Microplastic in a macro filter feeder: humpback whale Megaptera novaeangliae
Besseling, E. ; Foekema, E.M. ; Franeker, J.A. van; Leopold, M.F. ; Bravo Rebolledo, E. ; Kühn, S. ; Mielke, L. ; Heberle-Bors, E. ; Ijzer, J. ; Kamminga, P. ; Koelmans, A.A. - \ 2015
Marine Pollution Bulletin 95 (2015)1. - ISSN 0025-326X - p. 248 - 252.
marine-environment - plastic ingestion - balaenoptera-physalus - mediterranean sea - north-sea - debris - identification - pollutants - particles - additives
Marine filter feeders are exposed to microplastic because of their selection of small particles as food source. Baleen whales feed by filtering small particles from large water volumes. Macroplastic was found in baleen whales before. This study is the first to show the presence of microplastic in intestines of a baleen whale (Megaptera novaeangliae). Contents of its gastrointestinal tract were sieved, dissolved in 10% potassium hydroxide and washed. From the remaining dried material, potential synthetic polymer particles were selected based on density and appearance, and analysed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Several polymer types (polyethylene, polypropylene, polyvinylchloride, polyethylene terephthalate, nylon) were found, in varying particle shapes: sheets, fragments and threads with a size of 1 mm to 17 cm. This diversity in polymer types and particle shapes, can be interpreted as a representation of the varying characteristics of marine plastic and the unselective way of ingestion by M. novaeangliae.
Assessing performance of management strategies for regional case studies
Paijmans, A.J. ; Sluis, M.T. van der; Piet, G.J. - \ 2013
Liverpool : University of Liverpool - ISBN 9780906370858 - 65
ecosysteembeheer - marien milieu - eu regelingen - gevalsanalyse - descriptoren - noordoost atlantische oceaan - zwarte zee - oostzee - middellandse zee - ecosystem management - marine environment - eu regulations - case studies - descriptors - northeast atlantic - black sea - baltic sea - mediterranean sea
This synthesis report identified in a number of regional case studies which descriptors are at high risk of not achieving Good Environmental Status (GES). From those two descriptors where selected that would require the project to apply specific aspects of EBM in their management options to achieve the MSFD objectives. The case study areas were based on the four European marine regions identified in the MSFD; the Northeast Atlantic, the Black Sea, the Baltic Sea and the Mediterranean Sea.
Options for delivering Ecoystem-based Marine Mangament. Identification and management of the main human activities that compromise the operational objectives
Piet, G.J. ; Jongbloed, R.H. ; Paijmans, A.J. - \ 2012
Brussel : European Commission (Report / European Commission )
mariene ecologie - aquatische ecosystemen - strategisch management - beschermingsgebieden - menselijke activiteit - zeevisserij - databanken - regio's - noordoost atlantische oceaan - middellandse zee - zwarte zee - marine ecology - aquatic ecosystems - strategic management - conservation areas - human activity - marine fisheries - databases - regions - northeast atlantic - mediterranean sea - black sea
Two aims of ODEMM WP4 , “Management Strategies” is to: - Develop a range of realistically feasible management strategies or options for these activities, using different types of measures and tools, to achieve regional Operational Objectives; - Apply a formal evaluation of these management strategies using a Management Strategy Evaluation (MSE) tool. The Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) identified the following marine regions: - the Baltic Sea; - North-east Atlantic Ocean; - Mediterranean Sea; - the Black Sea. This document combines Milestones 6, 7 and 8. Milestone 6 is a summary report showing the human activities revealed to be most likely to compromise the achievement of operational objectives in each region. Milestone 7 is a report detailing the indicators and management measures selected for each of the major issues highlighted in each regional sea. Milestone 8 comprises a list of possible management strategies for each of the selected operational objectives in each region. These milestones are reported together in this document because the work in these milestones is complementary and the combined reporting allows an overall synthesis of the work done so far.
Dietary overlap between the potential competitors herring, sprat and anchovy in the North Sea
Raab, K.E. ; Nagelkerke, L.A.J. ; Boeree, C. ; Rijnsdorp, A.D. ; Temming, A. ; Dickey-Collas, M. - \ 2012
Marine Ecology Progress Series 470 (2012). - ISSN 0171-8630 - p. 101 - 111.
engraulis-encrasicolus l. - central baltic sea - clupea-harengus - feeding-behavior - intraguild predation - trophic interactions - population-dynamics - mediterranean sea - fish eggs - irish sea
European anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus increased its abundance and distribution in the North Sea during the mid-1990s and may consume similar zooplankton to and/or compete with other occupants of the North Sea like herring Clupea harengus and sprat Sprattus sprattus. The diets of adult anchovy, sprat and juvenile herring of comparable sizes, sampled close in time and space, were compared to understand how the 3 species prey on zooplankton and establish whether their diets overlap or not. Anchovy was found to be more generalist, consuming a higher diversity of prey items. Herring was more specialized, with low diversity of food items. Sprat was intermediate between anchovy and herring. The dietary overlap between anchovy and sprat was highest, followed by herring and sprat before anchovy and herring. The mean weight of stomach contents did not differ between species. We conclude that of the 3 species, anchovy is likely to be the least affected by changing plankton communities.
Anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus diet in the North and Baltic Seas
Raab, K.E. ; Nagelkerke, L.A.J. ; Boerée, L.A.J. ; Rijnsdorp, A.D. ; Temming, A. ; Dickey-Collas, M. - \ 2011
Journal of Sea Research 65 (2011)1. - ISSN 1385-1101 - p. 131 - 140.
herring clupea-harengus - cod gadus-morhua - haddock melanogrammus-aeglefinus - whiting merlangius-merlangus - long-term changes - intraguild predation - feeding-behavior - irish sea - sprattus-sprattus - mediterranean sea
The diet of anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) in the North and Baltic Seas was studied using stomach analysis from four sampling events in different areas. Zooplanktivory was confirmed; the most frequent prey items (in over 40% of stomachs) were copepods, malacostracan larvae and fish larvae. In the Baltic Sea, Paracalanus spp. and Pseudocalanus spp. were important in relative terms; in the German Bight, Temora spp. dominated the stomach contents. Relative abundances of prey items varied with area more than absolute abundance or presence absence of items. Moreover, the level of resolution of prey categories influenced which prey categories were considered to be most important in driving variability in stomach content. Anchovy diet is broad across the seasons, years and areas sampled, suggesting that it is not a specialist feeder in the North Sea. The similarity of diet between anchovy and other clupeids, as well as anchovy consumption of larval fish, makes the new increased anchovy population a potential intraguild predator of commercial species like herring.
Biomagnification of naturally-produced methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) in harbour seals and harbour porpoises from the Southern North Sea
Weijs, L. ; Losada, S. ; Das, K. ; Roosens, L. ; Reijnders, P.J.H. - \ 2009
Environment International 35 (2009)6. - ISSN 0160-4120 - p. 893 - 899.
occurring organobrominated compounds - marine top predators - polychlorinated-biphenyls - mediterranean sea - flame retardants - interspecies differences - chlorinated pesticides - phocoena-phocoena - food-web - fish
Harbour seals and harbour porpoises are top predator species from the North Sea, have long life spans and hence, are known to accumulate high levels of anthropogenic contaminants. To gain knowledge about the behaviour of naturally-produced compounds in these marine mammals, the biomagnification of naturally-produced methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) was assessed. The biomagnification of MeO-PBDEs (2¿-MeO-BDE 68 and 6-MeO-BDE 47) was lower in harbour seals (all biomagnification factors (BMFs) <1) compared to the same age¿gender groups of the harbour porpoises (all BMFs > 1). This may indicate a better metabolic breakdown of MeO-PBDEs in harbour seals, as was previously suggested for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). In both predators, 6-MeO-BDE 47 had the highest concentrations (range: 45¿483 ng/g lw and 2¿38 ng/g lw for harbour porpoises and seals, respectively) compared to 2¿-MeO-BDE 68 (range: 2¿28 ng/g lw and 1¿6 ng/g lw for harbour porpoises and seals, respectively). In general, the highest concentrations were found in juveniles, suggesting an increased biotransformation capacity with age or the influence of dilution by growth for both species. Here we show that naturally-produced brominated organic compounds can biomagnify and accumulate in North Sea top predators, although to a lesser extent than anthropogenic lipophilic contaminants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) or PBDEs
Sponge culture: learning from biology and ecology = Spons cultuur: leren van biologie and ecologie
Caralt, S. de - \ 2007
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Rene Wijffels, co-promotor(en): M.J. Uriz. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085046578 - 187
sponsen - cultuur - corticium - middellandse zee - celkweek - sponges - culture - corticium - mediterranean sea - cell culture
Sponges produce secondary metabolites, which play several ecological roles (McClintock & Baker 2001) such us competition for the space (Martí 2005), antifouling activity (Martin & Uriz 1993, Becerro 1994), and deterrence from predators (e.g. Becerro et al. 2003).The secondary metabolites produced by sponges have an enormous potential to be used in applications as medical drugs and cosmetics. Most medicines have their origin from natural resources, traditionally from terrestrial plants and, more recently, from marine organisms. Especially, sponges are the origin of a huge number of bioactive compounds, which are chemically very diverse (McClintock & Baker 2001).To supply the market with sufficient amounts of sponge bioactive compounds is a bottleneck currently unsolved. Sponge culture, both at sea and under controlled conditions, is the most assayed method to produce sponge biomass. The cultivation of intact sponges and fragments at sea prevent the control of the environmental conditions, which may not be the optimal for sponge growth. Thus, to control the external variables, cultures of sponge fragments (explants) have been performed in semi-open and closed systems (e.g. Barthel & Theede 1986, Osinga et al. 2003, Sipkema et al. 2006). Cultures of sponge cells and aggregates (primmorphs) have also been intensely studied although a continuous cell line is still far from being obtained (e.g. Pomponi &
Comparison of Mediterranean and Atlantic fishery management
Salz, P. - \ 1997
The Hague : LEI-DLO (Onderzoekverslag / Agricultural Economics Research Institute, Fisheries Department 155) - 100
vis vangen - visserij - landbouw - quota's - productiecontroles - visserijbeheer - overheidsbeleid - landbouwbeleid - agrarisch recht - participatie - atlantische oceaan - middellandse zee - productiebeperkingen - fishing - fisheries - agriculture - quotas - production controls - fishery management - government policy - agricultural policy - agricultural law - participation - atlantic ocean - mediterranean sea - production restrictions