Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Coexistence of GMO production, labeling policies, and strategic firm interaction
Venus, Thomas Johann - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): J.H.H. Wesseler, co-promotor(en): D. Drabik; M.J. Punt. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436670 - 148
genetically engineered organisms - food products - nutrition labeling - labelling - crops - plant breeding - germany - european union - regulations - markets - businesses - genetisch gemanipuleerde organismen - voedselproducten - etiketteren van voedingsmiddelen - etiketteren - gewassen - plantenveredeling - duitsland - europese unie - regelingen - markten - bedrijven

This dissertation analyzes the market effects of the coexistence of genetically modified organism (GMO) and conventional production, labeling policies, and strategic firm interactions through vertical product differentiation. Although we focus on GMOs, the applied frameworks can be adopted and extended to other differentiated products where similar concepts apply.

The main body of the dissertation consists of four chapters. In the first chapter, we estimate the perceived costs of legal requirements (‘coexistence measures’) for growing genetically modified (GM) Bt maize in Germany using a choice experiment. The costs of the evaluated ex-ante and ex-post coexistence measures range from zero to more than 300 euros per hectare per measure, and most of them are greater than the extra revenue the farmers in our survey expect from growing Bt maize or than the estimates in the literature. The cost estimates for temporal separation, which were the highest in our evaluation, imply that the exclusion of this measure in Germany is justified. The costliest measures that are currently applied in Germany are joint and strict liability for all damages. Our results further show that neighbors do not cause a problem and that opportunities for reducing costs through agreements with them exist. Finally, we find that farmers’ attitudes toward genetically modified crops affect the probability of adoption of Bt maize. Our results imply that strict liability will deter the cultivation of Bt maize in Germany unless liability issues can be addressed through other means, for example, through neighbor agreements.

The coexistence costs have implications for the supply of products in which GMOs are excluded from the production process (i.e., non-GM labeling). This is the topic of the second chapter. In that chapter, we discuss and illustrate the complexity of non-GM food labeling in Germany. We show how a multi-stakeholder organization that sets a voluntary private production and certification standard can combine the opposing and agreeing interests of its members. This cohesion reduces the fears of retailers of NGO pressure in the case of mislabeling. Whereas non-GM labeling in Germany started as a niche for farmer-to-consumer direct marketing and small processors, it was further driven by anti-GMO organizations. Today, retail chains label some of their store brands and are now the drivers. We also discuss how informing consumers through non-GM labeling addresses imperfect information, but at the same time, can create new information imperfections if consumers are not well informed about the labeling system itself.

Non-GM labeling, together with the EU-wide mandatory labeling of GMOs and their requirements on coexistence, have implications for the potential regulation of crops derived by new plant breeding techniques (NPBTs). In the third chapter, we analyze the market and welfare effects of regulating crops derived by NPBTs as genetically modified or conventional products. We consider the mandatory scheme for labeling GM products and a voluntary non-GM scheme for labeling livestock products derived from non-GM feed. We develop a partial equilibrium model that explicitly takes into account both the coexistence costs at the farm level and the segregation and identity preservation costs at the downstream level. By applying the model to EU rapeseed, we find that regulating NPBTs as GM (as compared to non-GM) in combination with mandatory and voluntary labeling increases prices and therefore makes producers better off. We also show that higher coexistence costs make the price increasing effect even stronger. Voluntary non-GM labeling applied to feed makes consumers in this sector overall worse off, but it benefits farmers and rapeseed oil consumers overall as long as segregation costs are low. Consumers of biodiesel and industrial products, such as lubricants produced from GM rapeseed, benefit from high segregation costs. We show that the effects of farm-level coexistence costs largely differ from the effects of downstream market segregation costs.

In the last of the four chapters, we consider the effects of market power and analyze the decision of investing in quality updating when high-quality product demand is growing. We model a decision of a duopoly that initially offers a product perceived as lower quality (e.g., GM product) to invest in an emerging high-quality (e.g., labeled non-GM) product. We investigate whether the smaller or the larger firm invests first. Either preemption or a war of attrition can result, depending on demand and cost factors. For each case, we derive the unique Nash equilibrium. We show that a firm’s timing to invest in high-quality production (e.g., implement a voluntary production standard) depends on several factors, such as the difference in firm size between competing firms and the level of vertical differentiation, growth and discount rate, demand parameters, and per-unit production costs. We show that institutions, which set private or public certification standards, can affect firms’ investment in differentiated products because the standard stringency affects the production and compliance costs as well as the level of product differentiation. Hence, through the setting of these standards, private and governmental institutions can impact the market structure as well as the growth of an emerging market. Finally, we discuss policy implications and how an adjustment of the EU-regulatory framework from a process- to a product-based system can make several issues discussed in this thesis problems of the past.

Background analysis for a Temporary Measure (State aid) aimed at restructuring the Dutch Dairy Sector
Jongeneel, Roel ; Silvis, Huib ; Daatselaar, Co ; Everdingen, Walter van - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Economic Research memorandum 2017-054) - 20
dairy farming - agricultural sector - milk - markets - crises - agricultural crises - netherlands - melkveehouderij - landbouwsector - melk - markten - landbouwcrises - nederland
The EU dairy sector is facing a crisis, which also affects Dutch dairy farmers. Low milk prices have negatively affected dairy farm profitability. At the same time, the structural adjustment in the Dutch dairy sector has slowed down: the reduction in the rate of farm exits was below normal levels and in contrast with the pattern observed in several other EU Member States. Now the Dutch government would like to consider a temporary support programme aimed at restructuring the dairy sector. The Ministry of Economic Affairs has requested Wageningen Economic Research to provide a background analysis with respect to such a temporary measure. This analysis is requested because the proposed measure would imply state aid to the Dutch dairy sector, which is only allowable in case a number of criteria are satisfied. This research should provide insight into this matter.
Ruimte voor exploratie : agrarische ondernemers op zoek naar klantbehoefte : eindrapportage project Marktgericht Ondernemen 2012-2015
Valk, O.M.C. van der; Splinter, G.M. - \ 2016
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (LEI rapport 2016-040) - ISBN 9789462577923 - 19 p.
tuinbouw - agro-industriële sector - landbouwindustrie - markten - marktconcurrentie - ondernemerschap - innovaties - creativiteit - nederland - horticulture - agroindustrial sector - agribusiness - markets - market competition - entrepreneurship - innovations - creativity - netherlands
Het project Marktgericht Ondernemen (2012-2015) heeft als doel om de positie van telers en ketenpartners in de tuinbouw te versterken. Via verschillende sporen is er gewerkt aan het creëren van (nieuwe) waarde omdat een lage kostprijs alleen niet meer voldoende is om het verschil te maken. Bijvoorbeeld door het ontwikkelen van onderscheidende producten, productconcepten en duurzame verdienmodellen, het vertalen van markt- en consumententrends naar marktkansen, het versterken van ondernemerschap en het aanjagen van een cultuurverandering. Het project heeft een aantal inzichten opgeleverd. Deze inzichten zijn niet alleen relevant voor tuinbouwondernemers, maar feitelijk voor iedereen binnen de Topsector Tuinbouw & Uitgangsmaterialen die zich betrokken voelt bij het innovatiethema ‘Samenwerkende waardeketens’.1 Dit document is een verslag van vier jaar innoveren en exploreren met ondernemers. Een gezamenlijke ontdekkingstocht die niet stopt na het afsluiten van dit project.
Vermarkten van haantjes van legrassen : Samenvatting van en vervolg op rapport 739 (2013,Wageningen UR Livestock Research)
Leenstra, F.R. ; Steverink, M.H.A. ; Niekerk, T.G.C.M. van - \ 2016
Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 937) - 29 p.
kuikens - hanen - hennen - slachtdieren - dubbel-doel rassen - markten - dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - pluimvee - dierethiek - diergezondheid - chicks - cocks - hens - meat animals - dual purpose breeds - markets - animal welfare - animal production - poultry - animal ethics - animal health
Manuel - L’entrepreneuriat semencier
Burg, H. van den; Roo, N. de; Barikore, C. ; Haizuru Zamu, G. ; Ndyanabo, E. ; Simbashizubwoba, C. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (CDI Guide manuel ) - 128
businesses - small businesses - seeds - seed quality - seed certification - certification - markets - storage - africa - bedrijven - kleine bedrijven - zaden - zaadkwaliteit - zaadkeuring - certificering - markten - opslag - afrika
Pathways for the developing Myanmar’s seed sector: A scoping study
Broek, J.A. van den; Subedi, A. ; Jongeleen, F. ; Naing Lin Oo, - \ 2015
Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (CDI rapporten CDI-15-018) - 74
seed production - varieties - seeds - farmers - rural development - markets - farms - agricultural policy - myanmar - south east asia - asia - zaadproductie - rassen (planten) - zaden - boeren - plattelandsontwikkeling - markten - landbouwbedrijven - landbouwbeleid - zuidoost-azië - azië
The study presents an integrated assessment of Myanmar’s seed sector. The study includes information and analyses on regulatory environment for seed production and sales, a characterization of Myanmar’s seed sector with its various seed systems, a landscape of current seed sector interventions; an analysis of three seed value-chains and Myanmar’s seed farm system; as well as business opportunities for the private sector. The report concludes with a number of pathways for developing a vibrant seed sector in which quality seed of superior varieties can be accessed by farmers.
Exit strategies for social venture entrepreneurs
Nuer, A.T.K. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Gert van Dijk; Hans van Trijp, co-promotor(en): Joost Jongerden. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462575684 - 227
ondernemerschap - bedrijfsmanagement - markten - marktstructuur - marketing - ontwikkelingslanden - entrepreneurship - business management - markets - market structure - marketing - developing countries

Key Words: Social Venture Entrepreneurs, Exit, Ownership

Social Venture Entrepreneurs invest in local and mostly bottom of pyramid (BoPs), and more so in developing economies. Different understanding and meanings given to the term exit and ownership, by social venture entrepreneurs and local communities with varied cultural business practices, are highlighted in this thesis. Results from this thesis show that it is important to factor in local and cultural practices into current social venture business models. This will help to ensure the sustainability and scale up of social ventures.

The study explores exit options within business and development management literature. There were limited scientific related social entrepreneurship literatures on the subject matter at the inception of this study. The choice to conduct a qualitative case study was made in order to bring to out the forms and meanings of exit, as well as perceived exit, and ownership forms expected or anticipated by both the social venture entrepreneur and related stakeholders, such as communities and local partners, covered in this study

Opportunities for development of the Moringa sector in Bangladesh : Desk-based review of the Moringa value chains in developing countries and end-markets in Europe
Saavedra Gonzalez, Y.R. ; Maden, E.C.L.J. van der - \ 2015
Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report CDI 15-102) - 50
markets - trade - international trade - moringa - exports - european union - bangladesh - south asia - asia - markten - handel - internationale handel - export - europese unie - zuid-azië - azië
Moringa trees in Bangladesh and in other developing countries have great potential in terms of nutrition security and income generation, but often seem to be underutilized. The European market does offer opportunities for those suppliers that are willing to, and capable of, meeting EU regulations. However, entering the EU market for some developing countries like Bangladesh seems to be farfetched at the time of writing. Firstly, awareness around the nutritional value and market potential of Moringa products needs to be raised so farmers and households begin to maximise the returns of Moringa trees. Secondly, a detailed cost and benefit analysis around a Moringa production company should be conducted. Thirdly, upcoming suppliers need to get acquainted with the regulations and standards required when targeting the export market. This also means that suppliers should establish, and nurture, trading relationships with EU importers or even intermediaries since the volume supplied is likely to be limited according to European terms.
Macro-economics of algae products : Output WP2A7.02
Voort, M.P.J. van der; Vulsteke, E. ; Visser, C.L.M. de - \ 2015
EnAlgae Swansea University - 47
marktonderzoek - algen - macro-economische analyse - markten - materialen uit biologische grondstoffen - chemie op basis van biologische grondstoffen - biobased economy - biobrandstoffen - market research - algae - macroeconomic analysis - markets - biobased materials - biobased chemistry - biofuels
This report is part of the EnAlgae Workpackage 2, Action 7, directed at the economics of algae production. The goal of this report is to highlight potential markets for algae. Per type of algae market the market size, product alternatives, constraints and prices are highlighted. Based on these market characteristics a conclusion is drawn on the market potential for algae products. Per market desk research is done and literature is consulted to create a reliable market outlook.
Alternative Food Networks (AFNs) in Calabria : a sociological exploration of interaction dynamics
amico, S. D' - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Han Wiskerke; G. Gulisano, co-promotor(en): Bettina Bock; Stefano Pascucci. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462572713 - 269
voedsel - sociale netwerken - gemeenschappen - voedselvoorziening - voedselgroepen - consumenten - participatie - boeren - markten - landbouw - calabrië - italië - food - social networks - communities - food supply - food groups - consumers - participation - farmers - markets - agriculture - calabria - italy
Supporting Local Seed Businesses : A Training Manual for ISSD Uganda
Mastenbroek, A. ; Chebet, A. ; Muwanika, C.T. ; Adong, C.J. ; Okot, F. ; Otim, G. ; Birungi, J. ; Kansiime, M. ; Oyee, P. ; Ninsiima, P. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR - 273
seed production - seed development - seed quality - rural development - farming - markets - businesses - small businesses - regional development - training courses - training - agricultural development - uganda - west africa - africa - zaadproductie - zaadontwikkeling - zaadkwaliteit - plattelandsontwikkeling - landbouw bedrijven - markten - bedrijven - kleine bedrijven - regionale ontwikkeling - scholingscursussen - opleiding - landbouwontwikkeling - west-afrika - afrika
The training manual is developed in Uganda to train partner organisations in coaching farmer groups to become sustainable local seed businesses. It introduces the Integrated Seed Sector Development Programme in Uganda and the concept of local seed businesses (LSBs). The manual has 5 modules covering selection, monitoring and sustaining local seed businesses; technically equipping local seed businesses, professionally organising LSBs; orienting LSBs to the market and strategically linking them to service providers.
Vegetables Business Opportunities in Ghana: 2014
Saavedra Gonzalez, Y.R. ; Dijkxhoorn, Y. ; Elings, A. ; Glover-Tay, J. ; Koomen, I. ; Maden, E.C.L.J. van der; Nkansah, G. ; Obeng, P. - \ 2014
Wageningen : GhanaVeg - 52
vegetables - market competition - markets - entrepreneurship - agricultural trade - farm management - ghana - groenten - marktconcurrentie - markten - ondernemerschap - agrarische handel - agrarische bedrijfsvoering
This report addresses the current performance, overall business climate of the vegetable sector and tries to come up with a number of business opportunities. These include business opportunities for high-quality exports, greenhouse technology, and healthy food for the domestic market. It equally advocates for a ‘system change’, both in the enabling environment and the way business is done, both in the export and domestic sectors: shifting from business as usual to new ways of doing business.
Microalgae-based products for food and feed sector: an outlook for Europe
Enzing, C. ; Ploeg, M. ; Barbosa, M.J. ; Sijtsma, L. - \ 2014
Luxembourg : Joint Research Centre (JRC scientific and policy reports JRC 85709) - ISBN 9789279340376 - 82
algen - algenteelt - voedsel - voer - markten - marktanalyse - europese unie - biobased economy - algae - algae culture - food - feeds - markets - market analysis - european union
This report presents the results of an analysis of the technological and market developments in the field of micro-algal production systems, especially for food and feed products. Based on literature search and on interviews and survey to experts, the report provides the current state-ofthe- art of microalgae as systems for producing food/feed products and discusses the future challenges for Europe to become a key player in this field.
Competitiveness of the EU egg industry. International comparison base year 2013
Horne, P.L.M. van - \ 2014
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (Report / LEI Wageningen UR LEI 2014-041) - ISBN 9789086156962 - 36
eieren - landbouwprijzen - handel - markten - eierproducten - productiekosten - europese unie - marktconcurrentie - voedselveiligheid - eggs - agricultural prices - trade - markets - egg products - production costs - european union - market competition - food safety
In this report the impact of reducing or removing import tariffs on the competitiveness of the EU egg sector is studied. The results show that the offer price of whole egg powder in 2013 of some third countries is close to the average EU price. Despite the current import tariffs on whole egg powder, the third countries can be competitive on the EU market. In a scenario with a 50% lower import tariff, all third countries have a lower offer price of whole egg powder compared to the EU egg sector. In a scenario with zero import tariffs, all third countries have a considerably lower offer price of whole egg powder compared to the EU egg sector.
Algae cultivation profitable by 2025
Wijffels, R.H. - \ 2014
voer - diervoedering - diervoeding - voedertechnologie - maling - voedertoevoegingen - ingrediënten - markten - statistiek - veevoederindustrie - voedermiddelbewerking - feeds - animal feeding - animal nutrition - feed technology - milling - feed additives - ingredients - markets - statistics - feed industry - feed processing is tailored towards the information needs of the international feed business community and is complementary to our print publications Feed Tech and Feed Mix. The site offers the worldwide feed industry: news, industry opinions, a newsletter, article archives, market information, and statistics, and much more
Nog meer te winnen met multiproduct outlet : statusrapport bioraffinage door Wageningen UR Food and Biobased Research
Vaartjes, J. ; Ree, R. van - \ 2014
Fluids Processing Benelux 9 (2014)6. - ISSN 1874-7914 - p. 36 - 37.
bioraffinage - biomassaconversie - bio-energie - markten - europese unie - biobased economy - biorefinery - biomass conversion - bioenergy - markets - european union
Wageningen UR heeft in nauwe samenwerking met tien andere landenvertegenwoordigers en in opdracht van het Internationaal Energie Agentschap (IEA Bioenergy Task42) een uitgebreid rapport gepubliceerd over duurzame en synergetische raffinage van biomassa. Dat biedt een overzicht van de status en uitdagingen bij toepassing van efficiënte bioraffinaderijen voor de duurzame valorisatie van biomassa, zowel voor voedsel als nietvoedsel toepassingen. Doel is verbetering van de co-productie van vermarktbare, humane voedings- en veevoeringrediënten, chemicaliën, materialen, brandstoffen, elektriciteit en warmte. Fluids Processing vroeg René van Ree van Wageningen UR naar het hoe en wat.
Bioplastic op bestelling : grondstoffen kunnen steeds opnieuw worden geoogst
Didde, R. ; Bolck, C.H. - \ 2014
WageningenWorld (2014)4. - ISSN 2210-7908 - p. 10 - 15.
bioplastics - materialen uit biologische grondstoffen - biobased economy - biopolymeren - markten - biodegradatie - prijsvorming - economische ontwikkeling - biobased materials - biopolymers - markets - biodegradation - price formation - economic development
Bioplastics hebben de wind in de rug. Steeds meer bedrijven overwegen hun producten te maken van kunststoffen met een plantaardige oorsprong. Christiaan Bolck van Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research helpt ze aan de juiste receptuur.
Synthese monitoring mestmarkt 2006-2012
Koeijer, T.J. de; Luesink, H.H. ; Daatselaar, C.H.G. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 18)
dierlijke meststoffen - markten - monitoring - landbouwtellingen - schattingen - aanbod - vraag - kosten - landbouw - nederland - animal manures - markets - agricultural censuses - estimates - supply - demand - costs - agriculture - netherlands
De aanvoer en afzet van dierlijke mest via de mestmarkt in Nederland zijn op verzoek van het ministerie van Economische Zaken (EZ) voor de periode 2006-2012 in beeld gebracht. Dit is gedaan op basis van analyses van de Vervoersbewijzen Dierlijke Mest (VDM’s) van (Rijksdienst voor Ondernemend Nederland) en op basis van modelberekeningen met MAMBO. Dit WOt-technical report geeft een synthese van de resultaten. Op basis van vergelijkbare meststromen is het aanbod op basis van de VDM’s 73 mln. kg fosfaat. Op basis van modelberekeningen is dit aanbod 74 mln. kg fosfaat. De afzet naar landbouwbedrijven vormt met 40% de belangrijkste afzetpost op de VDM’s. De overige afzetposten op de VDM’s zijn export (28%), verwerking (28%), particulieren (3%) en overige bestemmingen (1%)
Farmers, traders and a commodity exchange: institutional change in Ethiopian sesame markets
Meijerink, G.W. - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Erwin Bulte. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789064648274 - 237
sesam - marketing - handel - markten - goederenbeurzen - ethiopië - sesame - marketing - trade - markets - commodity exchanges - ethiopia

Farmers, traders and a commodity exchange -

institutional change in Ethiopian sesame markets

Gerdien W. Meijerink

When one thinks of Ethiopia, sesame is not the first that comes to mind. Sesame, however, is Ethiopia’s second most important agricultural export, and an important income source for many small-scale farmers. Ethiopia’s government established the Ethiopian Commodity Exchange (ECX) to improve the marketing of sesame.

This study explores the impact of the ECX on the institutions undepinning sesame markets, by interviewing farmers and traders before and after the ECX became mandatory for sesame trade in 2009. It finds that the ECX improved transparency in sesame markets, and as a result improved farmers’ beliefs about opportunistic behaviour of traders, and farmers’ willingness to establish long-term relational contracting with traders. It finds however, that the ECX deteriorated the social capital relations between traders, resulting in a decrease in trade credit between traders.

Boeren, handelaren en een goederenbeurs -

Institutionele cerandering in Ethiopische sesam markten

Gerdien W. Meijerink

Denkend aan Ethiopië, is sesame niet het eerste dat opkomt. Toch is sesam het twee na belangrijkste export product van Ethiopië en een belangijkre bron van inkomsten voor veel kleinschalige boeren. De overheid van Ethiopië heeft de Ethiopische Goederen Beurs (ECX) opgericht om de marketing van sesame te verbeteren.

Deze study verkent de invloed van de ECX op de instituties die sesam markten ondersteunen, door boeren en handelaren te interviewen voor en na het verplicht worden van de ECX voor sesamenhandel in 2009. Het vindt dat de ECX de transparantie in sesam markten heeft verbeterd, waardoor het beeld dat boeren hebben over opportunistich gedrag door handelaren verbeterde, en waardoor boeren sneller geneigd zijn op langere termijn een contractrelatie met handelaren aan te gaan. Het vindt daarentegen ook dat de ECX sociaal kapitaal relaties tussen handelaren heeft doen verslechteren, waardoor er minder handelskrediet tussen handelaren verstrekt wordt.

Rural development and the construction of new markets
Hebinck, P.G.M. ; Ploeg, J.D. van der; Schneider, S. - \ 2014
London : Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group (Routledge ISS studies in rural livelihoods 12) - ISBN 9780415746342 - 212
plattelandsontwikkeling - markten - dynamica - ontwikkelingseconomie - landbouw - economie - middelen van bestaan - plattelandssamenleving - familiebedrijven, landbouw - neveninkomsten - nevenactiviteiten - rural development - markets - dynamics - development economics - agriculture - economics - livelihoods - rural society - family farms - supplementary income - ancillary enterprises
This book focuses on empirical experiences related to market development, and specifically new markets with structurally different characteristics than mainstream markets. Europe, Brazil, China and the rather robust and complex African experiences are covered to provide a rich multidisciplinary and multi-level analysis of the dynamics of newly emerging markets. This book analyses newly constructed markets as nested markets. Although they are specific market segments that are nested in the wider commodity markets for food, they have a different nature, different dynamics, a different redistribution of value added, different prices and different relations between producers and consumers. Nested markets embody distinction viz-a-viz the general markets in which they are embedded. A key aspect of nested markets is that these are constructed in and through social struggles, which in turn positions this book in relation to classic and new institutional economic analyses of markets. These markets emerge as steadily growing parts of the farmer populations are dedicating their time, energy and resources to the design and production of new goods and services that differ from conventional agricultural outputs. The speed and intensity with which this is taking place, and the products and services involved, vary considerably across the world. In large parts of the South, notably Africa, farmers are ‘structurally’ combining farming with other activities. By contrast, in Europe and large parts of Latin America farmers have taken steps to generate new products and services which exist alongside ongoing agricultural production. This book not only discusses the economic rationales and dynamics for these markets, but also their likely futures and the threats and opportunities they face.
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