Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Undernutrition management and the role of protein-enriched meals for older adults
    Ziylan, Canan - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Lisette de Groot; Stefanie Kremer; Annemien Haveman-Nies. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579323 - 148
    elderly - elderly nutrition - undernutrition - enrichment - protein - eating patterns - feeding behaviour - meals - nursing homes - ouderen - ouderenvoeding - ondervoeding - verrijking - eiwit - eetpatronen - voedingsgedrag - maaltijden - verpleeghuizen

    Undernutrition is a major health problem in the growing elderly population. It is estimated that one in ten Dutch community-dwelling older adults is suffering from undernutrition, and one in three Dutch older adults who receive home care. Undernutrition may lead to many negative consequences, ranging from fatigue and falls to impaired immune function and death. This makes undernutrition an obvious target for preventive measures.

    Undernutrition can be defined as “a state of nutrition in which a deficiency or excess (or imbalance) of energy, protein, and other nutrients causes measurable adverse effects on tissue/body form (body shape, size and composition) and function, and clinical outcome”. In addition, it is often described as protein energy malnutrition. Adequate protein intake may to some extent prevent and reverse this process. However, throughout ageing, it becomes increasingly difficult to reach adequate protein intake due to higher protein needs and lower protein intakes. Finding solutions to assist older adults in reaching their optimal protein intake is necessary.

    In our overall research project, we considered 1.2g protein per kg weight per day (g/kg/d) as adequate protein intake. In Dutch community-dwelling older adults, protein intake is around 1.0 g/kg/d, implying room for improvement. However, it is possible that many of these older adults deal with physiological changes, medical conditions, and physical and mental limitations that impair their appetite and food provision. For these older adults with higher protein needs, merely recommending that they eat more would not be realistic. It would be more realistic to explore strategies that increase protein intake without having to increase food intake. This calls for the exploration of instruments that match the needs and preferences of older adults: protein-enriched regular products.

    One particular group that can be identified as a target group for such products, are older adults who receive home care. Undernutrition prevalence is high in this group, which may be explained by their health problems that led to this dependence on home care. Likewise, many of these older adults also depend on meals-on-wheels. These meals-on-wheels recipients, regardless of whether they receive home care or not, often risk undernutrition too. In both these (overlapping) care-dependent groups, difficulties in adhering to energy and protein recommendations can be discerned. For this reason, enriching the readymade meals that these older adults receive may contribute to the prevention of protein undernutrition by increasing protein intake while keeping food intake the same. Here, protein enrichment instruments can be used to prevent undernutrition, but only when implemented in a timely manner. Adequate undernutrition management systems are therefore necessary to facilitate timely intervention, ensuring that the developed protein-enriched meals are actually offered and effective. For this reason, the overall aim of our research project was to gain insight into the current state of undernutrition management in community-dwelling older adults in the Netherlands and explore the role of protein-enriched regular products as a supportive instrument in protein undernutrition management.

    In Study 1 (chapter 2) we explored the experiences of 22 Dutch nutrition and care professionals and researchers with undernutrition awareness, monitoring, and treatment among community-dwelling older adults. This qualitative study among, for example, dietitians, general practitioners, nurse practitioners, and home care nurses provided insight into the current bottlenecks within the existing undernutrition management guidelines. In these telephone interviews, these experts also discussed the current dietary behaviour problems of older adults and their impact on undernutrition risk. The experts’ experiences implied that undernutrition awareness is limited, among both older adults and care professionals. In addition, the interviewees were unclear about which professionals are responsible for monitoring and which monitoring procedures are preferred. The dietitians feel that they become involved too late, leading to decreased treatment effectiveness. In general, the interviewees desired more collaboration and a coherent and feasible allocation of responsibilities regarding undernutrition monitoring and treatment. This implied that the available guidelines on undernutrition management require more attention and facilitation.

    In the following mixed-methods study (chapter 3), with interviews, we qualitatively explored the dietary behaviour and undernutrition risk of 12 Dutch elderly meals-on-wheels clients, one of the largest at-risk groups. We followed up on this information by quantifying the topics that emerged from the qualitative exploration of experienced bottlenecks in performing adequate dietary behaviour. For this, we used a survey among 333 meals-on-wheels clients. The interviews with elderly meals-on-wheels clients made clear that they have fixed and habitual eating patterns, while at the same time their appetite had decreased throughout the years. This was confirmed by the survey finding that regular portion size meals were perceived as too large by the oldest group aged over 75y. In addition, as the professionals suggested earlier, the interviewed elderly clients indeed showed limited awareness of undernutrition risk. Simultaneously, the survey showed that almost one in four elderly meals-on-wheels clients was undernourished. These findings led to the conclusion that staying close to the identified dietary habits may facilitate small yet effective modifications within these habits to prevent inadequate nutritional intake. Still, the limited awareness of undernutrition risk was expected to play a limiting role in whether clients believe they need dietary modifications. Consequently, informing them about this need could facilitate their motivation to implement modifications.

    After learning about the general dietary behaviour of these older adults, we used this information for Study 3 (chapter 4). We developed two kinds of protein-enriched readymade meals that are in line with the needs and preferences of older adults: one of regular size (450g) and one of reduced size (400g). We tested these meals in a lab setting in 120 community-dwelling older adults in a single-blind randomised crossover trial. One day a week at lunchtime, for four weeks, participants had to consume and evaluate a readymade meal. Overall, regardless of portion size, the protein-enriched meals led to higher protein intakes in vital older adults in a lab setting during lunch. In this crossover study, the participants liked the protein-enriched meals and the regular meals equally. However, we did not find the expected lower ratings of satiety after the reduced-size meals, while one reduced-size enriched meal and another regular-size enriched meal led to higher ratings of subsequent satiety. This higher satiety in the enriched meals could lead to compensational behaviour on the remainder of the day.

    After establishing that the protein-enriched meals were effective and acceptable in the lab setting, we moved to the homes of older adults to test the meals in a longer-term study in Study 4 (chapter 5). In this double-blind randomised controlled trial of two weeks, we also included protein-enriched bread to assess whether both this bread and the meals could increase daily protein intake to 1.2g/kg/d in 42 community-dwelling older adults to reach optimal protein intake. We found that the enriched products again led to higher protein intakes and a high liking. The mean protein intake per day was 14.6g higher in the intervention group, which amounted to a protein intake of 1.25g/kg/d, compared with 0.99g/kg/d in the control group. In addition, the meals scored 7.7 out of 10, while the bread scored 7.8 out of 10, which both were comparable with their regular counterparts. Lastly, we found no negative effect of compensational behaviour throughout the day. These promising findings indicated that we achieved a good match between older adults’ needs and preferences regarding protein intake.

    In the general discussion of this thesis (chapter 6), we combined our learnings from the four studies to reflect on protein undernutrition management in community-dwelling older adults and the possible role of protein-enriched regular products. We have discussed a conceptual framework consisting of three wheels of protein undernutrition management. In the first wheel regarding awareness, we proposed that limited awareness of adequate nutrition and body composition forms the largest bottleneck in undernutrition management. When this awareness is generated among both older adults and professionals, it will benefit the second wheel of monitoring. Here, we argued that a policy and the actual facilitation of that policy are required for this monitoring to succeed. When the monitoring is performed adequately, in the third wheel, the appropriate treatment can be carried out. We discussed that personalisation and evaluation of this treatment are important conditions. All in all, the public health implications that we have discussed on the basis of our findings can be summarised by the three key messages that could help us ace in adequate protein undernutrition management: address awareness in both older adults and professionals, facilitate continuous collaboration between professionals, and offer protein-enriched products expediently.

    Older adults, mealtime-related emotions, and functionalities : tailoring protein-enriched meals
    Uijl, Louise C. den - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Kees de Graaf, co-promotor(en): Stefanie Kremer; Gerry Jager. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578920 - 178
    meals - emotions - elderly nutrition - elderly - smell - food preferences - protein - proteins - questionnaires - young adults - chocolate - maaltijden - emoties - ouderenvoeding - ouderen - reuk - voedselvoorkeuren - eiwit - eiwitten - vragenlijsten - jongvolwassenen - chocolade

    Background and aim

    Dietary proteins are of special interest for the heterogeneous group of older adults, since these people do not always have an adequate protein intake. When protein-rich products are better aligned with the requirements of older persons, an adequate nutrient intake is more likely. In this thesis we therefore explored two approaches for tailoring protein-enriched meals to older consumer subgroups; emotion-based and functionality-based. We expected a better ‘product-cluster fit’ (i.e. a more positive meal experience) when the clusters’ meal associations are congruent to their mealtime expectations.


    We conducted an online survey in which vital community-dwelling older adults (n=392) reported their mealtime-related emotions and mealtime functionality. Using a hierarchical clustering analysis we described clusters within our population. Subsequently, we explored the extent to which the expectations of these clusters can be applied for the development of tailored protein-enriched meals. For the emotion-based approach, we conducted two central location tests (CLTs, n=461) to explore older adults’ food-evoked emotions. For the functionality-based approach we conducted in-depth interviews in order to get further insights regarding functional mealtime expectations and attitudes towards proteins and protein-enrichment. Based on the latter insights we tailored PE meal concepts to two functionality-based segments. In a final home-use test, the members of the functionality-based segments (n=91) prepared and evaluated the tailored PE meal concepts.


    The emotion-based approach resulted in four clusters; pleasurable averages, adventurous arousals, convivial indulgers, and indifferent restrictives. These emotions that these segments associated with their mealtimes varied along the two dimensions valence and arousal. However, from both CLTs we learned that the variation in valence-arousal as observed for mealtime-related emotions was not observed for emotions related to actual foods. The latter makes it challenging to identify products that evoke emotions congruent to the mealtime expectations of the emotion-based clusters.

    With regard to the functionality-based approach, we encountered three clusters; physical nutritioners, cosy socialisers, and thoughtless averages. The cosy socialisers value the social interactions and cosiness during their mealtimes, whereas the physical nutritioners focus more on the health and nutrient aspects of meals. Thoughtless averages have the least distinctive mealtime expectations. We translated these functional mealtime expectations into two PE meal concepts; one tailored to cosy socialisers and one tailored to physical nutritioners. These meal concepts were well-accepted by the participants. However, congruency between mealtime expectations and functional meal associations did not result in a better ‘product-cluster fit’.


    Given the challenge to identify congruency between the meal associations and the mealtime expectations of the emotion-based clusters, we consider the emotion-based approach to be not yet actionable enough as a basis for tailoring PE products to older consumers. In contrast, the functionality-based approach appeared to be more promising, since the functional meal expectations could be translated to well-accepted tailored PE meal concepts. However, the effectivity of our functionality-based approach was not yet confirmed in this thesis, since congruency between functional meal associations and functional meal expectations did not necessarily result in a better ‘product-cluster fit’. Future studies, focussing on e.g. other meal types, are recommended to further explore mealtime functionality as a basis for tailoring PE meals to older consumer subgroups.

    The Perfect Meal: The Multisensory Science of Food and Dining
    Spence, C. ; Piqueras Fiszman, B. - \ 2015
    Oxford, UK : John Wiley and Sons - ISBN 9781118490822 - 424
    maaltijden - zintuigen - sensorische evaluatie - meals - senses - sensory evaluation
    Rapportage onderzoeksproject Genieten aan tafel : een toegepast onderzoek naar maaltijdbeleving in verpleeghuizen
    Zeinstra, G.G. ; Atten, M.N. van; Ziylan, C. ; Boelsma, E. ; Peppelenbos, H.W. ; Brok, P. den - \ 2014
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research 1483) - ISBN 9789462570535 - 86
    verpleeghuizen - ouderenvoeding - ouderen - perceptie - volksgezondheid - ziektepreventie - maaltijden - nederland - ondervoeding - voedselconsumptie - nursing homes - elderly nutrition - elderly - perception - public health - disease prevention - meals - netherlands - undernutrition - food consumption
    Er komen steeds meer ouderen in Nederland. Zij doen over het algemeen een groter beroep op de gezondheidszorg, wat tot stijgende zorgkosten leidt en een lagere kwaliteit van leven. Eten en drinken speelt een belangrijke rol bij de preventie van ziekte. Hoewel er steeds meer aandacht is voor de voedingsstatus van ouderen en screeningsprocedures steeds meer toegepast worden, laten de laatste metingen in Nederland zien dat 17% van de cliënten in instellingen ondervoed is en dat 28% risico loopt op ondervoeding. Om ziekte en daarmee verhoogde zorgkosten te voorkomen, en om de kwaliteit van leven te optimaliseren, is preventie van ondervoeding bij ouderen noodzakelijk. Het onderzoek ‘Genieten aan tafel’ beoogde de maaltijdbeleving van verpleeghuiscliënten te optimaliseren, met als doel om eetlust, voedingsstatus, functionele status en kwaliteit van leven te verbeteren en zo zorgkosten te verminderen.
    Knowledge, perceptions and preferences of elderly regarding protein-enriched functional food
    Zanden, L.D.T. van der; Kleef, E. van; Wijk, R.A. de; Trijp, J.C.M. van - \ 2014
    Appetite 80 (2014). - ISSN 0195-6663 - p. 16 - 22.
    perceived healthiness - nutritional knowledge - consumers willingness - improve energy - older-adults - consumption - residents - attitudes - meals
    Promoting protein consumption in the elderly population may contribute to improving the quality of their later years in life. Our study aimed to explore knowledge, perceptions and preferences of elderly consumers regarding protein-enriched food. We conducted three focus groups with independently living (ID) elderly (N¿=¿24, Mage¿=¿67¿years) and three with elderly living in a residential home (RH) (N¿=¿18, Mage¿=¿83¿years). Both the ID and RH elderly were predominantly sceptical about functional food in general. Confusion, distrust and a perceived lack of personal relevance were main perceived barriers to purchasing and consuming these products, although a majority of the participants did report occasionally consuming at least one type of functional food. For the ID elderly, medical advice was an important facilitator that could overcome barriers to purchasing and consuming protein-enriched food, indicating the importance of personal relevance for this group. For the RH elderly, in contrast, sensory appeal of protein-enriched foods was a facilitator. Carrier preferences were similar for the two groups; the elderly preferred protein-enriched foods based on healthy products that they consumed frequently. Future studies should explore ways to deal with the confusion and distrust regarding functional food within the heterogeneous population of elderly. Keywords Focus group; Protein; Functional food; Senior; Distrust; Personal relevance
    The insect cookbook : food for a sustainable planet
    Huis, A. van; Gurp, H. van; Dicke, M. - \ 2014
    New York : Columbia University Press - ISBN 9780231166843 - 191
    insecten als voedsel - kookboeken - eten koken - recepten - maaltijden - voedselbereiding - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - insects as food - cookery books - cooking - recipes - meals - food preparation - sustainability
    In The Insect Cookbook, two entomologists and a chef make the case for insects as a sustainable source of protein for humans and a necessary part of our future diet. They provide consumers and chefs with the essential facts about insects for culinary use, with recipes simple enough to make at home yet boasting the international flair of the world’s most chic dishes. The book features delicious recipes and interviews with top chefs, insect farmers, political figures, and nutrition experts, including chef René Redzepi, whose establishment was elected three times as “best restaurant of the world”; Kofi Annan, former secretary-general of the United Nations; and Daniella Martin of Girl Meets Bug. The book contains all you need to know about cooking with insects, where to buy them, which ones are edible, and how to store and prepare them at home and in commercial spaces.
    Voedselverspilling in de zorg : afvalmetingen in Ziekenhuis Gelderse Vallei geven opmerkelijke resultaten
    Soethoudt, J.M. ; Gameren, Y. van - \ 2013
    Food Hospitality (2013)1. - ISSN 1877-8399 - p. 32 - 33.
    voedselverspilling - voedselafval - ziekenhuizen - etensresten - etensbordafval - maaltijden - food wastage - food wastes - hospitals - leftovers - plate waste - meals
    Metingen in Ziekenhuis Gelderse Vallei hebben aangetoond dat een groot deel van de verstrekte maaltijden in de afvalbak verdwijnt. Het in juni 2012 uitgevoerde onderzoek geeft opmerkelijke resultaten. Zo blijkt bijvoorbeeld dat 30% van al het klaargemaakte voedsel al in de keuken zelf wordt weggegooid. Met de invoering van het maaltijdconcept At Your Request verwacht het ziekenhuis de voedselverspilling te minimaliseren.
    Meer patiënten eten bord leeg
    Soethoudt, J.M. ; Gameren, Y. van; Sas, M. van; Verhagen, K. ; Kooren, N. ; Ploeg, C. van der; Herrewijn, S. ; Assum, S. van den - \ 2013
    Food Hospitality 2013 (2013)augustus. - ISSN 1877-8399 - p. 22 - 23.
    ziekenhuiscatering - voedselverspilling - etensbordafval - etensresten - voedselafval - maaltijden - ziekenhuizen - meting - hospital catering - food wastage - plate waste - leftovers - food wastes - meals - hospitals - measurement
    Ziekenhuis Gelderse Vallei voerde in november 2012 het nieuwe maaltijd-serviceconcept At Your Request in. In april 2013 werd in een tussenmeting de hoeveelheid voedselverspilling gemeten. Eén van de uitkomsten is dat er veel minder voeding van patiënten terugkomt. Ook blijken zij daadwerkelijk meer te zijn gaan eten.
    Relying on satiety cues in food consumption : studies on the role of social context, appearance focus, and mindfulness
    Veer, E. van de - \ 2013
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Hans van Trijp, co-promotor(en): Erica van Herpen. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461736895 - 240
    voedselconsumptie - sociale psychologie - consumenten - voedselopname - verzadigdheid - eetlust - eetlustcontrole - honger - fysiologie - bewustzijn (consciousness) - eten - maaltijden - snacks - food consumption - social psychology - consumers - food intake - satiety - appetite - appetite control - hunger - physiology - consciousness - eating - meals - snacks
    Consumers eat at various sequential occasions throughout the day. The current thesis addresses the question of how one consumption episode can affect the amount of consumption at a subsequent episode. The thesis focuses specifically on how the social context during a consumption episode affects subsequent consumption, and on when consumers rely on hunger and satiety cues in sequential consumption episodes.
    Het stimuleren van gezonde voedselkeuzes : onderzoek gericht op schoolkantines en zorginstellingen
    Reinders, M.J. ; Onwezen, M.C. ; Veggel, R.J.F.M. van; Ruissen, A. ; Voordouw, J. ; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M. - \ 2012
    Den Haag : LEI, onderdeel van Wageningen UR (LEI-rapport : Onderzoeksveld Consument & gedrag ) - ISBN 9789086156085 - 78
    voedselvoorkeuren - voedingsgedrag - voeding en gezondheid - gezondheidsvoedsel - schoolmaaltijden - maaltijden - verpleeghuizen - ouderenvoeding - eetlust - food preferences - feeding behaviour - nutrition and health - health foods - school meals - meals - nursing homes - elderly nutrition - appetite
    In dit rapport is onderzocht op welke manier scholen en zorginstellingen voedsel aanbieden en hoe dit aanbod het voedselkeuzegedrag van leerlingen en de eetlust van ouderen beïnvloedt.
    Weg met waste! Geld verdienen met het terugdringen van verspilling
    Kilian, S. ; Peppelenbos, H. - \ 2012
    Koks! 2012 (2012). - p. 20 - 21.
    ziekenhuiscatering - voedselverspilling - verliezen - catering in instellingen - maaltijden - voedselafval - etensresten - hospital catering - food wastage - losses - institutional catering - meals - food wastes - leftovers
    In Nederland wordt jaarlijks voor ruim 4,4 miljard euro aan voedsel verspild. Een gigantische 'waste'. De zorg doet daar dapper aan mee door iets meer dan twee miljard voor haar rekening te nemen. Er valt dus veel te winnen. Jelle Ferwerda, hoofd voeding van de Sint Maartenskliniek in Nijmegen, behoort tot de koplopers bij het tegengaan van verspilling. "Besteed het geld dat je ermee uitspaart aan een betere kwaliteit van je maaltijden."
    Reductie voedselverspilling in het Rijnland ziekenhuis : komen tot een methodiek voor het meten van voedselverspilling binnen Nederlandse ziekenhuizen
    Snels, J.C.M.A. ; Soethoudt, J.M. - \ 2012
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research nr. 1330) - ISBN 9789461733344 - 44
    voedselverspilling - ziekenhuizen - etensresten - verliezen - ziekenhuiscatering - maaltijden - food wastage - hospitals - leftovers - losses - hospital catering - meals
    De rol van voedsel in ziekenhuizen is de laatste jaren toegenomen. Niet alleen in relatie tot de lichamelijke en geestelijke gesteldheid van de patiënt, maar ook met betrekking tot duurzaamheid. In dat kader heeft het ministerie van EL&I een opdracht uitgezet enerzijds om te kijken hoeveel derving er is bij bepaalde ziekenhuisconcepten en anderzijds om een structuur aan te reiken, waarmee ziekenhuizen inzicht kunnen krijgen in de hoeveelheid voedselverspilling in de eigen situatie en de processen waar die plaatsvindt.
    Smakelijk eten : aandacht voor eten bij het Leger des Heils
    Snels, J.C.M.A. ; Klein Gebbink, S.A. ; Boogaard, K. van den; Delahay, E. ; Borgijink, J. ; Heuvel, E. van den; Houtman, J. ; Kleeven, N. ; Koenders, L. ; Saris, A. ; Steeghs, V. - \ 2012
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR, Wetenschapswinkel (Rapport / Wageningen UR, Wetenschapswinkel 266) - ISBN 9789085851974 - 44
    voedselafval - maaltijd-, drank- en logiesverstrekking - maaltijden - kook-koel systeem - kookmethoden - voedselbereiding - voedselverspilling - food wastes - hospitality industry - meals - cook-chill system - cooking methods - food preparation - food wastage
    Het Leger des Heils wil meer aandacht voor eten. Het wil voedselverspilling tegengaan door reststromen voedsel uit de voedselindustrie te gebruiken bij de productie van warme maaltijden en waar mogelijk de kwaliteit en beleving van maaltijden verbeteren. Het voorliggend onderzoek gaat in op mogelijkheden om deze ambitie te bereiken.
    Het insectenkookboek
    Huis, A. van; Gurp, H. van; Dicke, M. - \ 2012
    Amsterdam [etc.] : ATLAS - ISBN 9789045020310 - 191
    insecten als voedsel - kookboeken - eten koken - recepten - maaltijden - voedselbereiding - insects as food - cookery books - cooking - recipes - meals - food preparation
    Insecten zijn lekker en gezond. Tachtig procent van de wereldbevolking eet ze als delicatesse. Insecten zijn niet alleen een smakelijk en veelzijdig ingredient in de keuken, ze zitten ook vol eiwitten. Bovendien is het kweken van insecten veel duurzamer dan de productie van vlees. In Nederland en Belgie kun je inmiddels sprinkhanen, meelwormen en buffalowormen voor culinair gebruik kopen. Het Insectenkookboek bevat naast heerlijke recepten ook tal van wetenswaardigheden en interviews met topkoks, kwekers en voedingsdeskundigen.
    Eating behaviour and retro-nasal aroma release in normal-weight and overweight adults: a pilot study
    Zijlstra, N. ; Bukman, A.J. ; Mars, M. ; Stafleu, A. ; Ruijschop, R.M.A.J. ; Graaf, C. de - \ 2011
    The British journal of nutrition 106 (2011)2. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 297 - 306.
    food-intake curve - bite size - flavor release - energy-intake - appetite control - obesity - women - meals - satiation - humans
    Eating rate and bite size are important factors affecting food intake, and we hypothesise the underlying role of oral sensory exposure in this. However, the latter currently lacks objective measuring parameters, but an interesting measure could be the extent of in vivo retronasal aroma release. Second, the literature is ambiguous about overweight subjects differing from normal-weight subjects in eating behaviour. Consequently, we investigated: (1) whether eating behaviour (food intake, eating rate, bite size, number of bites and meal duration) relates to weight status and (2) whether the extent of retro-nasal aroma release relates to eating behaviour and weight status. A matched group (sex, age and dietary restraint) of twenty-seven normal-weight (BMI 21.8 (SD 1.6) kg/m(2)) and twenty-seven overweight/obese subjects (BMI 30.5 (SD 5.8) kg/m(2)) consumed a spiced rice meal and apple pie yogurt on separate test days. The extent of retro-nasal aroma release was measured on a third test day. Mean bite size for spiced rice was significantly (P=0.03) larger in overweight/obese (10.3 (SD 3.2) g) v. normal-weight subjects (8.7 (SD 2.1) g). There were no other significant differences in eating behaviour or retro-nasal aroma release between the groups. Eating behaviours were not correlated with BMI or retro-nasal aroma release. Subjects showed consistent eating behaviour for both test products. Eating behaviour might be a characteristic of an individual but not by definition a characteristic for a group of people based on their weight. Given the large sample sizes, necessary according to a posteriori sample size calculations, one needs to consider the relevance of finding a statistically significant difference in eating behaviour between the weight groups in a laboratory setting.
    Oral movements and the perception of semi-solid foods
    Wijk, R.A. de; Janssen, A.M. ; Prinz, J.F. - \ 2011
    Physiology and Behavior 104 (2011)3. - ISSN 0031-9384 - p. 423 - 428.
    custard desserts - texture - mastication - attributes - breakdown - flavor - varies - meals
    Here we review the role of oral movements in the perception of food attributes, particularly for semi-solid and liquid foods ingested almost in ready-to-swallow form. An overview of a series of instrumental and sensory studies suggests clear links between the type of sensation and the time point of processing in the mouth. Some commonly-reported sensations, such as thickness, are relatively immediate and reflect the bulk properties of food bolus when the food is relatively intact. Others, such as fattiness and melting, reflect both bulk and surface properties and follow considerable oral processing when the food is relatively degraded. Yet others, such as fatty after-feel, are only fully developed after swallowing is complete. In addition, oral processing also plays an important role in the generation of aroma and taste sensations. Most of these in prior vivo studies have now been confirmed by in vitro work using a modified rheometer, dubbed the Structure Breakdown Cell (SBC), wherein the mechanical and enzymatic break-down of food can be monitored directly and related to sensory profiles generated by trained panelists.
    Mooie reisverhalen uit voedingsland
    Dagevos, H. - \ 2011
    Voeding Nu 13 (2011)5. - ISSN 1389-7608 - p. 29 - 30.
    voedselconsumptie - voedselproductie - voedingsmiddelen - eten - maaltijden - food consumption - food production - foods - eating - meals
    In zijn eigen werk heeft de auteur het herhaaldelijk over de grote paradox in de wereld van voedsel: terwijl we op ongekende wijze omringd worden door een keur aan voedselproducten zijn we tegelijkertijd nog nooit zo vervreemd geraakt van ons eten. Het is de fascinatie voor deze paradox die Volkskrant-journalist Mac van Dinther heeft aangezet om een reis door voedingsland te maken om op zoek te gaan naar verhalen over wat er op ons bord ligt. Van Dinthers odyssee is een ode aan ons eten geworden.
    Maaltijdservice Máx à la Carte : objectivering van de wijze van uitserveren van maaltijden binnen Máxima Medisch Centrum
    Snels, J.C.M.A. ; Wassenaar, N. - \ 2010
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research ([Report / Agrotechnology & Food Innovations 1192]) - 38
    ziekenhuiscatering - catering in instellingen - institutionele huishoudens - voedselverspilling - maaltijden - ziekenhuizen - hospital catering - institutional catering - institutional households - food wastage - meals - hospitals
    Dit onderzoek heeft betrekking op de nieuwe wijze van uitserveren van maaltijden binnen het Máxima Medisch Centrum (MMC). Dit nieuwe concept sluit aan bij een gezond en duurzaam voedselpatroon. Verondersteld is dat de maaltijdservice resulteert in positieve effecten op het gebied van 'people', 'planet' en 'profit'. Daarnaast is er de gedachte dat het concept resulteert in een verbeterde service aan de patiënt, terwijl er geld bespaard wordt, de CO2-productie gereduceerd wordt en voedselverspilling tegengegaan wordt. De beleving van een maaltijd is niet enkel afhankelijk van de kwaliteit van het voedsel. De ambiance waarin gegeten wordt speelt een minstens zo grote rol. Binnen MMC wordt zelfs gezegd dat ambiance voor 70% de beleving van voedsel bepaalt. Binnen het uitserveerconcept neemt het creëren van een fijne ambiance daarom een belangrijke rol in.
    Vitamin A equivalency and apparent absorption of ß-carotene in ileostomy subjects using a dual-isotope dilution technique
    Bouwman, C.A. ; Naber, T.H.J. ; Breemen, R.B. van; Zhu, D. ; Dicke, H. ; Siebelink, E. ; Hulshof, P.J.M. ; Russel, F.G.M. ; Schaafsma, G. ; West, C.E. - \ 2010
    The British journal of nutrition 103 (2010)12. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 1836 - 1843.
    mass-spectrometry - bioavailability - retinol - humans - volunteers - adults - bioefficacy - spinach - carrots - meals
    The objective was to quantify the vitamin A equivalency of ß-carotene in two diets using a dual-isotope dilution technique and the apparent ß-carotene absorption as measured by the oral–faecal balance technique. Seventeen healthy adults with an ileostomy completed the 4-week diet-controlled, cross-over intervention study. Each subject followed both diets for 2 weeks: a diet containing vegetables low in ß-carotene content with supplemental ß-carotene in salad dressing oil (‘oil diet’; mean ß-carotene intake 3·1 mg/d) and a diet containing vegetables and fruits high in ß-carotene content (‘mixed diet’; mean ß-carotene intake 7·6 mg/d). Daily each subject consumed a mean of 190 µg [13C10]ß-carotene and 195 µg [13C10]retinyl palmitate in oil capsules. The vitamin A equivalency of ß-carotene was calculated as the dose-corrected ratio of [13C5]retinol to [13C10]retinol in serum. Apparent absorption of ß-carotene was determined with oral–faecal balance. Isotopic data quantified a vitamin A equivalency of [13C10]ß-carotene in oil of 3·6:1 (95 % CI 2·8, 4·6) regardless of dietary matrices differences. The apparent absorption of (labelled and dietary) ß-carotene from the ‘oil diet’ (30 %) was 1·9-fold higher than from the ‘mixed diet’ (16 %). This extrinsic labelling technique can measure precisely the vitamin A equivalency of ß-carotene in oil capsules, but it does not represent the effect of different dietary matrices
    Vibromyography of oral processing varies with type of semi-solid food and with sensory judgements
    Wijk, R.A. de; Polet, I. ; Bult, J.H.F. ; Prinz, J.F. - \ 2008
    Physiology and Behavior 95 (2008)3. - ISSN 0031-9384 - p. 521 - 526.
    acoustic myography - masseter muscle - perception - mastication - texture - electromyography - flavor - meals
    Vibromyography was used to quantify oral activity during the processing of well-characterized semi-solid model foods whilst subjects assessed the intensity of the sensory attributes to thick, creamy, melting, fatty, rough and liking. A series of eleven starch-based vanilla custard desserts was prepared with five different viscosities, three different fat levels, and three different particle sizes. Over 5 sessions, subjects (N = 10) took 5 ml spoonfuls of each of the stimuli for 5 s before they rated the strength of the various attributes. The results demonstrated that oral movements varied significantly with the type of semi-solid food and with the type of attribute. Individual subjects displayed a highly idiosyncratic behaviour. Oral movements were significantly related to sensory ratings of liking, creaminess and roughness.
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