive rice production, but the percentage is rather small, since the project is not
    able to irrigate reliably, or at all, many areas within the scheme. Farmers in tail end
    areas with unreliable water, or able only to farm land the project has never succeeded
    to irrigate, lack the capacity to influence management to change water distribution in
    their favour. The scheme lacks capital to invest in technical solutions to inadequate
    water distribution, but in any case the major problem lies in reduced flow, in part a
    product of up-stream diversions by non-scheme farmers. The project management
    has failed to assert its legal water right, since the government agrees that traditional
    rights also apply. Scheme management and maintenance suffer as a result. Farmers
    without water do not see why they should help maintain the scheme or pay dues.
    Some solve their problems by becoming “free riders” and acquire water by illegal
    means; others focus on (less profitable) dry-land crops. A range of these conflicts is
    examined, including contradictions between different classes of scheme settlers, e.g.
    wealthier farmers with better access to the scarce water and poorer farmers
    (including women plot owners) found in tail end areas. A complex interaction of
    modern property regimes and customary values in the modernisation process is
    reported. Irrigation project managements in Africa need to take account of these legal
    and cultural complexities.
    Intra-household gender relations are a specific focus in the later chapters of the
    thesis (5-6). Women play a crucial role in the agricultural labour process, both in
    irrigated and non-irrigated agriculture. They are (by custom) the major providers of
    household food, while husbands focus on earning cash for other household expenses.
    The introduction of a cash crop (rice) complicates this division of responsibility.
    Women continue to provide labour on irrigated plots, but men assume the main
    decision making role. A small number of women has acquired rights to irrigated land
    on the scheme (through purchase or inheritance) but a majority are in the position of
    farm workers or tenants. Irrigated rice increases women's labour burdens and
    responsibilities, since this is a cash crop and they still have to work on household
    food crops as well. The scheme has continued to show many of the problems of
    public irrigation development in Africa since the 1970s discussed in the introduction.
    However, the situation in Lower Moshi is not as reported for parts of (West) Africa,
    where women have been supplanted by men in (modernised) rice farming. Here
    women never enjoyed rights over irrigated crops. What has happened on the scheme
    is that their burdens have intensified. In cases where women have no husbands they
    tend to be among the poorest farmers residing within the scheme, with little reliable
    water or farming only rain-fed crops. In short, the scheme has widened the gap
    between rich and poor, and intensified existing gender inequalities, in regard to
    ownership of plots, agricultural output, division of labour, and coping strategies. The
    thesis also shows that there are strong gender differentials in water rights and in
    participation in water management. Alienation of women from management and
    repair undermines scheme renewal. Irrigation management must develop a stronger
    focus on gender issues to overcome challenges of inequitable water access, if it is to
    provide any wider opportunities for better livelihoods, food security and nutrition in the area.
    Living with AIDS in Uganda : impacts on banana-farming households in two districts
    Karuhanga, M. - \ 2008
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Anke Niehof, co-promotor(en): Paul Hebinck. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085048176 - 399
    acquired immune deficiency syndrome - humaan immunodeficiëntievirussen - ziektepreventie - man-vrouwrelaties - sociale economie - landbouwsector - landbouwsituatie - economische situatie - voedselzekerheid - armoede - landbouwhuishoudens - boerengezinnen - bananen - platteland - uganda - middelen van bestaan - geslacht (gender) - acquired immune deficiency syndrome - human immunodeficiency viruses - disease prevention - gender relations - socioeconomics - agricultural sector - agricultural situation - economic situation - food security - poverty - agricultural households - farm families - bananas - rural areas - uganda - livelihoods - gender
    The research was carried out among banana-farming households in the districts of Masaka and Kabarole in Uganda. A gendered livelihood approach was used. The research focused on the identification of critical factors that need to be taken into consideration in the development of relevant policies for HIV/AIDS-affected agriculture-based households or those that are at risk. The book shows that HIV/AIDS causes significant negative effects on the lives of those affected and their resources due to HIV/AIDS-related labour loss and asset-eroding effects and disinvestment in production and child education. While in the overwhelming majority of the affected cases the effects of AIDS are negative and lead to increased impoverishment and vulnerability, for some households HIV/AIDS-related effects are manageable. It is concluded that a household’s socio-economic status and demographic characteristics influence the magnitude of HIV/AIDS-related impacts experienced and capacity to cope. The study also highlights some historically specific social practices, policies, and ideologies that continue to maintain or reproduce distinct forms of inequality, with certain social groups being marginalized and others being privileged. Unless these are redressed, they will continue to aggravate people’s vulnerability regardless of the type of shock that they are exposed to or experience.

    Tourism and Gender; embodiment, sensuality and experience
    Pritchard, A. ; Morgan, N. ; Ateljevic, I. ; Harris, C. - \ 2007
    Oxfordshire : CABI - ISBN 9781845932718 - 318
    internationaal toerisme - toerisme - man-vrouwrelaties - sociologie - positie van de vrouw - seksueel gedrag - vrouwtjes - mannetjes - menselijk gedrag - geslacht (gender) - international tourism - tourism - gender relations - sociology - woman's status - sexual behaviour - females - males - human behaviour - gender
    Gender Regimes, Citizen Participation and Rural Restructuring
    Asztalos Morell, I. ; Bock, B.B. - \ 2007
    Oxford : Elsevier (Research in rural sociology and development vol. 13) - ISBN 9780762314201 - 385
    sociale participatie - man-vrouwrelaties - mannen - vrouwen - positie van de vrouw - landbouw - sociale economie - recht - instellingen - plattelandssamenleving - plattelandsgemeenschappen - plattelandsontwikkeling - europa - australië - india - geslacht (gender) - vrouw en samenleving - burgers - social participation - gender relations - men - women - woman's status - agriculture - socioeconomics - law - institutions - rural society - rural communities - rural development - europe - australia - india - gender - woman and society - citizens
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