Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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A physiologically based kinetic model for the prediction of plasma cholesterol concentrations in mice and man
Pas, N. van de - \ 2011
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Ivonne Rietjens; Ruud Woutersen, co-promotor(en): A.A. de Graaf. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789461731258
cholesterolmetabolisme - klaring (plasma) - dierfysiologie - mannen - cholesterol metabolism - clearance - animal physiology - men

An increased plasma cholesterol concentration is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. However, individuals vary largely in their response to cholesterol lowering drugs and 40% of them, do not reach their cholesterol-lowering target. Development of novel therapies, for example combinations of existing drugs, can be accelerated by more mechanistic understanding of cholesterol metabolism. This understanding can be improved using computational models.

This thesis describes the development, validation, and analysis of a physiologically based kinetic (PBK) model for the prediction of plasma cholesterol concentrations in humans. For this purpose, first a PBK model for the mouse was set up, calibrated and validated, using ensemble modeling. Then the mouse model was converted to a model for humans. It describes the 21 most influential physiological reactions affecting cholesterol concentrations in 8 pools, including liver, HDL, and non-HDL. The model was parameterized using literature data and validated using clinical data for human mutations and drug interventions, taken from literature.

The model was applied to find properties that determine the individual response to drugs. The processes: hepatic cholesterol synthesis, peripheral cholesterol synthesis, and hepatic cholesterol esterification were major determinants of the non-HDL-C response to the cholesterol-lowering drug pravastatin.

We conclude that plasma cholesterol concentrations and effects of genetic polymorphisms and drugs thereupon can be predicted in silico and thatPBK modeling can provide novel mechanistic insights.

Intrahousehold resource allocation and well-being : the case of rural households in Senegal
Dia, F. - \ 2010
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Gerrit Antonides; Anke Niehof, co-promotor(en): Johan van Ophem. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085856863 - 271
agricultural households - resource allocation - household income - time allocation - decision making - households - rural areas - farmers' income - non-farm income - women - men - household expenditure - senegal - gender - well-being - landbouwhuishoudens - middelentoewijzing - gezinsinkomen - tijdsbesteding - besluitvorming - huishoudens - platteland - inkomen van landbouwers - inkomsten van buiten het landbouwbedrijf - vrouwen - mannen - huishouduitgaven - senegal - geslacht (gender) - welzijn
In this last decade, poverty in developing countries remains the most important topic of debate at the international level. The main proposition was how to build policies and programs on a gender perspective approach taking into account gender differences in behavior between male and female at the level of the household. This study is undertaken in a context of two earner partners living in mixed farming systems in Senegal where earnings come primarily from crops and livestock. This book provides substantial research focused on household decision-making regarding resource allocation and consumption. Moreover, it attempts to show empirical findings on the analysis of welfare and well-being through an innovative combination of subjective and objective methods. The research shows how important socioeconomic and cultural factors are in determining earnings from agricultural activities. Important determinants of productivity are related to women’s land access, non-labor income (transfers from migrants), and the wife’s access to credit and health problems. The research illustrates also that women’s bargaining power may be strongly linked to their access to livestock resources, their mobility in purchasing food and medicine and their participation in the management of household finance. Analysis of decision-making regarding expenditures shows that women, more than men, value household goods (related to food, health and schooling expenditures) more than private goods. The results suggest that policies aimed at improving household livelihoods must understand gender differences, obligations and priorities.

Intrahousehold resource allocation and well-being : the case of rural households in Senegal
Dia, F. - \ 2010
Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers (AWLAE series no. 10) - ISBN 9789086861583 - 257
landbouwhuishoudens - middelentoewijzing - gezinsinkomen - tijdsbesteding - besluitvorming - huishoudens - platteland - inkomen van landbouwers - inkomsten van buiten het landbouwbedrijf - vrouwen - mannen - huishouduitgaven - senegal - geslacht (gender) - welzijn - agricultural households - resource allocation - household income - time allocation - decision making - households - rural areas - farmers' income - non-farm income - women - men - household expenditure - gender - well-being
Depressie en hart- en vaatziekten: De rol van voeding, leefstijl en gezondheid
Kamphuis, M.H. ; Geerlings, M.I. ; Tijhuis, M.A.R. ; Kalmijn, S. ; Grobbee, D.E. ; Kromhout, D. - \ 2009
Hart Bulletin 40 (2009)1. - ISSN 0301-8202 - p. 14 - 17.
depressie - hart- en vaatziekten - levensstijl - voedselconsumptie - mannen - ouderen - voeding en gezondheid - depression - cardiovascular diseases - lifestyle - food consumption - men - elderly - nutrition and health
Depressie is geassocieerd met een hoger risico op hart- en vaatziekten (HVZ). In dit onderzoek is prospectief onderzocht of depressieve symptomen verband houden met sterfte aan HVZ bij oudere mannen. Daarnaast is de rol onderzocht van leefstijl, voedingsfactoren en gezondheidstoestand in deze relatie
Gender Regimes, Citizen Participation and Rural Restructuring
Asztalos Morell, I. ; Bock, B.B. - \ 2007
Oxford : Elsevier (Research in rural sociology and development vol. 13) - ISBN 9780762314201 - 385
sociale participatie - man-vrouwrelaties - mannen - vrouwen - positie van de vrouw - landbouw - sociale economie - recht - instellingen - plattelandssamenleving - plattelandsgemeenschappen - plattelandsontwikkeling - europa - australië - india - geslacht (gender) - vrouw en samenleving - burgers - social participation - gender relations - men - women - woman's status - agriculture - socioeconomics - law - institutions - rural society - rural communities - rural development - europe - australia - india - gender - woman and society - citizens
Determinants of cognitive decline in older European men
Gelder, B.M. van - \ 2007
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Daan Kromhout, co-promotor(en): M.A.R. Tijhuis; S. Kalmijn. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085046493 - 157
cognitieve ontwikkeling - mentale vaardigheid - dieet - ouderen - ouderdom - mannen - europa - kenvermogen - sociale factoren - cognitive development - mental ability - diet - elderly - old age - men - europe - cognition - social factors
Rural Gender Relations: Issues and Case Studies
Bock, B.B. ; Shortall, S. - \ 2006
Cambridge : CABI Publishing - ISBN 9780851990309 - 390
plattelandsvrouwen - man-vrouwrelaties - boeren - mannen - vrouwen - plattelandsontwikkeling - vrouwelijke arbeidskrachten - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - boerengezinnen - platteland - huishoudens - sociologie - landbouwontwikkeling - geslacht (gender) - rural women - gender relations - farmers - men - women - rural development - female labour - sustainability - farm families - rural areas - households - sociology - agricultural development - gender
Tekenen en verrekenen : verrekening van inkomsten en vermogen bij zelfstandigen getrouwd op huwelijkse voorwaarden
Overbeek, M.M.M. ; Venema, G.S. - \ 2002
Den Haag : LEI - ISBN 9789052427140 - 44
boerengezinnen - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - mannen - vrouwen - boeren - huwelijk - bezit - nederland - farm families - farm management - men - women - farmers - marriage - property - netherlands
De sociaal-economische emancipatie index : een voorstudie voor een monitor-onderzoek naar de sociaal-economische positie van vrouwen en mannen in Nederland
Maassen, H. van den; Groot, W. - \ 1999
Den Haag : Ministerie van Sociale Zaken en Werkgelegenheid - ISBN 9789057492655 - 58
vrouwen - mannen - positie van de vrouw - arbeid (werk) - inkomen - arbeidsmarkt - Nederland - economische situatie - emancipatie - vrouwenemancipatie - gelijke behandeling van de vrouw - women - men - woman's status - labour - income - labour market - Netherlands - economic situation - emancipation - emancipation of women - female equality
'The people you live with' : gender identities and social practices. beliefs and power in the livelihoods of Ndau women and men in a village with an irrigation scheme in Zimbabwe
Vijfhuizen, C. - \ 1998
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): N.E. Long; J.H.B. den Ouden. - S.l. : Vijfhuizen - ISBN 9789054859130 - 274
sociale structuur - irrigatie - sociaal gedrag - sociale gebruiken - mannen - vrouwen - landbouwproductie - zimbabwe - man-vrouwrelaties - geslacht (gender) - identiteit - sociale relaties - social structure - irrigation - social behaviour - social customs - men - women - agricultural production - zimbabwe - gender relations - gender - identity - social relations

Conventional gender theories shape to a large extent the outcomes of studies concerning Shona culture, gender relations in agriculture and irrigation. Subsequently, women are depicted as subordinated and passive actors and as victims of patriarchal (family) structures.

In Southern Africa including Zimbabwe, little research has been done by perceiving women as strategic social actors who also reproduce and transform everyday life. The present study, then, aims to shed light on the question of how Ndau (Shona) women and men themselves use, transform, and manipulate rules, beliefs and normative/value frames in practice and thereby shape practice and vice versa.

Power is an outcome of those processes. To explore everyday village life I have used the concepts of practice, power and discourse. In order to understand the social dynamics in everyday life I have used an actor oriented approach.

I have studied everyday life by distinguishing 'fields' which are analysed per chapter as follows:

  • social relations and more in particular kinship and marriage (ch2);
  • the establishing and running of homesteads, where I also explore the allocation of my own place in Manesa village by village head Manesa and the building of my own house of poles, mud and grass (ch 3);
  • agricultural production outside and inside the irrigation scheme and how women shape the value of agricultural produce (ch 4);
  • allocating and holding the land in an irrigation scheme under construction and an existing irrigation scheme (ch 5);
  • politics in Manesa village and Mutema chieftaincy where the woman spirit medium of Makopa emerges as an important arbitrator and power broker (ch 6);
  • spirit and witchcraft beliefs in practice (ch 7).

Chapter 8 is a retrospect tying together all the different themes and chapters while exploring the new perspectives which emerged from the study regarding gender, Shona and irrigation.

De Zeven Landen Studie, voeding van mannen: vetzuur- en sterolsamenstelling.
Vries, J.H.M. de; Jansen, A. ; Kromhout, D. ; Bovenkamp, P. van de; Staveren, W.A. van; Katan, M.B. - \ 1996
Voeding 57 (1996)3. - ISSN 0042-7926 - p. 32 - 32.
consumptiepatronen - vetzuren - voedsel - voedselsamenstelling - voedselhygiëne - voedingsmiddelen - mannen - voeding - voedingstoestand - voedingswaarde - eigenschappen - kwaliteit - consumption patterns - fatty acids - food - food composition - food hygiene - foods - men - nutrition - nutritional state - nutritive value - properties - quality
Boer & boerin, een proces van bewustworden en kiezen. Naar een levensloopbaanperspectief voor agrarische mannen en vrouwen.
Klaver, L. ; Poppel, J. van - \ 1994
Wageningen : Wetenschapswinkel (Rapport / Wetenschapswinkel 94) - ISBN 9789067543286 - 90
beroepskeuze - werkgelegenheid - boeren - vrouwelijke arbeidskrachten - arbeid (werk) - arbeidseconomie - mannen - Nederland - beroepen - werkorganisatie - rurale sociologie - sociale klassen - vrouwen - vrouwelijke werknemers - werk - arbeidskunde - career choice - employment - farmers - female labour - labour - labour economics - men - Netherlands - occupations - organization of work - rural sociology - social classes - women - women workers - work - work study
Ontwikkelingen in de functiekwaliteit van vrouwelijke en mannelijke afgestudeerden van de Landbouwuniversiteit Wageningen
Bos - Boers, M. - \ 1992
Agricultural University. Promotor(en): J. van Doorne-Huiskes; A.T.J. Nooij. - S.l. : Bos-Boers - ISBN 9789073787049 - 262
hogere agrarische scholen - universiteiten - afgestudeerden - arbeidsmarkt - werkgelegenheid - vraag - aanbod - landbouw - Nederland - beroepskeuze - beroepen - vrouwen - mannen - functiespecificatie - veluwe - gelderland - wetenschappelijke medewerkers - intellectuelen - agricultural colleges - universities - graduates - labour market - employment - demand - supply - agriculture - Netherlands - career choice - occupations - women - men - job specification - veluwe - gelderland - academic workers - intellectuals

This study reports on research into the causes of disparities in the quality of employment between female and male graduates of the Wageningen Agricultural University (WAU).

The data were collected by the Career Centre of the Alumni Association (NILI-MPW), in a continuing research project conducted since 1973 into labour force participation and the careers of Wageningen alumni. Between 1973 and 1988 the labour force participation of the women graduates increased from 58% to 79%, while that of the men declined from 94% to 89%. While there was thus a trend to more equal participation of women and men, there remained disparities in the quality of their jobs.

In this study the quality of a job is measured in terms of four indicators: (a) occupational prestige, (b) rate of remuneration, (c) the level of education required for the job, and (d) job security.

Chapter 1 contains a general introduction which raises two main questions:
1. Are the jobs of female and male graduates in 1988 unequal in quality? If so, how can various economic and sociological theories explain the existence of inequality? What is the relative weight of the factors causing this inequality?
2. Has the quality of jobs of female and male graduates become less unequal in the period from 1973 to 1988? If so, can this be explained by various economic and sociological theories?

Chapters 2, 3, 4 and 5 concentrate on the first question. Chapter 2 reviews three kinds of labour market theories that might explain disparities in the quality of employment. First, consideration is given to theories concentrating on the supply side of the labour market: Human Capital and Social Capital theories. Second, consideration is given to theories which concentrate on the demand side of the labour market: theories of labour market segmentation and of discrimination. Finally external factors which may affect labour force participation are considered.

Chapter 3 is concerned with deriving from theoretical models variables which may explain disparities between women and men in the quality of employment. These variables are used to formulate hypotheses to be tested in chapter 5. The diagram in chapter 3.5 shows the model which is used in the analysis. Human Capital theory provides six explanatory variables: (a) the unemployment rates of graduates with different specializations from the WAU, (b) whether or not the graduate has a doctorate, (c) the extent of participation in postgraduate studies, (d) the duration of work experience, (e) the number of working hours per week, and (f) career motivation. Social Capital theory provides two variables: (a) the influence of relationships and informal networks in obtaining the first job after graduation, and (b) the influence of social networks on occupational mobility. Theories of labour market segmentation provide two variables: (a) the segmentation between profit-oriented organizations and non-profit-oriented (including governmental) organizations, and (b) the availability of part-time jobs. Discrimination theories yield one variable, concerning the role of the employer in occupational mobility. Two variables are used in examining external factors which affect the interaction between the supply and demand sides of the labour market: marital status, and the importance of having a job near home.

Chapter 4 gives details of the quality of jobs of WAU graduates in 1988, The data were collected in the 1988 NILI-MPW survey of all those 9549 graduates who were in the labour force or were seeking employment. The response rate was 61%, giving 5791 respondents. On average the women (25% of the graduates) are younger than the men. In order to adjust for this, all data have been standardized for the year of graduation, using the ratios of females and males in the total graduate labour force as the standard population. On all four indicators of the quality of employment the female graduates scored lower than the male graduates. Each indicator contributed either one or two points to the score for the quality of the job, according to whether the score was below or above the median. Thus the score for quality of the job could be 0 - when unemployed but willing to work - or 4, 5, 6, 7, or 8. On average the women scored 5.07 and the men 6.05, a statistically significant difference.

The testing of hypotheses by statistical analysis of the data is carried out in chapter 5. The human capital variables which have most influence on the quality of the job are the length of working experience and the possession of a doctorate. Next in influence is for men the number of working hours per week, while for women career motivation helps in getting employment of higher quality. The negative influence of part-time work is stronger for men than for women. It is notable that greater human capital for women tends to lead to jobs with more security and a higher income, while for men it tends to lead to more prestigious jobs.

When seeking their first job, social capital is used more by female than by male graduates. However at this stage in the career the use of social capital has a negative effect on the quality of the job. Later in the career, when there is participation in more important networks, the use of social capital has a positive effect on the quality of employment. At that stage it is men who make more use of social capital in occupational mobility.

Institutional factors also affect the quality of employment of female and male graduates. WAU graduates have jobs of higher quality in profit-oriented than in non-profit-oriented organizations. A greater proportion of women than of men work in the latter type of organization. In both types of organization part-time jobs are of lower quality than fulltime jobs. In non-profit- oriented organizations women work part-time more often than in profit-oriented organizations. This segmentation between the two types of organization accounts for part of the disparity in the quality of employment. To examine the role of discrimination while seeking employment d variable is used which distinguishes between cases where the graduate was approached by the employer with the offer of a job, and those where the graduate obtained the job in some other way. Female graduates got jobs less often through approach by the employer (19%) than did men (28%). Because these jobs are of higher quality than those obtained in other ways, this gives women a disadvantage.

Marital status affects job quality differently for men and for women. For men, married status seems much more favourable than single status in relation to the quality of the job. Female graduates experience this also, but only during the first few years of their career. After about five years, when it appears that married women conduct a double career, i.e. in the labour force and in the household, then married women have jobs of lower quality than those of single women.

In order to evaluate the effects of the different variables, a hierarchical multiple regression analysis has been carried out. The variables used in this analysis accounted for 35 percent of the variance in the quality of jobs of female graduates, and 50 percent of that for male graduates. Several variables interfere or accumulate in their effects on the quality of employment.

The second part of the study, chapters 6, 7, and 8, concentrates on the second question, concerned with changes between 1973 and 1978. Chapter 6 gives a short survey of changes in Dutch society in the 1970s and 1980s which affect labour force participation. For changes in the disparities of quality of employment for men and women, attention is given to two major explanatory mechanisms: emancipation and inflation. Emancipation has brought more women into paid employment; it might also have enlarged the human and social capital of women, reduced the segmentation of the labour market, decreased the discrimination against women in the labour force, and made marital status less restrictive. Because of the rising educational level of the labour force, in 1988 academic education was less decisive for the quality of employment than it was in the 1970s. For instance, as more people have a university degree or more women a doctorate, these will be less exceptional and therefore less influential in obtaining high quality employment. Hypotheses are formulated on the effects of emancipation and inflation on changes in the disparities of quality of employment for female and male graduates.

Chapter 7 reports the changes in the quality of employment of WAU graduates in the period 1973 to 1988. Female graduates experienced improvement in all four indicators .of the quality of employment. At the same time the occupational prestige of the job and the educational level required for it declined slightly for male graduates. The average score for the quality of jobs of female graduates rose from 4.61 in 1973 to 5.07 in 1988, while that for male graduates declined from 6.35 in 1973 to 6.05 in 1988 (see Figures 7.1 to 7.5)

In chapter 8 the hypotheses formulated in chapter 6 are tested. From the results we learn that female graduates have enlarged their human capital. Factors that were restrictive in the 1970s were less restrictive in 1988: e.g. marital status, the social judgements on mothers with young children having paid employment, the provision of child centres, legislation on equal rights for men and women. Since 1973 it has become easier to choose to employ this enlarged human capital. At the same time inflation of human capital has affected the quality of jobs for both female and male graduates. Changes in institutional factors did not contribute to the reduction of the disparities in the quality of employment between female and male graduates. Chapter 9 summarizes and evaluates the main results.

Zorg, zorgelijk, zorgwekkend?
Weeda, C.J. - \ 1987
Tijdschrift voor huishoudkunde 8 (1987)1. - ISSN 0169-1295 - p. 1 - 3.
lerarenopleidingen - huishoudkunde - huishoudonderwijs - echtelijke verhouding - mannen - relaties - onderwijzen - vrouwen - schoolvakken - educational courses - home economics - home economics education - marital interaction - men - relationships - teaching - women - subjects
Bespreking van verschillende zienswijzen m.b.t. het vak 'Verzorging' in het onderwijs
Positieve diskriminatie, ja of nee.
Wolffensperger, J. - \ 1986
Tijdschrift voor huishoudkunde 7 (1986)4. - ISSN 0169-1295 - p. 97 - 98.
werkende vrouwen - werkgelegenheid - vrouwelijke arbeidskrachten - arbeid (werk) - arbeidseconomie - mannen - werkorganisatie - vrouwen - vrouwelijke werknemers - werk - arbeidskunde - employed women - employment - female labour - labour - labour economics - men - organization of work - women - women workers - work - work study
Socio-culturele structuur en innovatie : een structuur-vergelijkend onderzoek naar adoptie van family planning in de periode 1969 - 1973 door Sundanese echtparen in twee rurale gemeenschappen op West-Java
Norren, B. van - \ 1985
Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen. Promotor(en): R.A.J. van Lier. - Wageningen : Van Norren - 533
geboortecijfers - contraceptie - culturele verandering - culturele ontwikkeling - cultuur - demografie - gezinsplanning - java - echtelijke verhouding - mannen - relaties - plattelandsgemeenschappen - sociologie - vrouwen - getrouwde personen - birth rate - contraception - cultural change - cultural development - culture - demography - family planning - java - marital interaction - men - relationships - rural communities - sociology - women - married persons

This publication contains a comparative study of socio- cultural influences on the process of family planning adoption during the period 1969-1973 in two rural communities in the regency of Bandung, West Java, Indonesia. One community, to be called Cianyar, is a ward in an agrarian village, while the other, Citonggoh, constitutes a large dairy and vegetable farm. A few hundred people live in each community.

The book consists of two parts. In Part One. "The Theoretical Framework", a research model and two research questions are introduced. In the model society is viewed as a tension system of elements which interact on two structural levels: a basic structure of elements from which strong stucturing influences on other elements emanate, and a derived structure of elements which constitutes itself as a reaction upon structuring influences from the basic structure. In the section of society studied, namely the participation system of family planning acceptors and relevant others. the basic structure is thought to consist of four substructures: a material, a social, a cultural and a psychic substructure. The derived structure is thought to consist of the network and the definitions of the situation of acceptors and relevant others. The adoptions of family planning themselves constitute the third level of the research model. On the basis of this model we have formulated as our first research question the task to explain comparatively observed adoptions of family planning in terms of the two categories of network and definitions of the situation as the derived structure of the participation system, and subsequently to explain the network and the definitions of the situation themselves in terms of the four basic substructures of the participation system (chapter 1).

In chapter 2 the elements constituting the four basic substructures are introduced and specified. Among other things the cultural ideal of the authoritative-harmonic community is mentioned and defined. The concepts of substrate (= the division of the scarce means of property, power, knowledge and strategic contacts among the community members), social position (= an actor's disposal of these scarce means) and social class (= a category of actors with corresponding social positions) are introduced. Subsequently the community is defined as consisting of three social classes: a higher, a middle and a lower class. In order to explain observed differences between the derived structures of Cianyar and Citonggoh, four basic structural elements with very different values or forms in the two communities have been selected. These are (1) the material element of infrastructural access to the family planning clinic, (2) the social element of substrate, (3) the social element of presence of factions in the community and (4) the psychic element of type of leadership exercised in the community.

In chapter 3 the elements of the two categories of network and definitions of the situation of the derived structure are introduced and specified.

In the fourth and concluding chapter of Part One the second research question is introduced as an attempt to typify observed adoptions of family planning as modern or not modern on the basis of a clearly defined concept of (individual) modernization. In order to distinguish adoptions which are "really" modern from adoptions which are only "apparently" modern, the concept of pseudo-modernization is introduced.

In Part Two, "Data and Interpretation", the two research tasks are separately carried out, the first one by successively analysing the adoption processes of Cianyar and Citonggoh in a directly comparable way in accordance with the research model (chapters 5 - 8 and 9 - 13), and the second one by typifying the observed adoptions of Citonggoh and Cianyar as modern or pseudo-modern in accordance with the concept of modernization (chapter 14). In the conclusions of the study (chapter 15) the results of the two research questions are logically and empirically combined.

Cianyar (ch. 5-8)

The circumstances of the fieldwork in the ward Cianyar of the village Ciendah are briefly discussed in chapter 5. In chapter 6 the political history of the village Ciendah during the period 1950-1975 is treated as a continuous contest for village power between two groups in the village: a moderately progressive group of village officials and school teachers and their following, headed by the relatively rich family of the village head, and a conservative group of orthodox local religious leades and their following, headed by one relatively rich family also. During this period of 25 years all major village offices were continuously held by members of the former group, the latter being

continuously in political opposition. It is shown that during the whole period the willingness of orthodox leaders to cooperate with village officials in implementing government development programs varied inversely with their momentary political power in the village.

In chapter 7 the composition of the basic structure of Cianyar is discussed. In (anticipated) comparison with Citonggoh it is shown that Cianyar is characterized by bad infrastructural access to the family planning clinic, a poly-pyramidal substrate (by which is meant unequal division of the four scarce means among the community members and the concentration of these means in the hands of various individuals from different social and occupational categories), presence of an orthodox faction in the community and absence of charismatic leadership.

In the following chapter 8 the composition of the derived structure is dealt with by means of an analysis of the local family planning programme and its development over time. The social and class positions of all actors studied were determined. The contents of the programme, its implementation, and the reations of receptors (eligible couples) were separately discussed, the essentials of which are summarized below.

(1) For several years the orthodox leaders dominated a public opinion which strongly condemned family planning. Mainly because in 1972 the orthodox leaders quite suddenly lost their (political) power in the community, could public opinion quickly change from strongly anti- to moderately in favour of family planning.

(2) Under the strongly limiting conditions of a poly-pyramidal substrate, presence of an orthodox faction and lack of charismatic leadership qualities, the most important executors of the programme, the ward head of Cianyar and his wife themselves, chose for cautious manoeuvring. They only approached couples with two or more children among the village poor, in particular those working as day labourers on their rice fields. Only after public opinion had changed did they start motivating couples belonging to the orthodox community. The ward heed almost exclusively motivated men, his wife almost exlusively women. Usually they cautiously spoke of family planning as a modern means for spacing births only. In terms of our own typology of informal leadership positions (introduced in Part One) the ward head and his wife behaved as advisors towards their receptors.

(3) Within the group of non-orthodox couples of Cianyar the adoption process started early 1970 among the school teachers of the higher class. One and a half year later (mid 1971) the process started among the beca drivers, small farmers and small officials of the middle class, and three months later (end 1971) it commenced among the agricultural labourers and plaiters of bambu walls of the lower class in the community. So within the non-orthodox group of the community the adoption process commenced in all three social classes well before public opinion started to change (1972). Within the group of orthodox couples the process started relatively late (mid 1972) among the larger farmers and traders of the higher class and the beca drivers of the middle class. Six months later (beginning 1973) the process commenced among the agricultural labourers and plaiters of the lower class. So within the orthodox group of the community the adoption process started in all three social classes only after public opinion had commenced to change(1972). At the end of chapter 8 it is concluded that, because of the motivating activities of the ward head and his wife, in both groups of the community the adoption process among the couples of the middle and the lower classes has been advanced and accelerated in time.

Citonggoh (ch. 9-13)

After a brief discussion of the circumstances of the fieldwork in Citonggoh (chapter 9) the recent history and the organizational structure of the enterprise are described in chapter 10. From mid 1969 till the end of 1973 the enterprise was run by a new Indonesian director who succeeded in making the farm profitable again after near bankruptcy in 1968.

In chapter 11 the composition of the basic structure of Citonggoh is discussed. In comparison with Cianyar it is shown that Citonggoh is characterized by good infrastructural access to the family planning clinic. a mono-pyramidal substrate (by which is meant concentration of the four scarce means in the hands of one person, the director), absence of (orthodox) factions in the community, and exertion of charismatic leadership, again by the director. It is also shown that the families of nearly all employees - that is director, staffmembers, foremen and labourers - live within the area and in the houses of the enterprise.

In chapter 12 the character of the director's leadership and power and its development over time are studied by means of an analysis of the contents, implementation and results of a large number of his policy measures. Special attention is given to his interventions pertaining to age at marriage, polygyny, divorce, childbirth and other aspects in the realm of private and family life of his subordinates. Among other things the conclusion is drawn that the director exerted authoritative as well as authoritarian leadership. As an authoritative leader who provides quidance on the basis of exceptional qualities only, the director disposed of his disproportionately large (modern) knowledge and of his charismatic personality. As an authoritarian leader who expects obedience. he could (if he wished) make use of several formal sanctions (like prohibiting to make use of the clinical facilities of the enterprise, prohibiting to live on its area and the very heavy sanction of dismissal) and also of several informal sanctions (like making public personal matters of subordinates).

In chapter 13 the composition of the derived structure of Citonggoh is dealt with by means of an analysis of the director's family planning programme and its development over time. The essentials of the programme's contents, its implementation and reactions of receptors are summarized below.

(1) The director considered family planning as an excellent modern means for couples to plan births in all three phases of the family cycle: for young couples to delay the birth of their first child, for couples with one or more children to space the births of additional children, and for couples who had already reached or exceeded their desired number of children, to stop bearing children. Secondly. he felt that all fecund couples of Citonggoh irrespective of one's phase in the family cycle should become acceptors.

(2) The three conditions of a mono-pyramidal substrate with power being concentrated in the hands of the director, the latter's charismatic personality, and absence of an oppositional (orthodox) faction in the community offered the director as head of his own family planning programme ample opportunity to enforce acceptance by employing the formal and informal sanctions mentioned. In his position of powerful and charismatic leader the director chose for a strategy of differential pressure. All couples who in his opinion could easily understand family planning because they were well educated were not approached. The great majority of these couples belonged to the higher class and higher middle class of the community. All others, the great majority of whom were couples of the lower middle and lower class, were motivated by means of "active persuasion" as the director put it himself, by which he meant: incessant and intensive personal motivation without using any means of coercion. Those who (silently) refused were called to the office to be persuaded again. And again and again if necessary, untill they finally decided to accept. Put in our own terminology this means, that from the motivating activities of the director two influences emerged: on the one hand a real-modern influence because of his incessant efforts to explain family planning to his receptors in terms of the culture concept of rational control of one's own life situation, and on the other hand a dual, classdifferentiated pseudo-modern pressure. This pressure was a double one, because it was authoritative as well as autoritarian (imposing something and at the same time concealing possible sanctions is actually a form of intimidation), and it was class-differentiated because couples belonging to different classes were differentially exposed. In the execution of his family planning programme the director closely cooperated with the nurse of the enterprise. It was the nurse who located potential acceptors and kept track of all motivated couples. Together the director and the nurse performed an a very efficient team.

(3) The adoption process in Citonggoh started shortly after the beginning of the programs among the couples of the middle and the lower classes, by the end of 1969. Among the (young) couples of the higher class, who could decide in freedom, the process started relatively lare (mid 1971). During the period 1969-1973 nearly all potential acceptors of Citonggoh had accepted family planning. At the end of chapter 13 it is concluded that, because of the motivating activities of the director of the enterprise, the adoption process among the couples of the middle and lower classes has been advanced and accelerated in time.

In chapter 14 the hypothesis is tested that social pressure from authority or public opinion leads to pseudomodernization. The hypothesis is only slightly confirmed. Only three cases of pseudomodernization in its full extent were encountered in Cianyar, none in Citonggoh. In Citonggoh pseudo-modernization only seems to have occured a few times as an aspect of real-modern adoption. These and other observations led to the conclusion that in alle three social classes of both communities the great majority of fecund couples possesed an unespectedly strong modern mentality in matters concerning planning births of children.

In chapter 15 the theoretical essentials of the comparative study are restated and several theoretical conclusions drawn, the most important one being recapitulated here: The community leaders of Cianyar and Citonggoh have executed their family planning programmes on the same cultural basis of a twofold ideal of real modernization and exertion of leadership in accordance with the ideal of the authoritativeharmonic community. Because of the structuring influences of four basis structural elements with very different values and forms in the two communities, the two programmes have been very different in their contents and implementation. However, probably due to the unexpectedly strong modern mentality among the couples of all three social classes in both communities both programs have essentially had the same effect of advancing and accelerating the adoption process among the couples of the middle and lower classes.

Mannen en vrouwen van psychiatrische patienten : een onderzoek naar verschillen in ervaringen, huwelijksbeleving en psychisch welbevinden
Methorst, G.J. - \ 1985
Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen. Promotor(en): G.A. Kooy; G.J. Mellenbergh; H.G.M. Rooymans. - Wageningen : Methorst - 286
psychosen - psychiatrie - geestelijke stoornissen - psychologie - abnormaal gedrag - intermenselijke relaties - mannen - vrouwen - sociale problemen - getrouwde personen - personen - psychoses - psychiatry - mental disorders - psychology - abnormal behaviour - interpersonal relations - men - women - social problems - married persons - persons

HUSBANDS AND WIVES OF PSYCHIATRIC PATIENTS: a study of differences pertaining to (marital) experiences and psychological well-being.

SUMMARY

The present study has been designed in order to explain differences in psychological well-being between husbands and wives of psychiatric outpatients, found in preceding investigations. Chapter 1 contains an introduction to the study and the outline of the report. In chapter 2 the literature m general sex-differences in psychological wellbeing is reviewed as well as that on the correspondence on psychological distress between husbands and wives. The explanations for the sex-differences can be divided roughly into two models. in the first one, which starts from sex- differences in socialization, it is assumed, that women are better trained than men to discern and express emotions. There is more cultural acceptance of psychological difficulties when expressed by females than when expressed by males. Therefore women will sooner be inclined to report psychological symptoms. The second explanation contradicts the first by noting that the overrepresentation of women on psychological symptons is mainly caused by married women whereas among the never married, males report more feelings of distress than females. According to this explanation, it is the difference between the traditional social roles of married men and women that accounts for the higher rate of married women with symptoms of psychological distress. Compared to their husbands wives occupy fewer social positions, experience less variation, receive fewer structural reinforcements, and are psychologically more dependent on their marital and family lives. Consequently married women have less opportunities to compensate for stressful events with satisfaction derived from a job or from social contacts with colleagues: life areas less bound to the nuclear family. This implies that the risk of boredam and of dissatisfactory conditions of life is higher for married women From a role theoretical perspective these explanations have been elaborated into nine hypotheses, presented in chapter 3 . Together these hypotheses should explain the fact that wives of psychiatric outpatients reported more psychological complaints than husbands of such patients. Having a partner who is treated for psychiatric symptoms was supposed to be correlated with so-called role-discrepancy. Role-discrepancy has been conceived as the discrepancy bet~ one's expectations of the spouse's marital role-behaviour and the behaviour of this spouse as actually perceived. Therefore hypothesis 1 has been formulated as follows: "Spouses of psychiatric outpatients will report more role- discrepancy than "normally" married persons" (i.e. persons, who neither they themselves nor their partners have ever been treated for psychiatric symptoms). To test the assumption that rolediscrepancy would be characteristic of the marital disruption experienced by spouses of psychiatric outpatients, hypothesis 2 has been formulated thus. "The negative correlation between role-discrepancy and marital satisfaction is stronger among spouses of psychiatric outpatients than among "normally" married persons". Because women were supposed to be better socialized than men to discern emotional expressions in themselves and in others it was assumed that wives would note the deviating behaviour of their spouses to a greater extent than men. To test this assumption, hypothesis 3 has been formulated: "Women experience more role-discrepancy than men". Won" were furthermore supposed to be more psychologically dependent on their marital lives than men. Disruption of the marriage would therefore be correlated with psychological distress rather among women than among men. The assumption that the marital lives of the spouses of psychiatric outpatients were disturbed would provide an explanation for the greater proportion of female spouses reporting psychological complaints. To test this assumption hypotheses 4 and 5 have been formulated. Hypothesis 4 : "The positive correlation between psychological complaints and role-discrepancy is stronger among women than among men". Hypothesis 5 : "The difference between the role-discrepancy of the wives of psychiatric outpatients and "normlly" married women is larger than the difference between the role-discrepancy of the husbands of psychiatric outpatients and "normally" married men". Starting from the sex-differences in the socialization process during which women would have learned to value especially the socio-emotional aspects of life and men the functional-instrumental ones, the role-discrepancy perceived by male and female spouses would differ accordingly. This assumption lead to hypotheses 6 and 7. Hypothesis 6 : "Women will experience more role-discrepancy on marital areas concerning affection and joined activities than men". Hypothesis 7 : "Compared to women men will experience more role-discrepancy on instrumental and functional areas of marital life". Spouses of psychiatric outpatients would furthermore experience role-discrepancy on the areas secondary to them selves but primary to their partners, because the role-behaviour of
the partners was supposed to be inadequate in these areas. The spouses of psychiatric outpatients would have to complement their partners in these areas. To test this assumption hypotheses 8 and 9 have been for mulated as follows. Hypothesis 8 : "Wives of male psychiatric
outpa
tients experience more role-discrepancy than "normally"
married we~
particularly on functional and instrumental areas of marital
life".
Hypothesis 9: "Compared to "normally" married men husbands
of female
psychiatric outpatients experience more role-discrepancy
especially
on socio-emotional areas of marital life".
In order to test these hypotheses a questionnaire to measure
marital
role-discrepancy has been constructed. A pilot-study among
189 "nor
mally" married men and women (reported in chapter 4) showed
this so
called "Marital Change Desirability Scale" to be internally
consistent
and valid as a measure of marriage appraisal.
The hypotheses have been tested in a study among the
following groups
of married persons: fifty male and fifty female psychiatric
outpatients
and their spouses, 72 men and 56 women from a random
population sample
without psychiatric treatment at present or in the past, 50
couples
who labeled their marriage as "happy", and 28 couples who
reported
marital problem. The design of the study is described in
chapter 5.
Data have been gathered by mews of questionnaires and by
means of
open interviews. The spouses of the psychiatric outpatients
have been
interviewed in order to obtain qualitative material that
might cla
rify the quantative data from the questionnaires. All
respondents
filled in the Marital Change Desirability Scale to measure
their role
discrepancy, the Maudsley Marital Questionnaire to measure their marital satisfaction and the Social Desirability Scale to control for response-tendencies. All groups, except the random population sample, filled in the Symptom Checklist-90 Revised, as a measure of psychosomatic symptomatology. The patients and their partners filled in the Dutch Personality Questionnaire, as a ~sure of neuroticism, the Attitude to Marriage and Divorce Scales, as measures of sex-role stereotyping, and a psychological complaints questionnaire, as a measure of general psychological well- being. The results obtained by means of the questionnaires are reported in chapter 6. Respondents with marital problems reported the lowest marital satisfaction and the highest role-discrepancy. Second in line cam the partners of the psychiatric outpatients. In accordance with hypothesis 1 both male and female partners reported significantly more role-discrepancy than "normally" married men and v~. There was a difference between the marriage in which the nun and those in which the woman was the identified patient. In the first cases the husbands (the patients) had roughly the same role-discrepancy and marital satisfaction scores as the "normlly" married men whereas their wives were distinguished negatively from the "normally" married women. Amongst the marriages with the wife as the identified patient both. of the spouses differed negatively from the "normally" married men and women. Hypothesis 2, the assumption that role-discrepancy was characteristic of the marital disruption of patients' spouses, had to be rejected. The same holds for hypothesis 3, that wives would experience more role-discrepancy than husbands. Hypothesis 5, assuming a greater difference bet~ the role-discrepancy scores of wives of male patients and "normlly" married women than between those of husbands of female patients and "normally" married men, had to be rejected too. The only sex-differences on role- discrepancy found was that wen reported more discrepancy on the affective and women more on the instrumental areas of their marriages. These differences held for all the men and women except the male patients and their wives. This means that hypotheses 6 through 9 have not been confirmed either. As had been expected the psychological well-being of wives was more strongly correlated with their marriage appraisal than the psychological well-being
of the husbands. This correlation was found particularly in a negative sense: wives of male patients and wives with marital problems reported more psychosomatic symptoms than "normally" and "happily" married wives and more than all husbands except the wale patients. The husbands of female patients reported roughly the sane amount of psychosomatic symptoms as the "normally" married men. This means that hypothesis 4 is only confirmed for women who experience a disruption of their marital relationship. These results might indicate that women "suffer" more from a distorted marital relationship than men. On the other hand, it is possible that man express their marital dissatisfaction in another way than through psychological complaints. The interview data, reported in chapter 7, for example indicated that husbands of psychiatric outpatients were also distressed by the psychological problems of their wives and the effects m their lives and marriages. Though male and female partners of the patients did not differ significantly, the raw data unanimously showed men to evaluate the changes in patient's functioning, in their own functioning, and in their marriages, that were caused by or correlated with the psychological problems of the patients, more negatively than the wives of the male patients. Husbands seemed to be more disapproving of the whole situation, wives showed more signs of acquiescence. It looks as if husbands' expectations of their wives, their marriages, and their lives in general had been disturbed to a greater extent than those of the female spouses. It may be that men are less familiar with psychological problems than women, as might be concluded from the general finding that husbands more frequently said that they never expected this to happen to their wives whereas female spouses more often seemed to have anticipated the psychological breakdown of their partners. Male and female spouses also had different strategies to cope with their problems. Men relied more frequently on information from professionals or encyclopaedias whereas women relied more on lay persons who had the same sort of experiences. Furthermore women were distinguished from men by more self- development. In spite of negative experiences they evaluated the increase in selfreliance, though initially enforced by their husbands' illness as positive and as an enrichment of their lives. These results gave rise
to considerations about the tenability of the (sex)role theoretical explanatory ~1. Together with a Dutch summary of the results these considerations form the contents of chapter 8. It is concluded there that role theory can account for the present findings. Both male and female spouses were influenced by the psychiatric illness of their partners. Both had to take over responsibilities that originally belonged to the other sex. For men this mostly meant a step backwards: more household chores, more activities by which they were bound to the nuclear family, more stress because the work outside the 1~ had to be combined with these tasks without an increase in social status. Women on the other hand experienced as enlargement of their action radius by taking over their husbands' functions as family-representatives, by starting work outside the house, either because of the 'need to supplement family income or because they decided to do it because they considered that being at home all day together with the patient did not improve the situation. Con~ to the male spouses of the patients, the female spouses gained "priviliges" originally bound to male social roles. As has been stated earlier role theory can explain the results of this study, but it would have to be revised regarding stereotyped sexroles. Instead of describing (married) persons in terms of the social roles they are supposed to have according to their sex and marital status, it seems better to do this in terms of the social roles they will have according to their marital status alone.. It may be possible that the distinction between male and female spouses is fading away to make room for distinctions according to the positions a spouse, whether husband or wife, may occupy in the general society. The lack of differences between the male and female partners in this study might be interpretated as resulting from the second wave of feminism that started in the late sixties. The fact that the wives of the patients used more self-developing coping strategies than the husbands, can be seen as a confirmation of this interpretation for the female spouses at least.

Huwelijksleven: ideaal en praktijk; persoonlijke ervaringen en enqueteresultaten
Weeda, C.J. - \ 1984
Utrecht [etc.] : Spectrum - ISBN 9789027457660 - 220
echtelijke verhouding - huwelijk - mannen - nederland - relaties - vrouwen - gebruiken - marital interaction - marriage - men - netherlands - relationships - women - customs
Echtscheiding in Belgie en Nederland
Kooy, G.A. ; Dumon, W.A. - \ 1983
Deventer : Van Loghum Slaterus - ISBN 9789060017494 - 178
belgië - echtscheiding - echtelijke verhouding - scheiding van tafel en bed - mannen - nederland - relaties - vrouwen - belgium - divorce - marital interaction - marital separation - men - netherlands - relationships - women
Determinants of total and high density lipoprotein cholesterol in boys and men with special reference to diet
Knuiman, J.T. - \ 1983
Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen. Promotor(en): J.G.A.J. Hautvast, co-promotor(en): C.E. West. - Wageningen : Knuiman - 99
bloed - bloedstoornissen - hart- en vaatziekten - hart- en vaatstoornissen - cholesterol - consumptiepatronen - voedselhygiëne - mannen - voedingstoestand - vaatziekten - blood - blood disorders - cardiovascular diseases - cardiovascular disorders - cholesterol - consumption patterns - food hygiene - men - nutritional state - vascular diseases
At present it is assumed that atherosclerosis begins in childhood and that this process may ultimately result in the manifestations of coronary heart disease later in life. For this reason it is relevant to study the distribution of risk indicators for coronary heart disease (CHD) in children from different countries and to seek possible determinants of these risk indicators.

In Chapter 1 a general overview is given of coronary heart disease and its determinants. The reasons and objectives for research on CHD and the risk indicators for CHD are also discussed.

In Chapter 2 the results are presented of a study on the distributions of mean total and HDL cholesterol concentrations in boys aged 7 and 8 years from urban and rural regions in 16 countries. A standardized protocol was used for the collection of samples with the analyses being carried out in one laboratory. The results of this study showed that the concentrations of total cholesterol in Dutch boys are similar to those of boys from Denmark, Austria, Ireland and Sweden but are lower than those of Finnish boys and higher than those of African and Asian boys. The mean concentrations of HDL cholesterol of the boys appeared to increase linearly with that of total cholesterol. This would indicate that both the concentrations of total and HDL cholesterol increase under the influence of a westernized diet. It would also indicate that the mean concentration of HDL cholesterol would be positively related to the incidence of coronary heart disease when different populations are compared, provided that the findings in boys could be extrapolated to adults.

Chapter 3 deals with the concentrations of total and HDL cholesterol in two age-categories of adult men from thirteen countries. The concentrations of total and HDL cholesterol were on average higher in the groups of men from the European countries than in those from Asia and Africa. Although the tendency for a concomitant increase of mean HDL cholesterol and total cholesterol concentrations was less clear in the adult men than it was in the boys, there was no tendency for lower HDL cholesterol concentrations in men with higher total cholesterol concentrations. The body mass index appeared to be positively related with the concentrations of total cholesterol and negatively with that of HDL cholesterol.

Chapter 4 deals with the concentrations of total and HDL cholesterol in macrobiotic, vegetarian and non-vegetarian men and boys. The concentrations of both total and HDL cholesterol were lower in the macrobiotic men and boys than in the other groups except for the concentration of HDL cholesterol in the non-vegetarian men. The variation between groups in the concentration of HDL cholesterol appeared to be largely due to variations in the concentration of cholesterol in the HDL 2 fraction (1.063 < ρ 20 < 1.125).

In Chapter 5 the results are described of a more in depth study on the determinants of total and HDL cholesterol in boys from Finland, the Netherlands, Italy, the Philippines and Ghana. Positive correlations were found between the intake of fat, saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids and dietary cholesterol and the concentrations of total and HDL cholesterol within several groups. Using the regression coefficients from a multiple regression analysis on the pooled data, it could be calculated that on average 24 percent of the inter-country differences in the levels of total cholesterol is explained by differences in the intakes of saturated fatty acids. Differences between the groups of the different countries 'in the intakesof carbohydrate explained on average 29 percent of the differences in the concentrations of HDL cholesterol. The results support the hypothesis that higher concentrations of total and HDL cholesterol are associated with western types of diets which are rich in saturated fatty acids and relatively poor in complex carbohydrates.

Chapter 6 contains a general discussion of the various studies. The main conclusions were the following:
- young boys from countries like Finland, the Netherlands, Denmark, Austria and Sweden are likely to be at a higher risk of developing coronary heart disease than boys from Greece or Portugal and boys from Asian and African countries;
- the negative relationship between HDL cholesterol concentration and mortality or incidence from coronary heart disease as found within populations is not incompatible with the absence of a negative or even the presence of a positive relationship between HDL cholesterol and mortality from coronary heart disease when different countries are compared;
- the changes induced by diet in the concentrations of total and HDL cholesterol tend to be parallel;
- high concentrations of HDL cholesterol associated with a high intake of animal fat probably reflect a higher capacity to handle large amounts of dietary fat;
- low concentrations of HDL cholesterol associated with a high intake of animal fat probably reflect a lower capacity to handle large amounts of dietary fat or when associated with a low intake of fat a normal capacity to handle dietary fat;
- diets with relatively high proportions of food from vegetable origin, especially those relatively rich in complex carbohydrates and relatively poor in saturated fat, together with a considerable proportion of physical activity and an optimum level of body fatness might be beneficial for the prevention of the development of atherosclerosis in childhood.

Thus it has been shown that epidemiological studies can play an important role in elucidating the relationship between diet and coronary heart disease. In particular, it has been possible to develop hypotheses on the significance of the concentration of HDL cholesterol as a risk factor for coronary heart disease.

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