Renewable energy in Russia: The take off in solid bioenergy?
Pristupa, A.O. ; Mol, A.P.J. - \ 2015
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 50 (2015). - ISSN 1364-0321 - p. 315 - 324.
prospects - market - trade
Triggered by debates on climate change and energy security, renewable energy sources are presently high on the political agenda in many countries. In this regard Russia seems to stand aside worldwide developments. Until recently Russia¿s enormous potential in renewable energy sources remained poorly utilised. However, Russia¿s formal commitment to the global climate change regime, its new Energy Strategy 2030, and an increase in wood pellet production suggest a discontinuity. This paper investigates and explains the (limited) progress in the solid bioenergy sector in Northwest Russia. With little Russian experience in this sector, poor technological knowledge on renewables, and inadequate domestic market structures, the development of a domestic solid bioenergy sector is far from easy. Hence, Northwest Russian wood pellet developments cannot be traced back to new federal policies, only partly to local demand and stimulation, and significantly to foreign drivers. Major EU demand for wood pellets and intensified collaboration with foreign companies and organisations leading in the field of solid bioenergy research, technology and trade have triggered these developments. But it is a long way before Russia will be released from its fossil fuel addiction, as repeatedly promised by governmental officials.
Moral Values and Attitudes Toward Dutch Sow Husbandry
Bergstra, T.J. ; Gremmen, H.G.J. ; Stassen, E.N. - \ 2015
Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 28 (2015)2. - ISSN 1187-7863 - p. 375 - 401.
farm-animal-welfare - consumer concerns - pig farmers - market - ethics - agriculture - netherlands - stakeholder - perception - framework
Attitudes toward sow husbandry differ between citizens and conventional pig farmers. Research showed that moral values could only predict the judgment of people in case of culling healthy animals in the course of a disease epidemic to a certain extent. Therefore, we hypothesized that attitudes of citizens and pig farmers cannot be predicted one-on-one by moral values. Furthermore, we were interested in getting insight in whether moral values can be useful in bridging the gap between attitudes toward sow husbandry of citizens and pig farmers. Based on a questionnaire, it was found that pig farmers and citizens, when considered as one group, shared the valuation of most moral values. However, when studying the four clusters of citizens with different attitudes toward sow husbandry, determined in a previous study, a variation in valuation of the moral values between the clusters of citizens and farmers came to the fore. This means that moral values are interpreted differently by groups of people when forming attitudes toward sow husbandry. The results of our study give an indication of which moral values are weighed differently between clusters of citizens and pig farmers. This information can be useful in future research on attitudes toward animal husbandry in order to understand why attitudes differ between groups of people. Besides, our results can be useful for the pig sector and citizens to learn to understand each other’s attitudes. With this understanding it is possible to invest in a husbandry system that can build on societal support.
Examining heterogeneity in elderly consumers’ acceptance of carriers for protein-enriched food: A segmentation study
Zanden, L.D.T. van der; Kleef, E. van; Wijk, R.A. de; Trijp, J.C.M. van - \ 2015
Food Quality and Preference 42 (2015). - ISSN 0950-3293 - p. 130 - 138.
functional food - perceived healthiness - older-adults - choice - willingness - knowledge - market - claim - model - age
Elderly face an increased risk of nutritional deficiencies due to reduced appetites and increased nutritional needs. The development of appealing enriched functional foods holds a great potential for improving the nutritional status of this group of consumers. However, the elderly population is strongly heterogeneous, which poses a challenge to fulfilling their nutritional needs. Therefore, this study aimed to illustrate and examine the heterogeneity in elderly consumers’ acceptance of carriers for enrichment. In an online survey, respondents (N = 303, Mage = 66.9) were asked to rate their willingness to trial purchase a set of carriers enriched with protein, that varied systematically in terms of healthiness (healthy vs. unhealthy), novelty (novel vs. traditional), and meal type (meal component vs. snack). Overall, respondents reported low willingness to purchase protein-enriched foods and indicated that they preferred to consume more protein-rich conventional foods, should they need to increase their protein intake. The identification of heterogeneity in carrier acceptance, especially regarding product novelty and meal type, suggested that there was room for improvement in product acceptance. Indeed, willingness to trial and repeat purchase protein-enriched carriers were considerably higher for product formats that were tailored to six subgroup of respondents. These findings underline the merits of taking heterogeneity into account when commercialising functional foods among elderly. Future studies may want to look into additional ways to reduce scepticism among elderly regarding the use of enriched food.
Contrasting the roles of section length and instream and instream habitat Supply Chain through Contract Farming
Cembalo, L. ; Pascucci, S. ; Tagliafierro, C. ; Caracciolo, F. - \ 2014
International Food and Agribusiness Management Review 17 (2014)3. - ISSN 1096-7508 - p. 33 - 52.
preferences - attributes - design - market
This paper discusses how to develop and manage integration, coordination and cooperation in bio-energy supply chains. Farmers decisions on whether or not to participate in a contract farming scheme have been investigated, particularly assessing the trade-offs between the contract attributes and their impact on the likelihood to participate. A stated preference model was implemented where respondents were asked to choose between alternative contracts with varying attribute levels to start biomass cultivation. Results show that participation is mainly influenced by minimum price guaranteed, contract length, and re-negotiation before the end of a contract.
Willingness to pay for pesticide reduction in the EU: nothing but organic?
Bazoche, P. ; Combris, P. ; Giraud-Heraud, E. ; Pinto, A. ; Bunte, F.H.J. ; Tsakiridou, E. - \ 2014
European Review of Agricultural Economics 41 (2014)1. - ISSN 0165-1587 - p. 87 - 109.
experimental auctions - consumer preferences - food safety - certification - apples - market
Using experimental auctions carried out on apples in different European countries, this paper contributes to the assessment of consumer willingness to pay for the reduction of pesticides. We study several systems of good agricultural practices, possibly signalled to consumers, ranging from Integrated Pest Management certifications to organic production methods. The results show a relatively homogeneous behaviour of European consumers and reveal that improving the information on pesticide reduction may have unintended consequences. Results also suggest that taste characteristics and reference to a Protected Denomination of Origin should not be overlooked.
Sustainability Standards and the Water Question
Vos, J.M.C. ; Boelens, R.A. - \ 2014
Development and Change 45 (2014)2. - ISSN 0012-155X - p. 205 - 230.
forest stewardship council - virtual water - environmental governance - commodity networks - private standards - fair trade - food - certification - politics - market
Increased global trade in agricultural commodities has boosted fresh water consumption. This export of ‘virtual water’, embedded in products sold abroad, has increasingly affected local communities and ecosystems, especially in arid regions. Recent initiatives to certify agricultural production are showing a rapidly growing interest in considering water issues within schemes of quality assurance, sustainable production and fair trade. This article scrutinizes current water sustainability certification schemes, and how they affect local water user communities. The authors use three notions of governmentality to examine water sustainability standards and how they aim ‘to conduct the conduct’ of water users: (1) standards as ‘production of truth’ and ‘mentalities’ that constitute systems of collective rationalities, values, norms and knowledge; (2) standards as networks that prescribe roles and establish power relations between companies and producers; and (3) standards as ‘techniques of visibilization’ that control practices and discipline producers. Private standards in general reinforce the political and market power of private sector agro-food chains in local water management, to the detriment of local water user communities and national governments. However, sustainability certification could also potentially enable local, regional, national and international organizations of user communities to stake claims and negotiate to protect their water sources and livelihoods.
Exploring the future of timber resources in the high forest zone of Ghana
Oduro, K. ; Arts, B.J.M. ; Hoogstra-Klein, M.A. ; Kyereh, B. ; Mohren, G.M.J. - \ 2014
International Forestry Review 16 (2014)6. - ISSN 1465-5489 - p. 573 - 585.
deforestation - scenarios - market
Ghana's forests, particularly the timber resources, face an uncertain future, because of high deforestation rate, a rapidly declining timber resource base, rapid population growth and increasing demand for timber. This paper explores the future development of timber resource in Ghana by constructing scenarios and considering options policy-makers could take to ensure sustainable future development of the timber resource. Data was collected by reviewing the literature and consulting experts. The scenarios follow the deductive approach, exploring the potential interactions among key driving forces as selected by experts. The two most important driving forces for the future of timber resource s selected by the experts were forest governance and resource demand. Four plausible scenarios were developed: legal forestry scenario with emphasis on improving the resource base to meet high demand; forest degradation, a business-as-usual scenario; forest transition, with emphasis on expanding the resource base in response to environmental concerns; and timber substitution scenario seeking to provide wood substitutes to conserve the resource base. The scenarios provide insights for policy making and strategic planning for forest resource management in Ghana. To ensure a sustainable future for timber resources, policy reform is needed, focusing on land and tree tenure, revenue capture, benefit-sharing schemes and satisfying the domestic demand for timber.
Local plant names reveal that enslaved Africans recognized substantial parts of the New World flora
Andel, T.R. van; Klooster, E.A. van 't; Quiroz Villarreal, D.K. ; Towns, A.M. ; Ruysschaert, S. ; Berg, M. van den - \ 2014
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 111 (2014)50. - ISSN 0027-8424 - p. E5346 - E5353.
surinamese creoles - west-africa - medicine - market - benin
How did the forced migration of nearly 11 million enslaved Africans to the Americas influence their knowledge of plants? Vernacular plant names give insight into the process of species recognition, acquisition of new knowledge, and replacement of African species with American ones. This study traces the origin of 2,350 Afro-Surinamese (Sranantongo and Maroon) plant names to those plant names used by local Amerindians, Europeans, and related groups in West and Central Africa. We compared vernacular names from herbarium collections, literature, and recent ethnobotanical fieldwork in Suriname, Ghana, Benin, and Gabon. A strong correspondence in sound, structure, and meaning among Afro-Surinamese vernaculars and their equivalents in other languages for botanically related taxa was considered as evidence for a shared origin. Although 65% of the Afro-Surinamese plant names contained European lexical items, enslaved Africans have recognized a substantial part of the neotropical flora. Twenty percent of the Sranantongo and 43% of the Maroon plant names strongly resemble names currently used in diverse African languages for related taxa, represent translations of African ones, or directly refer to an Old World origin. The acquisition of new ethnobotanical knowledge is captured in vernaculars derived from Amerindian languages and the invention of new names for neotropical plants from African lexical terms. Plant names that combine African, Amerindian, and European words reflect a creolization process that merged ethnobotanical skills from diverse geographical and cultural sources into new Afro-American knowledge systems. Our study confirms the role of Africans as significant agents of environmental knowledge in the New World.
Economic consequences of increased bioenergy demand
Johnston, C. ; Kooten, G.C. van - \ 2014
Forestry Chronicle 90 (2014)5. - ISSN 0015-7546 - p. 636 - 642.
wood energy-consumption - trade - impacts - model - market
Although wind, hydro and solar are the most discussed sources of renewable energy, countries will need to rely much more on biomass if they are to meet renewable energy targets. In this study, a global forest trade model is used to examine the global effects of expanded demand for wood pellets fired with coal in power plants. Positive mathematical programming is used to calibrate the model to 2011 bilateral trade flows. To assess the impact of increased demand for wood pellets on global forest products, we consider a scenario where demand for wood pellets doubles. Findings indicate that production of lumber and plywood is likely to increase in most of the 20 model regions, but outputs of fibreboard, particleboard and pulp will decline as these products must compete with wood pellets for residual fibre. Ultimately, policies promoting aggressive renewable energy targets cause wood pellet prices to more than double in our scenarios, which could increase the cost of generating electricity to such an extent that, in some regions, electricity producers will continue to use fossil fuels as their primary fuel, while some others might find it worthwhile to rely more on nuclear energy for base load power.
Let's try to get the best out of it” understanding land transactions during land use change
Holtslag-Broekhof, S.M. ; Beunen, R. ; Marwijk, R.B.M. van; Wiskerke, J.S.C. - \ 2014
Land Use Policy 41 (2014). - ISSN 0264-8377 - p. 561 - 570.
personal relationships - agricultural land - institutions - prices - market - redevelopment - conservation - economics - agents
This article investigates land transactions in relation to intended land use change from a micro-scale perspective. A better understanding of land transactions is important for understanding and influencing how land is used. The aim is to explore how the different aspects and their interrelations influence landowner behaviour during land transactions initiated by the government. The study draws on 42 explorative interviews with land purchasers, land policy experts, planning professionals and local farmers. The study shows that uncertainty, and feelings of justice are pivotal aspects during land transactions. Moreover, land transactions are co-evolving with the planning process. Landowners exhibit strategic behaviour based on their personal situation and their expectations on uncertain aspects. The strategies are strongly interrelated with the evolution of land use change. Land use changes are both input on which actors base their strategies, as well as the outcome of those strategies. The aspects found in this study were strongly interrelated and changed over time. Some aspects were context dependent, while others are expected to influence land transactions in general. In this light, the strength of a successful planner is twofold: on the one hand a planner needs to be a good communicator; on the other hand a planner should be able to deal with uncertainty and expectations during plan processes.
Formal institutions and social capital in value chains: The case of the Ethiopian Commodity Exchange
Meijerink, G.W. ; Bulte, E.H. ; Alemu, D. - \ 2014
Food Policy 49 (2014)1. - ISSN 0306-9192 - p. 1 - 12.
trade credit - market - trust
We explore whether the creation of the Ethiopian Commodity Exchange (ECX) and its formal monitoring and enforcement institutions has affected social capital and trust in the Ethiopian segment of the sesame value chain. Consistent with a simple theoretical marketing model, our panel data suggest this is indeed the case. Trade in sesame is increasingly governed by formal rather than informal institutions, and in response traders have broadened their trading network, rely more frequently on traders with whom they do not have social relations, and have reduced the provision of credit that cements personalized relationships. They also have lower levels of trust in the intentions and capabilities of their trading partners, and attach less weight to trust. (c) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The Legitimacy of Certification Standards in Climate Change Governance
Plaza Esteban, C. de la; Visseren-Hamakers, I.J. ; Jong, W. de - \ 2014
Sustainable Development 22 (2014)6. - ISSN 0968-0802 - p. 420 - 432.
global environmental governance - sustainable development - institutional design - forest governance - co-benefits - carbon - market - redd+ - state - accountability
This article explores the role of two private steering mechanisms, the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) and the Climate, Community and Biodiversity Alliance (CCBA), in REDD+, the climate change mitigation policy that aims to avoid deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries. It does so by analyzing input and output legitimacy of the two certification standards at the global level, and at national and local levels in Peru. The findings show an increasing interest among REDD+ actors in using these standards, and a relatively large number of Peruvian REDD+ projects that are certified by the FSC or CCBA. The findings also suggest intrinsic linkages between input and output legitimacy of the FSC and CCBA within single governance levels and across different scales. The article also demonstrates the added value of studying the legitimacy of policy instruments, such as the FSC and CCBA, in a specific context such as REDD+. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment.
Trends in timber production systems in the high forest zone of Ghana
Oduro, K. ; Mohren, G.M.J. ; Affum-Baffoe, K. ; Kyereh, B. - \ 2014
International Forestry Review 16 (2014)3. - ISSN 1465-5489 - p. 289 - 300.
deforestation - market - tenure
Forest degradation and deforestation is high on the international forest agenda, and in countries with a strong timber industry and dwindling forest resource such as Ghana, this poses severe threats to the sustainability of the industry as well as of the resource itself. To curb this, forest plantations are being established to supplement the rapidly declining timber resource base to meet the country's demand for timber. Concerns have been raised about the future timber productions from the plantations and natural forests due to poor management and widespread illegal logging. This study assesses the trends of the growing stock in the main production systems and recent development that has led to the current state of the forest resources in the high forest zone of Ghana. Analysis of national forest inventories data and timber harvesting records in Ghana highlights the trend of the growing stock in timber production areas and the increasing gap between timber demand and supply, which drives illegal logging. Current plantation establishment efforts are not sufficient to bridge the gap between demand and supply of timber, partly due to low establishment rates and lack of appropriate management of newly established plantations. Secure tenure and rights to on-farm trees appears to be a key condition to stimulate large scale planting of forest trees by farmers and other investors. Reform in the management practices is required to align timber harvesting levels to sustainable timber production in Ghanaian forests.
Greening consumption at the retail outlet: the case of the Thai appliance industry
Thongplew, N. ; Spaargaren, G. ; Koppen, C.S.A. van - \ 2014
International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology 21 (2014)2. - ISSN 1350-4509 - p. 99 - 110.
sustainable consumption - methodology - product - market
Over the decades, the Thai appliance industry has developed into a strong and export-oriented industry with rigorous strategies to improve the environmental performance of products and production. Leading producers have recently begun to develop greening strategies targeting the consumption behavior of consumers, materialized through the provision of green appliances, environmental information, and sustainable images and storylines. However, communication regarding green provision in the retail setting has been found to be passive and to not correspond with the orientation of Thai consumers. Consequently, it has been found to be difficult to empower and activate citizen-consumers to buy more sustainable appliances. For this situation to change, green communication strategies of providers must become more proactive by adopting environmental labels to discern green appliances from general appliances and by improving the environmental content of communications in a way that (re)establishes stagnant or even absent consumer trust in green providers.
Unpredictable Outcomes in Forestry—Governance Institutions in Practice
Koning, J. de - \ 2014
Society & Natural Resources 27 (2014)4. - ISSN 0894-1920 - p. 358 - 371.
natural-resource management - environmental governance - ecuadorian amazon - decentralization - deforestation - livelihoods - bolivia - conservation - bricolage - market
Community forest management in the Amazon has been subject to institutional changes because of a shift from government to governance. Although these changes aim to create opportunities for local communities, the effectiveness of new institutions remains arbitrary. In particular, the unpredictability of legislative outcomes—as one of the institutional changes—evokes discussion on how local people respond to new institutions. This article analyzes the effects of forest institutions at the local level. By using the concept of institutional bricolage, the article argues that institutions in practice work differently than intended.
Sharing in or Benefiting from Scientific Advancement?
Timmermann, C.A. - \ 2014
Science and Engineering Ethics 20 (2014)1. - ISSN 1353-3452 - p. 111 - 133.
human-rights - science - resistance - equality - property - market - work - duty
The intellectual property regimes we have currently in place are heavily under attack. One of the points of criticism is the interaction between two elements of article 27 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the widely discussed issue of being able to benefit from scientific progress and the less argued for position of having a right to take part in scientific enterprises. To shine light on the question if we should balance the two elements or prioritize one of them, an exploration will be offered on how benefiting from scientific progress and the ability to participate in the advancement of science relate to securing human capabilities. A different perspective to the question will be gained by identifying the problem as an issue of misrecognition, especially the failure to recognize many willing collaboration partners in scientific research as peers. Lastly, I will argue that cooperative justice requires that if we have an innovation incentive system that disproportionally benefits one particular group, a certain duty to counterbalance this advantage exists when we are relying on mutual cooperation for the recognition of intellectual property rights.
Brand Coopetition with Geographical Indications: Which Information Does Lead to Brand Differentiation?
Dentoni, D. ; Tonsor, G. ; Calantone, R. ; Peterson, C. - \ 2013
New Medit 10 (2013)4. - ISSN 1594-5685 - p. 14 - 27.
external validity - food-products - united-states - olive oil - quality - market - consumers - origin - preferences - competition
Farmers and managers marketing food products with Geographical Indications (GIs) have to play a brand coopetition game: they cooperate with each other to develop a collective GI equity, yet they compete to build their individual brand and to establish market channels. Based on an online experiment on olive oil from "Riviera Ligure" (a region in North-Western Italy) through a convenient sample, this study tests a path model to 1) analyze which types and which sources of GI information differentiate an individual brand with GI from the others; and 2) explore which psychological and demographic variables play a role on the impact of GI information on brand differentiation. The tested path model combines elements of economic consumer theory (Lancaster, 1966) and theory of attitude formation (Fishbein, 1967; Fishbein and Ajzen, 1975). Results cannot be generalized outside the observed product and sample, yet the method is applicable by the GI food industry as a consumer research tool to set up marketing communication strategies.
Asymmetric Price Transmission in Food Supply Chains: Impulse Response Analysis by Local Projections Applied to U.S. Broiler and Pork Prices
Kuiper, W.E. ; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M. - \ 2013
Agribusiness 29 (2013)3. - ISSN 0742-4477 - p. 325 - 343.
In this article, the author's set out Jordà's (2005) method of local projections by which nonlinear/ asymmetric impulse responses can be computed without the need to specify and estimate the underlying nonlinear/asymmetric dynamic system. The method is used to compute price-reaction functions that show how the prices of the different stages in a food supply chain dynamically respond to each other and whether or not these responses reveal any asymmetric patterns. Empirical applications for the U.S. pork-meat and broiler-composite chains illustrate the convenience of the method and reveal that in the pork chain asymmetric price transmission enables retailers (wholesalers) to increase their marketing margin vis-à-vis the wholesalers (farmers), whereas in the broiler sector the retailers face both temporary decreases and increases in their marketing margin as a consequence of asymmetric wholesale-retail price transmission.
Public multi-criteria assessment for societal concerns and gradual labelling
Michalopoulos, A. ; Hogeveen, H. ; Heuvelink, E. ; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M. - \ 2013
Food Policy 40 (2013). - ISSN 0306-9192 - p. 97 - 108.
conjoint-analysis - ethics - trust - food - agriculture - indicators - framework - science - market
We present a multicriteria product assessment framework that can be used to rank existing products against hypothetical product scenarios. Products are ranked for Environmental Impact, Healthfulness, Naturalness and Fairness. Assessment criteria and relative importance weights are sourced from the public. The framework has been demonstrated for fresh tomato production scenarios. Results are valid because they correspond to public concerns, gradient to reward small production improvements, and relative to available product alternatives. Their interpretation can be normative with reference to existing production averages: without agreement on absolute acceptability thresholds. Data improvement agrees with rational stakeholder behaviour. Results identify technological applications of higher and lower public acceptability potential, for production and research agenda optimisation. Other producer uses include labelling and brand name protection. Civil society uses include the critical assessment of production. Public uses include labelling in consumer-driven markets, and smooth production sector re-structuring by incentivizing a race-to-the-top for production externalities of public concern, like the environmental sustainability or the fairness of production.
All-in-Auctions for water
Zetland, D.J. - \ 2013
Journal of Environmental Management 115 (2013). - ISSN 0301-4797 - p. 78 - 86.
experimental economics - laboratory experiments - multiunit demand - prospect-theory - market - design - institutions - payments - rights - rules
This paper proposes a novel mechanism for reallocating temporary water flows or permanent water rights. The All-in-Auction (AiA) increases efficiency and social welfare by reallocating water without harming water rights holders. AiAs can be used to allocate variable or diminished flows among traditional or new uses. AiAs are appropriate for use within larger organizations that distribute water among members, e.g., irrigation districts or wholesale water agencies. Members would decide when and how to use AiAs, i.e., when transaction costs are high, environmental constraints are binding, or allocation to outsiders is desired. Experimental sessions show that an AiA reallocates more units with no less efficiency that traditional two-sided auctions.