Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Profile, Chemical Composition and Acceptability of Suya (a West African Grilled Meat)
Adeyeye, Samuel Ayofemi Olalekan ; Bolaji, Olusola Timothy ; Abegunde, Titilope Adebusola ; Idowu-Adebayo, Folake - \ 2020
Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds (2020). - ISSN 1040-6638
Acceptability - consumer - meat quality - PAHs
This study was carried out to investigate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon profiles, chemical composition and acceptability of suya. Meats from cow, goat, sheep and chicken were processed into suya samples and analyzed to determine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon profile, proximate composition, quality indices and sensory values. The results showed that benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), benzo[a]anthracene (B[a]A), benzo[b]fluoranthene (B[b]FA), benzo[ghi]perylene (B[ghi]P) and dibenzo[a,h]anthracene (DB[a,h]A) suya smples from cow, goat, sheep and chicken meat were 5.74 ± 1.00, 5.72 ± 1.10, 5.87 ± 1.00, 5.91 ± 1.00, 6.19 ± 2.00; 5.29 ± 1.00, 5.38 ± 1.01, 5.52 ± 1.00, 5.03 ± 1.00, 5.73 ± 1.20; 5.32 ± 1.01, 5.49 ± 1.00, 5.41 ± 1.00, 5.12 ± 1.00, 5.91 ± 1.01 and 5.08 ± 1.00, 5.02 ± 1.00, 5.03 ± 1.00, 4.97 ± 1.00; 5.14 ± 1.00 respectively. This study also showed that suya samples prepared from different meat sources contain high concentrations of carcinogenic PAHs, (B[a]P), (B[a]A), (B[b]FA), (B[ghi]P) and (DB[a,h]A) above the EU maximum level of 5.0 µg kg−1 (Commission Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006 as amended by Commission Regulation (EU) No 835/2011 of 19 August 2011) for B[a]P permitted in grilled or barbecued meat. The high concentrations of carcinogenic PAHs in suya samples could endanger the lives of consumers and therefore of public health concern. However, the quality indices such as peroxide values (mgeq.peroxide/kg), free fatty acidity (%), thiobarbituric acid (mMol/kg), and total volatile base-N (mgN/kg) are also within maximum acceptable limits and legislative standards. The high sensory values obtained for the suya samples also suggested that the suya samples from different meat sources are also acceptable to the consumers.
A Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals Dominance Effects on Number of Teats in Pigs
Lopes, M.S. ; Bastiaansen, J.W.M. ; Harlizius, B. ; Knol, E.F. ; Bovenhuis, H. - \ 2014
PLoS ONE 9 (2014)8. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 8 p.
quantitative trait loci - milk fatty-acids - resource population - affecting reproduction - carcass composition - genetic-basis - dairy-cattle - meat quality - qtl analysis - meishan
Dominance has been suggested as one of the genetic mechanisms explaining heterosis. However, using traditional quantitative genetic methods it is difficult to obtain accurate estimates of dominance effects. With the availability of dense SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) panels, we now have new opportunities for the detection and use of dominance at individual loci. Thus, the aim of this study was to detect additive and dominance effects on number of teats (NT), specifically to investigate the importance of dominance in a Landrace-based population of pigs. In total, 1,550 animals, genotyped for 32,911 SNPs, were used in single SNP analysis. SNPs with a significant genetic effect were tested for their mode of gene action being additive, dominant or a combination. In total, 21 SNPs were associated with NT, located in three regions with additive (SSC6, 7 and 12) and one region with dominant effects (SSC4). Estimates of additive effects ranged from 0.24 to 0.29 teats. The dominance effect of the QTL located on SSC4 was negative (-0.26 teats). The additive variance of the four QTLs together explained 7.37% of the total phenotypic variance. The dominance variance of the four QTLs together explained 1.82% of the total phenotypic variance, which corresponds to one-fourth of the variance explained by additive effects. The results suggest that dominance effects play a relevant role in the genetic architecture of NT. The QTL region on SSC7 contains the most promising candidate gene: VRTN. This gene has been suggested to be related to the number of vertebrae, a trait correlated with NT.
Moisture absorption early postmortem predicts ultimate drip loss
Kapper, C. ; Walukonis, C.J. ; Scheffler, T.L. ; Scheffler, J.M. ; Don, C. ; Morgan, M.T. ; Forrest, J.C. ; Gerrard, D.E. - \ 2014
Meat Science 96 (2014)2A. - ISSN 0309-1740 - p. 971 - 976.
water-holding capacity - m-longissimus-dorsi - electrical-stimulation - meat quality - porcine muscle - pigs - ph - halothane - temperature - glycolysis
Water-holding capacity is the ability of meat to hold moisture and is subject to postmortem metabolism. The objective of this study was to characterize the loss of moisture from muscle postmortem and investigate whether these losses are useful in predicting the ultimate drip loss of fresh pork. Cotton–rayon absorptive-based devices were inserted in the longissimus dorsi muscles of pork carcasses (n = 51) postmortem and removed at various intervals for 24 h. Greatest moisture absorption was observed at 105 min post exsanguination. Drip loss varied (0.6–15.3%) across carcasses. Individual absorption at 75 min correlated (r = 0.33) with final drip loss. Correlations improved using individual absorption values at 90 min (r = 0.48) and accumulated absorption values at 150 min (r = 0.41). Results show that significant moisture is lost from muscle tissue early postmortem and suggest that capture of this moisture may be useful in predicting final drip loss of fresh meat.
Naar nieuwe verdienmodellen voor vlees
Poppe, K.J. - \ 2014
V-focus 2014 (2014)1. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 11 - 13.
varkenshouderij - pluimveehouderij - vleeskwaliteit - verduurzaamd vlees - pluimveevlees - vlees - vleesproductie - varkensvlees - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - duurzame ontwikkeling - economische ontwikkeling - supermarkten - agrarische economie - consumentengedrag - wetgeving - prijszetting - Nederland - pig farming - poultry farming - meat quality - cured meats - poultry meat - meat - meat production - pigmeat - sustainability - sustainable development - economic development - supermarkets - agricultural economics - consumer behaviour - legislation - price fixing - Netherlands
De vraag is hoe vlees in de keten op een andere manier tot waarde kan worden gebracht en zodanig dat dit lonend is voor de partijen in de keten. Het project ‘Verdienmodellen’ richt zich op het ontwikkelen en beoordelen van alternatieve businessmodellen met een ander ‘waarde(n)perspectief’ voor de vleesketens kip en varkensvlees(producten).
Surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry: A tool to predict pork quality
Marcos, B. ; Gou, P. ; Guardia, M.D. ; Hortos, M. ; Colleo, M. ; Mach Casellas, N. ; Pas, M.F.W. te; Keuning, E. ; Kruijt, L. ; Tibau, J. ; Gispert, M. ; Arnau, J. - \ 2013
Meat Science 95 (2013)3. - ISSN 0309-1740 - p. 688 - 693.
dry-cured hams - seldi-tof-ms - boar taint - sensory characteristics - meat quality - androstenone - pigs - fat
Expression of water soluble proteins of fresh pork Longissimus thoracis from 4 pure breed pigs (Duroc, Large White, Landrace, and Pietrain) was studied to identify candidate protein markers for meat quality. Surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS) was used to obtain the soluble protein profiles of Longissimus thoracis muscles. The pure breeds showed differences among the studied meat quality traits (pH(u), drip loss, androstenone, marbling, intramuscular fat, texture, and moisture), but no significant differences were detected in sensory analysis. Associations between protein peaks obtained with SELDI-TOF-MS and meat quality traits, mainly water holding capacity, texture and skatole were observed. Of these peaks, a total of 10 peaks from CM10 array and 6 peaks from Q10 array were candidate soluble protein markers for pork loin quality. The developed models explained a limited proportion of the variability, however they point out interesting relationships between protein expression and meat quality. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Effect of gestating sow body condition, feed refusals, and group housing on growth and feed intake in grower-finishing pigs
Sell-Kubiak, E.B. ; Waaij, E.H. van der; Bijma, P. - \ 2013
Journal of Animal Science 91 (2013)8. - ISSN 0021-8812 - p. 3538 - 3548.
muscle-fiber number - group-housed sows - genetic-parameters - postnatal-growth - birth-weight - meat quality - maternal nutrition - hormonal profiles - performance-test - embryo survival
The main focus of this study was to identify sow gestation features that affect growth rate (GR) and feed intake (FI) of their offspring during grower–finishing stage. Because the sow provides a specific environment to her offspring during gestation, certain features (e.g., BW of the sow), feed refusals or gestation group, may affect her ability to deliver and feed a healthy litter. Data on 17,743 grower–finishing pigs, coming from 604 sires and 681 crossbred sows, were obtained from the Institute for Pigs Genetics. Sow gestation features were collected during multiple gestations and divided into 3 clusters describing i) sow body condition (i.e., BW, backfat, and gestation length), ii) sow feed refusals (FR), the difference between offered and eaten feed during 3 periods of gestation: 1 to 28, 25 to 50, 45 to 80 d, and iii) sow group features (i.e., number of sows, and average parity). Sow gestation features were added to the base model 1 at a time to study their effect on GR and FI. Significant gestation features (P <0.1) were fitted simultaneously in animal model to investigate whether they could explain common litter and permanent sow effects. Gestation length had effect on GR [1.4 (g/d)/d; P = 0.04] and FI [6.8 (g/d)/d; P = 0.007]. Body weights of the sow at insemination [0.07 (g/d)/kg; P = 0.08], at farrowing [0.14 (g/d)/kg; P <0.0001], and after lactation [0.1 (g/d)/kg; P = 0.003] had effect on GR. Sow parturition–lactation loss in backfat thickness and weight were not significant for GR and FI. Days with FR during 25 to 50 and 45 to 80 d of gestation and average FR during 45 to 80 d of gestation had negative effect on GR and when substantially increased had also a positive effect on FI. Sow FR from 1 to 28 d of gestation were not significant. Number of sows in gestation group had effect on FI [–9 (g/d)/group member; P = 0.04] and day sow entered group had an effect on GR [–0.9 (g/d)/day; P = 0.04]. Sow gestation features explained 1 to 3% of the total variance in grower–finishing pigs. Gestation features did explain phenotypic variance due to permanent sow and part of phenotypic variance due to common litter effects for FI but not for GR.
Identification of proteomic biomarkers in M. Longissimus dorsi as potential predictors of pork quality
Pas, M.F.W. te; Kruijt, L. ; Pierzchala, M. ; Crump, R.E. ; Boeren, S. ; Keuning, E. ; Hoving-Bolink, A.H. ; Hortós, M. ; Gispert, M. ; Arnau, J. ; Diestre, A. ; Mulder, H.A. - \ 2013
Meat Science 95 (2013)3. - ISSN 0309-1740 - p. 679 - 687.
meat quality - sample preparation - muscles - values - performance - expression - slaughter - traits - system - breeds
Meat quality traits have low heritability and large environmental influences. To predict, improve and manage meat quality, proteomic biomarkers are superior to genetic markers. The objectives of this research were (1) to find associations between proteome profiles of longissimus muscle at slaughter and meat quality SELDI-TOF proteome profiles of 142 LargeWhite × Duroc cross pigs showed relationships among peaks or combinations of peaks and meat quality traits with highest significance for drip loss and ultimate pH. Calculated accuracies of prediction of traits ranged from 20 up to 80%. Differentially expressed proteins related to drip loss and ultimate pH were identified by NanoLC-FTMSMS. The proteins highlight biological mechanisms that may explain how these traits develop biologically and how they are related to each other
Analysis of raw hams using SELDI-TOF-MS to predict the final quality of dry-cured hams
Marcos, B. ; Gou, P. ; Serra, X. ; Guardia, M.D. ; Zhen, Z.Y. ; Hortos, M. ; Mach Casellas, N. ; Pas, M.F.W. te; Keuning, E. ; Kruijt, L. ; Font I Furnols, M. ; Arnau, J. - \ 2013
Meat Science 93 (2013)2. - ISSN 0309-1740 - p. 233 - 239.
sensory characteristics - defective texture - proteome analysis - meat quality - ph - muscles - traits - duroc - sex
The relationship between protein profiles of Gluteus medius (GM) muscles of raw hams obtained from 4 pure breed pigs (Duroc, Large White, Landrace, and Piétrain) with the final quality of the Semimembranosus and Biceps femoris muscles of dry-cured hams was investigated. As expected, Duroc hams showed higher levels of marbling and intramuscular fat content than the other breeds. Piétrain hams were the leanest and most conformed, and presented the lowest salt content in dry-cured hams. Even if differences in the quality traits (colour, water activity, texture, composition, intramuscular fat, and marbling) of dry-cured hams were observed among the studied breeds, only small differences in the sensory attributes were detected. Surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS) was used to obtain the soluble protein profiles of GM muscles. Some associations between protein peaks obtained with SELDI-TOF-MS and quality traits, mainly colour (b*) and texture (F(0), Y(2), Y(90)) were observed. Candidate protein markers for the quality of processed dry-cured hams were identified.
The effect of tryptophan supplemented diets on brain serotonergic activity and plasma cortisol under undisturbed and stressed conditions in grouped-housed Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus
Martins, C.I. ; Silva, P.I.M. ; Costas, B. ; Larsen, B.K. ; Santos, G.A. ; Conceicao, L.E.C. ; Dias, J. ; Overli, O. ; Höglund, E. ; Schrama, J.W. - \ 2013
Aquaculture 400-401 (2013). - ISSN 0044-8486 - p. 129 - 134.
trout oncorhynchus-mykiss - sole solea-senegalensis - neutral amino-acids - cod gadus-morhua - rainbow-trout - flesh quality - atlantic salmon - meat quality - preslaughter stress - interrenal activity
Tryptophan (TRP) supplemented diets have been shown to have therapeutic effects in farmed animals including fish by modulating the activity of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT). The effects reported in fish have been obtained using individually-housed fish and include a reduction in stress response, aggression and stress-induced anorexia. In land farmed animals, TRP supplemented diets have also been shown to improve meat quality as a result of reduced stress during slaughter while in fish no data is currently available. This study aims at investigating whether short-term supplementation with TRP supplemented diets changes brain serotonergic activity and the stress response associated with slaughter handling in grouped-housed Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. Adult fish (n = 108, 490.6 ± 4.0 g, 12 individuals per tank) were exposed to one of the three treatments (triplicates per treatment were used): control (0.48 g/100 g), TRP 4 × (1.87 g/100 g) and TRP 10 × (4.45 g/100 g) diets during 7 days. Afterwards, half of the fish in each tank were subjected to an acute stressor consisting of a combination of crowding and chasing, just prior to slaughter. The other half of the fish represented undisturbed conditions. Blood and brain samples were collected for cortisol and serotonergic activity analyses, respectively. Flesh quality was also assessed in both undisturbed and stressed fish for all treatments by measuring muscle pH and rigor mortis over a 72 h period. Results showed that the highest TRP supplemented diet (TRP 10 ×) induced a significant reduction in undisturbed plasma cortisol (10.57 ± 2.71 ng/ml) as compared to TRP 4 × (24.93 ± 3.19 ng/ml) and control diets (18.69 ± 2.94 ng/ml) and no effect on post-stress cortisol levels. After stress, the major 5-HT metabolite (5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, 5-HIAA) was higher in the TRP 10 × (471.31 ± 60.95 ng/g) as compared to the other diets (TRP 4 ×: 313.52 ± 30.12 ng/g; control: 260.36 ± 19.65 ng/g). Stress before slaughter induced a significant increase in plasma cortisol (from 18.40 ± 1.76 ng/ml under undisturbed conditions to 80.34 ± 7.16 ng/ml), however, it was not sufficient to cause a faster deterioration of flesh quality. TRP supplement diets had also no effect on muscle pH and rigor mortis during the 72 h observation period. In conclusion, this study showed that only the highest levels of supplementation (10 × the control diet) affect serotonergic activity. However, these levels did not result in reduced stress responsiveness or improved flesh quality when an acute stressor is applied before slaughter. Therefore, these results underline the fact that effects of TRP on cortisol production are dose- and context-dependent, and further experiments are needed to determine under which conditions the optimal effect is obtained.
Killing wild geese with carbon dioxide or a mixture of carbon dioxide and argon
Gerritzen, M.A. ; Reimert, H.G.M. ; Lourens, A. ; Bracke, M.B.M. ; Verhoeven, M.T.W. - \ 2013
Animal Welfare 22 (2013)1. - ISSN 0962-7286 - p. 5 - 12.
somatosensory-evoked-potentials - broiler-chickens - gas-mixtures - spontaneous electroencephalogram - behavioral-responses - stunning methods - meat quality - euthanasia - welfare - inhalation
The killing of animals is the subject of societal and political debate. Wild geese are caught and killed on a regular basis for fauna conservation and damage control. Killing geese with carbon dioxide (CO2) is commonly practiced, but not listed in legislation on the protection of flora and fauna, and societal concerns have been raised against this method. In this study, an experiment was carried out killing 30 wild-caught geese using either CO2 or a mixture of CO2 and argon (Ar). Brain function (EEG) and heart function (ECG) were measured to determine loss of consciousness and onset of death. The stage of unconsciousness was reached on average within one minute in both treatments (56 s for CO2 and 50 s for CO2 and Ar). States of minimal brain activity and ineffective heart beat were reached more quickly using CO2 compared to CO2 and Ar (112 versus 178 s for minimal brain activity and 312 versus 394 s for ineffective heart beat for CO2 and the mixture of CO2 and Ar, respectively). The mixture of carbon dioxide and argon did not significantly reduce time to loss of consciousness or death. Further studies on behaviour and stress physiology are needed to determine conclusively whether CO2 alone is a satisfactory agent to kill wild-caught geese as the lower CO2 concentration in the CO2-Ar treatment may act as a sedative and reduce the aversiveness of the animals during exposure to lethal gas concentrations.
Detectie van berengeur
Wagenberg, Coen van - \ 2013
pig farming - on-farm training - boars - boar taint - pigmeat - flavour - detection - meat quality
Effect of intake of linoleic acid and a-linolenic acid levels on conversion into long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in backfat and in intramuscular fat of growing pigs
Smink, W. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. ; Gerrits, W.J.J. - \ 2013
Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition 97 (2013)3. - ISSN 0931-2439 - p. 558 - 565.
arachidonic-acid - broiler-chickens - adipose-tissue - term infants - meat quality - dietary-fat - metabolism - pork - n-3 - performance
A study was conducted to determine the effect of two levels of linoleic acid (LA) intake at either high or low a-linolenic acid (ALA) intake on their conversion and subsequent deposition into long-chain (20–22 C-atoms) polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC PUFA) in muscle and backfat in growing pigs. In a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, 32 gilts from 8 litters were assigned to one of four dietary treatments, varying in LA and ALA intakes. Low ALA and LA intakes were 0.15 and 1.31 g/(kg BW0.75/day), respectively, and high ALA and LA intakes were 1.48 and 2.65 g/(kg BW0.75/day) respectively. There was a close positive relation between intake of ALA and the concentration of ALA in backfat and in intramuscular fat. Dietary ALA did not affect the concentration of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), but increased docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) in backfat. High ALA intake did not significantly affect DHA but significantly increased EPA, 20:3 n-3 and DPA concentrations in intramuscular fat. The n-3 LC PUFA proportion in backfat was increased from approximately 1–3%, which may be useful to enrich meat with these fatty acids. The effect of ALA intake on n-3 LC PUFA was suppressed by LA intake. Dietary ALA suppressed the concentration of n-6 LC PUFA in blood plasma by more than 50%. When compared at equal incremental dose, the inhibiting effect of ALA on blood arachidonic acid was stronger than the stimulating effect of LA as precursor.
Analytical authentication of organic products: an overview of markers
Capuano, E. ; Boerrigter-Eenling, G.R. ; Veer, G. van der; Ruth, S.M. van - \ 2013
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 93 (2013)1. - ISSN 0022-5142 - p. 12 - 28.
fatty-acid-composition - conjugated linoleic acids - conventional agricultural methods - computerized image-analysis - bass dicentrarchus-labrax - stable-isotope variation - triticum-aestivum l. - nutritional quality - potato-tubers - meat quality
Consumers' interest in organic foods is increasing and so is the need for robust analytical tools for their authentication. This review focuses on the most promising biomarkers/analytical approaches that are available for the authentication of organic produce. Food products have been subdivided into two groups: foods of plant origin (crops) and foods of animal origin (meat, milk and dairy products, eggs and fish). For each food category the most suitable biomarkers are presented and their potential for authentication is discussed. In the light of current knowledge, it is unlikely that the authentication of organic food products can be attained by the measurement of a single marker. Analytical approaches based on the measurement of multiple markers and/or complex chemical or physical profiles/fingerprints supported by multivariate statistical analysis seem considerably more promising in this respect. For the development of robust classification models, well-designed experimental studies must be performed that rely on data sets that are both well balanced and of sufficient size to ensure that all relevant sources of variation for the target biomarkers are included in the reference database. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.
Livestock greenhouse gas emissions and mitigation potential in Europe
Bellarby, J. ; Tirado, R. ; Leip, A. ; Weiss, F. ; Lesschen, J.P. ; Smith, P. - \ 2013
Global Change Biology 19 (2013)1. - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 3 - 18.
life-cycle assessment - ruminant production systems - carbon sequestration - soil carbon - milk-production - climate-change - meat quality - dairy-cows - food waste - land-use
The livestock sector contributes considerably to global greenhouse gas emissions (GHG). Here, for the year 2007 we examined GHG emissions in the EU27 livestock sector and estimated GHG emissions from production and consumption of livestock products; including imports, exports and wastage. We also reviewed available mitigation options and estimated their potential. The focus of this review is on the beef and dairy sector since these contribute 60% of all livestock production emissions. Particular attention is paid to the role of land use and land use change (LULUC) and carbon sequestration in grasslands. GHG emissions of all livestock products amount to between 630 and 863 Mt CO2e, or 12–17% of total EU27 GHG emissions in 2007. The highest emissions aside from production, originate from LULUC, followed by emissions from wasted food. The total GHG mitigation potential from the livestock sector in Europe is between 101 and 377 Mt CO2e equivalent to between 12 and 61% of total EU27 livestock sector emissions in 2007. A reduction in food waste and consumption of livestock products linked with reduced production, are the most effective mitigation options, and if encouraged, would also deliver environmental and human health benefits. Production of beef and dairy on grassland, as opposed to intensive grain fed production, can be associated with a reduction in GHG emissions depending on actual LULUC emissions. This could be promoted on rough grazing land where appropriate.
Functional analysis of inter-individual transcriptome differential expression in pig longissimus muscle
Zhao, S. ; Hulsegge, B. ; Harders, F.L. ; Bossers, R. ; Keuning, E. ; Hoekman, A.J.W. ; Hoving-Bolink, A.H. ; Pas, M.F.W. te - \ 2013
Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics 130 (2013)1. - ISSN 0931-2668 - p. 72 - 78.
meat quality - microarrays - discovery - traits - fibers - gene - pork
Selection of pigs for increased meat production or improved meat quality changes muscle mass and muscle composition. This will be related to transcriptome expression profile changes in muscle tissue, generating inter-individual differences. This study investigated the differentially expressed genes in the transcriptome profiles of the longissimus muscle of 75 Large White–Duroc cross sows and castrates. The use of a common reference design enabled to investigate the inter-individual transcriptome expression profile differences between the animals as compared with the means of all animals. The aim of the study was to identify the biological processes related to these inter-individual differences. It was expected that these processes underlie the selection effects. In total, 908 transcripts were differentially expressed. Among them, 762 were mainly downregulated and 146 were mainly upregulated. Gene Ontology and Pathways analyses indicated that the differentially expressed genes belong to three groups of processes involved in protein synthesis and amino acid–protein metabolism, energy metabolism and muscle-specific structure and activity processes. Comparing the functional biological analysis results with previously reported data suggested that the protein synthesis, energy metabolism and muscle-specific structure would contribute to meat production and the meat quality
Nitrogen excretion at different stages of growth and its association with production traits in growing pigs
Shirali, M. ; Doeschl-Wilson, A. ; Knap, P.W. ; Duthie, C. ; Kanis, E. ; Arendonk, J.A.M. van; Roehe, R. - \ 2012
Journal of Animal Science 90 (2012)6. - ISSN 0021-8812 - p. 1756 - 1765.
meat quality - carcass characteristics - body-composition - feed-intake - phosphorus consumption - chemical-analysis - halothane gene - performance - losses
The objectives of this study were to determine nitrogen loss at different stages of growth and during the entire growing period and to investigate the associations between nitrogen excretion and production traits in growing pigs. Data from 315 pigs of an F-2 population which originated from crossing Pietrain sires with a commercial dam line were used. Nitrogen retention was derived from protein retention as measured using the deuterium dilution technique during different stages of growth (60 to 90 kg, 90 to 120 kg, and 120 to 140 kg). Pigs were fed ad libitum with 2 pelleted diets containing 17% (60 to 90 kg) and 16.5% (90 to 120 and 120 to 140 kg) CP. Average daily nitrogen excretion (ADNE) within each stage of growth was calculated on the basis of the accumulated difference between average daily nitrogen intake (ADNI) and average daily nitrogen retention (ADNR). Least ADNE, nitrogen excretion per BW gain (NEWG) and total nitrogen excretion (TNE) were observed during growth from 60 to 90 kg. In contrast, the greatest ADNE, NEWG, and TNE were found during growth from 120 to 140 kg. Statistical analyses indicated that gender, housing type, the ryanodine receptor 1 (RYR1) gene, and batch influenced nitrogen excretion (P <0.05), but the degree and direction of influences differed between growth stages. Gender differences showed that gilts excreted less nitrogen than barrows (P <0.05), which was associated with decreased feed conversion ratio (FCR; feed: gain) and lipid: protein gain ratio. Single-housed pigs showed reduced nitrogen excretion compared with group-housed pigs (P <0.05). In comparison to other genotypes, pigs carrying genotype NN (homozygous normal) at the RYR1 locus had the least nitrogen excretion (P <0.05) at all stages of growth except from 60 to 90 kg. The residual correlations indicated that NEWG and TNE have large positive correlations with FCR (r = 0.99 and 0.91, respectively) and moderate negative correlations with ADG (r = -0.53 and -0.48, respectively), for the entire growing period. Improvement in FCR, increase in ADG and reduction in lipid: protein gain ratio by 1 phenotypic SD reduced TNE per pig by 709 g, 307 g, and 211 g, respectively, over the entire growing period. The results indicate that nitrogen excretion changes substantially during growth, and it can be reduced most effectively by improvement of feed efficiency and to a lesser extent through the improvement of BW gain or body composition or both.
The imprinted gene DIO3 is a candidate gene for litter size in pigs
Coster, N.B. ; Madsen, O. ; Heuven, H.C.M. ; Dibbits, B.W. ; Groenen, M.A.M. ; Arendonk, J.A.M. van; Bovenhuis, H. - \ 2012
PLoS ONE 7 (2012)2. - ISSN 1932-6203
quantitative trait loci - origin allelic expression - meat quality - genome scan - evolutionary conservation - swine chromosome-2 - type-3 deiodinase - mouse-brain - muscle mass - igf2 locus
Genomic imprinting is an important epigenetic phenomenon, which on the phenotypic level can be detected by the difference between the two heterozygote classes of a gene. Imprinted genes are important in both the development of the placenta and the embryo, and we hypothesized that imprinted genes might be involved in female fertility traits. We therefore performed an association study for imprinted genes related to female fertility traits in two commercial pig populations. For this purpose, 309 SNPs in fifteen evolutionary conserved imprinted regions were genotyped on 689 and 1050 pigs from the two pig populations. A single SNP association study was used to detect additive, dominant and imprinting effects related to four reproduction traits; total number of piglets born, the number of piglets born alive, the total weight of the piglets born and the total weight of the piglets born alive. Several SNPs showed significant () additive and dominant effects and one SNP showed a significant imprinting effect. The SNP with a significant imprinting effect is closely linked to DIO3, a gene involved in thyroid metabolism. The imprinting effect of this SNP explained approximately 1.6% of the phenotypic variance, which corresponded to approximately 15.5% of the additive genetic variance. In the other population, the imprinting effect of this QTL was not significant (), but had a similar effect as in the first population. The results of this study indicate a possible association between the imprinted gene DIO3 and female fertility traits in pigs.
Pig welfare and what you can tell from the carcase
Lambooij, E. - \ 2012
Veterinary Record 171 (2012)24. - ISSN 0042-4900 - p. 619 - 620.
different halothane genotypes - pre-slaughter conditions - meat quality - muscle metabolism - anesthetized pigs - domestic pigs - behavior - transport - gene
QUALITY-oriented meat production has grown during the past decade and its aim is to improve the harmonisation of product characteristics and consumer demands. Consumer concerns about quality are not limited solely to intrinsic characteristics, for example, meat quality, but often include extrinsic aspects, such as environment and animal welfare in relation to production. Legislation in various EU-member states is often based on animal health and welfare considerations, protecting personnel working with animals, as well as the health and safety of the animals themselves. This interaction, whether it be during housing, transport or slaughter, should not lead to unnecessary excitement, pain or suffering. The current level of animal welfare protection in the EU is one of the highest in the world. However, the European approach is under pressure because of the differences in animal welfare standards between EU member states. Postmortem measurements in the slaughterhouse provide valuable information for welfare evaluation; however, a good feedback system should be available and a process-oriented animal welfare assurance system developed. It is suggested using the meat inspection as an animal welfare diagnostic tool or in animal welfare surveillance schemes at national and international levels; however, the meat inspection process needs to be standardised, as discussed in a paper on pigs summarised on p 621 in this week's issue of Veterinary Record (Harley and others 2012).
Rapid prediction of pork quality : correlation of fresh meat measurements to pork water holding capacity and its technological quality
Kapper, C. - \ 2012
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Bert Urlings, co-promotor(en): R.E. Klont; J.M.A.J. Verdonk. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461734280 - 135
varkensvlees - vleeskwaliteit - waterbergend vermogen - voedselverwerking - kwaliteit voor voedselverwerking - pigmeat - meat quality - water holding capacity - food processing - food processing quality
Water holding capacity (WHC) of pork defines the sensory appreciation and processing yields of meat. Pork varies in WHC and is mainly generated by differences in post mortem muscle metabolism of carcasses. Nowadays, the pork processing industry performs sorting of carcasses and primal cuts on the basis of weight and lean characteristics. Additional sorting by WHC can further optimize processing yields of pork products. The aim of this thesis was to validate rapid prediction of pork WHC. The first objective of this thesis was to investigate the possibilities of a rapid prediction of pork WHC by measuring parameters such as pH, colour L*, drip loss%, water absorption, and by NIRS at laboratory scale and at pig processing plant scale. Results revealed that NIRS prediction equations could be developed to predict drip loss% and colour L* of pork samples. Equations for colour a*, b*, and pHu were not applicable for prediction of WHC. The positive results of NIRS to predict WHC and colour L* at laboratory scale led to further research to study NIRS prediction of pork quality (pH, colour L*, and WHC) under pig processing plant conditions. It was concluded that NIRS prediction equations can be used for screening WHC at pig processing plants. Also, characterization of moisture loss from muscle early post mortem and whether these losses are useful in predicting WHC of fresh pork was investigated. Results revealed moisture losses from muscle tissue early post mortem which suggested that select time periods correspond to culmination of biochemical and physical events facilitating moisture release, which can be used for early drip prediction. Results suggested an approach for capturing moisture release early post mortem which may be used to predict WHC in pork. The second objective was to investigate if predictions of pork WHC could be used to optimize processing of pork. Technological yields could not be predicted (R2< 0.21 and RPD < 1.1) by NIRS. Pre-selection of back bacons by NIRS predicted WHC values, did result in significant different average pHu and colour L* between both groups. It was concluded that NIRS can be used to predict rapid fresh ham quality for sorting and optimization of the cooked ham process. The overall conclusion of this thesis is that NIRS prediction equations for WHC can be developed for pork loin samples measured at pig processing plants and that these prediction equations can be used to optimize processing of pork.
Minder stress geeft betere kwaliteit vis
Bracke, M.B.M. ; Lambooij, E. ; Vis, J.W. van de - \ 2012
V-focus 9 (2012)5a. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 27 - 29.
vissen - kweekvis - dierenwelzijn - visserijbeleid - vleeskwaliteit - fishes - farmed fish - animal welfare - fishery policy - meat quality
Inmiddels weten we meer over pijn en stress bij vissen. Het inzicht dat vissen pijn en stress kunnen ervaren, was reden voor de Europese en Nederlandse overheid om in te zetten op het vinden van manieren om kweekvissen te verdoven voor de slacht. Het welzijnsonderzoek heeft zich inmiddels verbreed naar de zeevisserij, het transport en de houderijomstandigheden. Minder stress en beter dierenwelzijn kan leiden tot een betere vleeskwaliteit en kansen voor de betrokken bedrijven