Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Standard Data Form Natura 2000 : bepaling van de belangrijkste drukfactoren in Natura 2000-gebieden
    Schippers, P. ; Schmidt, A.M. ; Kleunen, A. van; Bremer, L. van den - \ 2015
    Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 56) - 30
    natura 2000 - natuurgebieden - habitatrichtlijn - vogelrichtlijn - milieueffect - menselijke invloed - natuurbeheer - natura 2000 - natural areas - habitats directive - birds directive - environmental impact - human impact - nature management
    Dit rapport betreft de documentatie van de gevolgde werkwijze van hoofdstuk 4.3 van het Standard Data
    Form. Het rapport beschrijft de methodiek die gevolgd is om per Natura 2000-gebied de belangrijkste
    drukfactoren uit de voorgeschreven lijst van de EC (de EC-indeling) te bepalen. Hierbij is de informatie over
    de drukfactoren die een negatief effect hebben op de staat van instandhouding van soorten en habitattypen
    uit de landelijke rapportages toegepast. Om de binnen de EC-systematiek geconstateerde problemen op te
    lossen, is er gezocht naar een nieuwe Nederlandse indeling in drukfactoren, waarbij duidelijk onderscheid
    wordt gemaakt tussen de oorzaken van drukfactoren (menselijke activiteiten en natuurlijke processen) en de
    effecten (bv. versnippering, vermesting en verdroging). Door de landelijke EC-indeling te vertalen naar de
    NL-indeling (en vice versa) is de informatie ook geschikter voor praktisch gebruik
    Effecten van militaire en civiele helikopters op vogels op het Kooijhoekschor
    Smit, C.J. ; Schermer, D.S. - \ 2015
    Den Burg : IMARES (Rapport C156/15) - 111
    vogels - helikopters - militaire activiteiten - diergedrag - invloeden - menselijke invloed - noord-holland - birds - helicopters - military activities - animal behaviour - influences - human impact - noord-holland
    Het Maritiem Vliegkamp De Kooy en de civiele medegebruiker van het vliegveld, Den Helder Airport, zijn gelegen op korte afstand van de Waddenzee. Bij de nadering of bij het vertrek van het vliegveld moet, afhankelijk van de windrichting, in de helft van de gevallen op relatief geringe hoogte over de Waddenzee worden gevlogen. Het vliegveld wordt vooral gebruikt ten behoeve van helikopterverkeer. Den Helder Airport gebruikt het vliegveld vooral voor het vervoer van offshore-arbeiders van en naar olie- en gasplatforms op het Nederlands Continentaal Plat. De groep Maritieme Helikopters is de belangrijkste gebruiker vanuit het Ministerie van Defensie. De 12 hier gestationeerde NH90 helikopters hebben De Kooy als thuisbasis. Ook het onderhoud aan deze helikopters vindt hier plaats. Het vliegkamp wordt vooral gebruikt voor trainingsvluchten. De effecten van de uitbreiding van civiel helikopterverkeer op vogels zijn de afgelopen jaren gemonitord. Tijdens deze onderzoeken zijn ook steeds de effecten van militair vliegverkeer meegenomen. Er is na 2006 echter vrijwel geen onderzoek uitgevoerd op de minder intensief gebruikte aan- en afvliegroute via het Kooijhoekschor. Doel van het in deze rapportage beschreven deelonderzoek was de effecten van militair vliegverkeer op deze route nauwkeuriger in kaart te brengen en te actualiseren. Primaire doel van het in deze rapportage beschreven onderzoek was het bepalen van het effect van vliegbewegingen met militaire helikopters op wad- en watervogels op de locatie Kooijhoekschor, gelegen aan de rand van het Balgzand, ten zuidoosten van het Maritiem Vliegkamp De Kooy. Daarbij is vooral gekeken of overvliegende helikopters vogels doen opvliegen, hoe vaak dit gebeurt en beoordeeld of dit wellicht negatieve effecten voor vogels kan hebben.
    Assessing the observed impact of anthropogenic climate change
    Hansen, G.E. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Rik Leemans, co-promotor(en): M. Auffhammer. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574298 - 186
    klimaatverandering - milieueffect - menselijke invloed - climatic change - environmental impact - human impact

    Assessing the observed impact of anthropogenic climate change

    Gerrit Hansen

    Global climate change is unequivocal, and greenhouse gas emissions continue rising despite international mitigation efforts. Hence whether and to what extent the impacts of human induced climate change are already being felt around the world is a timely question.

    The thesis assesses the observed impact of anthropogenic climate change across systems, sectors and world regions. A clear framework for impact attribution studies is laid out and applied to several examples from the literature. The development of the evidence of climate change impacts over the last two decades is documented, and an overview of the status of knowledge is provided with a focus on recent trends in human and managed systems.

    The role of human influence, compared to natural variability, for climate related impacts is assessed for a large range of individual observations that have been reported in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s Fifth Assessment Report. The analysis is based on a novel method that explicitly considers information on the quality and appropriateness of observational and model data for each observation. The thesis discusses caveats and challenges in attributing observed effects to climate change, and points out the consequence of those limitations for scientific policy advice. Key issues concern the question whether extreme weather events and their impacts can be attributed to human induced climate change and the limited availability of long-term monitoring records in many vulnerable regions. The impact of anthropogenic climate change is confirmed for a broad range of natural system effects, and to a lesser degree for human systems. Confident conclusions are mostly limited to direct temperature effects while precipitation effects remaining more uncertain.

    People, soil and manioc interactions in the upper Amazon region
    Peña Venegas, C.P. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Paul Struik, co-promotor(en): Tjeerd-Jan Stomph; Gerard Verschoor. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462573222 - 210
    bodem - landbouw - inheemse kennis - bodemtypen (antropogeen) - inheemse volkeren - ecosystemen - cassave - manihot - diversiteit - menselijke invloed - amazonia - soil - agriculture - indigenous knowledge - soil types (anthropogenic) - indigenous people - ecosystems - cassava - manihot - diversity - human impact - amazonia

    Abstract

    Clara Patricia Peña Venegas (2015). People, soil and manioc interactions in the upper Amazon region. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, The Netherlands, with summaries in English and Dutch, 210 pp.

    The presence of anthropogenic soils, or Amazonian Dark Earths (ADE), fuels the debate about how pristine the Amazon ecosystem actually is, and about the degree to which humans affected Amazonian diversity in the past. Most upland soils of the Amazon region are very acid, highly weathered, and have a limited nutrient holding capacity; together, these characteristics limit permanent or intensive agriculture. Várzeas or floodplains that are periodically enriched with Andean sediments carried and deposited by rivers that cross the Amazon Basin, are moderately fertile but experience periodic floods that limit agriculture to crops able to produce in a short time. ADE patches in uplands usually are more fertile than non-anthropogenic uplands, providing a better environment for agriculture. Most studies about how people manage a broad portfolio of natural and anthropogenic soils come from non-indigenous farmers of Brazil. There is limited information about how indigenous people use a broad soil portfolio, and how this affects the diversity of their staple crop, manioc. With the aim to contribute to the understanding of the role of ADE in indigenous food production, as compared with other soils, and in order to provide information about how indigenous people use and create diversity in Amazonia, research was carried out among five different ethnic groups living in two locations of the Colombian Amazon.

    Several social and natural science methods were used during the study. These included ethnography, participant observation, structured and un-structured interviews, sampling of soil and manioc landraces, standardized protocols for the quantification of soil physical and chemical variables, and molecular techniques to assess genetic diversity of manioc and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    Results indicate that ADE patches from the Middle Caquetá region of Colombia are not contrastingly more fertile than surrounding, non-anthropogenic upland soils, except for higher levels of available phosphorus in ADE. Indigenous farmers from the Middle Caquetá region do not use ADE more frequently or more intensively than non-ADE uplands. The swidden agriculture practiced on ADE and on non-ADE uplands is similar. Although ADE patches were not specifically important for swiddens and therefore relatively unimportant for the production of manioc. They were important as sites for indigenous settlements and for maintaining agroforestry systems with native and exotic species that do not grow in soils with low available phosphorus. Várzeas were also used for agriculture, whether farmers had access to ADE or not. Differences occurred between locations in the type of floodplains selected and the way they were cultivated. Those differences were not related to differences in soil conditions but were associated with the cultural traditions of the different ethnic groups who cultivate low floodplains, as well as labor availability when organizing collective work (mingas) to harvest floodplains.

    Manioc diversity among indigenous communities was not predominantly related with differences in soil types. Complete manioc stocks were cultivated equally on ADE, non-ADE uplands or várzeas. One issue that could be related with this non-specificity in manioc-soil combinations was the similar arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi diversity of soils and the high number of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbionts associated to manioc roots; these were shown to be independent from the physicochemical composition of the soil or the manioc landrace. Differences in the diversity of manioc stocks among ethnic groups were predominantly related to cultural values attached to different manioc landraces.

    This study of indigenous agriculture in environments with natural and anthropogenic soils indicates that people have had an important role in transforming the Amazonian ecosystem through agriculture, with consequences on forest composition and forest dynamics. Pre-Columbian people contributed to this by creating an additional soil- the Amazonian Dark Earths. Although ADE are not presently considered to play a major role in indigenous food production, indigenous people believe that ADE have had an important role in the management of the first maniocs cultivated by their ancestors. The domestication of manioc and the creation and maintenance of hundreds of different landraces by indigenous people contributed, and still contributes, to the region’s plant diversity.

    Seal monitoring and evaluation for the Luchterduinen offshore wind farm: 2. Tconstruction - 2014 report
    Kirkwood, R.J. ; Aarts, G.M. ; Brasseur, S.M.J.M. - \ 2015
    Den Helder : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C152/14) - 65
    zeehonden - habitats - halichoerus grypus - phoca vitulina - menselijke invloed - windmolenpark - constructie - monitoring - ecologische verstoring - noordzee - zuid-holland - seals - habitats - halichoerus grypus - phoca vitulina - human impact - wind farms - construction - monitoring - ecological disturbance - north sea - zuid-holland
    Two seal species live in Dutch waters: the harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) and the grey seal (Halichoerus grypus). They occupy land-based sites (haul-outs) in both the Wadden Sea and the Delta region, and move between these regions along the North Sea coastal zone. Human activities, such as construction of a wind farm in this zone, may influence movement and use of the zone by the seals. Monitoring of potential impacts on seals to Luchterduinen construction was required in the permit to construct. The Luchterduinen offshore wind farm is the third wind farm development in the Dutch North Sea coastal zone (between Den Helder and Rotterdam). Pile-driving of the turbine towers occurred between 31 July and 16 October, 2014. Seals exposed to pile-driving, even at close distances of
    Toepassing ODEMM - methodiek voor het Nederlandse KRM Programma van Maatregelen
    Piet, G.J. ; Sluis, M.T. van der; Paijmans, A.J. - \ 2014
    IJmuiden : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C162/14) - 61
    evaluatie - risicoschatting - ecologische risicoschatting - maatregelen - milieueffect - menselijke invloed - ecosysteembeheer - mariene ecologie - natuurbeheer - evaluation - risk assessment - ecological risk assessment - measures - environmental impact - human impact - ecosystem management - marine ecology - nature management
    Het Nederlandse Kaderrichtlijn Mariene strategie Programma van Maatregelen (PvM) is geëvalueerd met behulp van de ODEMM methodiek. Deze methodiek is ontwikkeld binnen het door de EU gesubsidieerde FP7 project ODEMM (Options for Delivering Ecosystem-based Marine Management). Met deze methodiek kan worden vastgesteld in hoeverre het PvM de menselijke activiteiten die hun invloed op het mariene ecosysteem hebben, in potentie kan mitigeren, zodat een goede milieutoestand behaald kan worden.
    The first wolf found in the Netherlands in 150 years was the victim of a wildlife crime
    Gravendeel, B. ; Groot, G.A. de; Kik, M. ; Beentjes, K. ; Bergman, H. ; Caniglia, R. ; Cremers, H. ; Fabbri, E. ; Groenenberg, D. ; Grone, A. ; Groot Bruinderink, G.W.T.A. ; Font, I. ; Hakhof, J. ; Harms, V. ; Jansman, H.A.H. ; Janssen, R. ; Lammertsma, D.R. ; Laros, I. ; Linnartz, L. ; Marel, D. van der; Mulder, J.L. ; Mije, S. van der; Nieman, A.M. ; Nowak, C. ; Randi, E. ; Rijks, M. ; Speksnijder, A. ; Vonhof, H.B. - \ 2013
    Lutra 56 (2013)2. - ISSN 0024-7634 - p. 93 - 109.
    wolven - fauna - migratie - diergedrag - dna - biochemie - menselijke invloed - centraal-europa - noordoostpolder - wolves - fauna - migration - animal behaviour - dna - biochemistry - human impact - central europe - noordoostpolder
    On July 4th 2013 a dead subadult female wolf-like canid was found by the roadside between Luttelgeest and Marknesse in the Noordoostpolder in the central part of the Netherlands. As the last observations of wild wolves in the Netherlands date back to 1869 the discovery of this animal generated a lot of media attention. European wolf populations have been expanding since the 1950s and the first packs recently established themselves in Germany in geographic proximity of the Dutch border, so natural re-appearance of the species in the Netherlands seemed likely. We investigated the taxonomy of the animal, its geographical origin, and its most recent history. Macroscopic and biochemical analyses of the dead animal convincingly showed that it was a purebred wolf, related to populations from eastern Europe. Bullet impacts and shattered fragments found in the chest and flank, and a discrepancy between the timing of the post mortem and rigor mortis intervals indicated that this wolf was shot prior to illegal transport to the Netherlands. The wolf fed on beaver in either the Carpathian mountains or the Eifel which is too far for the animal to have walked from by itself within the 24 hours needed to digest its last meal. These geographical areas are the only regions where haplotypes and 87Sr/86Sr isotopes retrieved from both the dead wolf and the beaver remains in its stomach co-occur. We therefore conclude that the first Dutch wolf found in the Netherlands in 150 years did not enter the Netherlands by itself but sadly proved to be the victim of wildlife crime. Keywords: Canis lupus, Europe, haplotypes, isotopes, microsatellites, wildlife forensics, wolf.
    Trends in indicatoren van KRM-Zeebodemintegriteit : impact van natuurlijke factoren en menselijk handelen: analyse van schaal en methodiek
    Mesel, I.G. de; Craeymeersch, J.A.M. ; Vries, P. de; Wal, J.T. van der; Schellekens, T. ; Brummelhuis, E.B.M. - \ 2012
    IJmuiden [etc.] : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C119/12) - 52
    mariene ecologie - aquatische ecologie - menselijke invloed - waterbodems - milieueffect - benthos - natuurbescherming - methodologie - eu regelingen - marine ecology - aquatic ecology - human impact - water bottoms - environmental impact - benthos - nature conservation - methodology - eu regulations
    De Kaderrichtlijn Mariene Strategie (KRM) is door de EU in 2008 vastgesteld. Het doel van de KRM is om uiterlijk in 2020 te komen tot een Goede milieutoestand (GMT) van alle Europese mariene wateren. Onder een goede milieutoestand wordt begrepen dat de zee schoon, gezond en productief is en dat het gebruik van de zee op een duurzame wijze plaatsvindt. De beschrijving van de GMT geschiedt aan de hand van elf ecosysteemgerichte descriptoren. Descriptor 6 ‘zeebodemintegriteit’ is één van de elf descriptoren van de KRM en heeft direct betrekking op allerhande handelingen waarbij de zeebodem wordt beroerd. Rijkswaterstaat heeft meer inzicht nodig in de manier waarop de natuurlijke variaties en antropogene handelingen de temporele en ruimtelijke verspreidingspatronen van de bodemgemeenschappen op zee beïnvloeden om zo de impact van de mens op het ecosysteem te kunnen inschatten.
    Baseline survey of anthropogenic pressures for the Lac Bay ecosystem, Bonaire
    Debrot, A.O. - \ 2012
    Den Helder : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C092/12) - 71
    natuurbescherming - ecosysteembeheer - menselijke invloed - verontreiniging - recreatieactiviteiten - zeereservaten - bonaire - nature conservation - ecosystem management - human impact - pollution - recreational activities - marine protected areas - bonaire
    Lac Bay of Bonaire is a shallow non-estuarine lagoon of about 700 hectares, separated from the open sea by a shallow coral barrier-reef. It possesses the only major concentration of seagrass beds and mangroves of the island. It is a designated Ramsar wetland of international significance, an Birdlife International IBA (Important Bird Area) and also fulfills a critical fish nursery function for the reefs of the island. The bay has consequently been designated as a protected area and is managed by Stinapa-Bonaire. The bay has been losing effective seagrass nursery habitat surface and quality as a consequence of mangrove-driven land acclamation. This in-turn is potentially being exacerbated by human-mediated eutrophication and erosion caused by agricultural and animal husbandry in the wider watershed, as well as other factors. The number of visitors to Bonaire and to Lac has been increasing dramatically over the last decades particularly from cruise ships. Yet little has been done to document and map the various types of human use that occur on and in the vicinity of the bay which might affect the ecological carrying capacity of the bay and the critical roles it plays. In this survey we do preliminary mapping and analysis of the level and distribution of human activity in and around Lac and discuss what possible threats these may entail for the environment of the bay.
    Mind the gap: modelling event-based and millennial-scale landscape dynamics
    Baartman, J.E.M. - \ 2012
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Tom Veldkamp; Coen Ritsema, co-promotor(en): Jeroen Schoorl. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461732668 - 216
    geomorfologie - erosie - sedimentatie - dynamica - tijdschalen - landschapsanalyse - modelleren - rivieren - regen - menselijke invloed - landschap - ontwikkeling - spanje - pleistoceen - holoceen - geomorphology - erosion - sedimentation - dynamics - time scales - landscape analysis - modeling - rivers - rain - human impact - landscape - development - spain - pleistocene - holocene

    This research looks at landscape dynamics – erosion and deposition – from two different perspectives: long-term landscape evolution over millennial timescales on the one hand and short-term event-based erosion and deposition at the other hand. For the first, landscape evolution models (LEMs) are often used, which describe landscape forming processes by geomorphic transport laws, usually on annual temporal resolutions. LEM LAPSUS is used in this research to evaluate the landscape dynamics in a study area in south-east Spain: the Guadalentín Basin. The model is calibrated on dated river terrace levels, which show an erosion – deposition – erosion sequence that the model could reproduce. Annual precipitation in this dryland area shows large inter-annual variability and erosion is supposed to be mainly the results of low-frequency, high magnitude rainfall events. Therefore, in this research, landscape dynamics are also assessed using the event-based erosion model OpenLISEM. Eventually, the role of extreme events in long-term landscape evolution are explored by comparing the two models and by incorporating annual rainfall variability into LEM LAPSUS. Another issue that is being addressed in this study is the relative influence of humans as compared to erosion as a natural process. A conceptual model, derived on the basis of dated sediment archives, is tentatively correlated to periods of human impact on the land. Using LAPSUS, the potential influence of historical tillage erosion is simulated, showing that the relatively slow process of tillage erosion added to floodplain aggradation over thousands of years.

    Why elephant roam
    Ngene, S.M. - \ 2010
    University of Twente. Promotor(en): Andrew Skidmore; Herbert Prins; H.A.M.J. van Gils. - Enschede : University of Twente Faculty of Geo-Information and Earth Observation ITC - ISBN 9789061642909 - 195
    loxodonta africana - geografische informatiesystemen - remote sensing - zoögeografie - geografische verdeling - beweging - menselijke activiteit - seizoenen - diergedrag - kenya - menselijke invloed - loxodonta africana - geographical information systems - remote sensing - zoogeography - geographical distribution - movement - human activity - seasons - animal behaviour - kenya - human impact
    The expansion of human activities due to the increase in human population outside protected areas is reducing the range of elephant. This range reduction occurs when elephant habitats are cleared for more farms and settlements. This causes fragmentation of the elephant range, which changes the elephant’ distribution, movement patterns, intensity of occupancy, and speed of movement. The objectives of this study were to use GIS and remote sensing to identify the factors that influence the distribution, intensity of occupancy, and speed of movement of Marsabit elephant; to map and describe their wet and dry season range, intensity of occupancy, and speed of movement, as well as seasonal altitudinal movement in the fragmented mosaic of forest and savanna; to research the cost of humans sharing the environment with the elephant in areas adjacent to Marsabit Protected Area.
    Assessment of Ramsar site Lac Bonaire - June 2010
    Debrot, A.O. ; Meesters, H.W.G. ; Slijkerman, D.M.E. - \ 2010
    Yerseke : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR nr. C066/10) - 31
    natuurbescherming - beschermingsgebieden - mangroves - ecologisch herstel - menselijke invloed - nadelige gevolgen - bonaire - nature conservation - conservation areas - mangroves - ecological restoration - human impact - adverse effects - bonaire
    Following a helpdesk question from the Dutch Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality (LNV) concerning potential threats to the Ramsar Site, Lac Bonaire, the authors visited Lac Bay from 27-29 May 2010. The mangroves, seagrass beds and the reef, both inside and outside of the bay were visited, and we were generously helped by many people on the island, including STINAPA Bonaire, DROB, STCB, and CIEE. In this study we review the main issues, recommend studies, and propose various pilot projects and solutions.
    Disturbance-effect relationships applied in an integral Ecological Risk Analysis for the human use of the North Sea
    Karman, C.C. ; Slijkerman, D.M.E. ; Tamis, J.E. - \ 2009
    Den Helder : IMARES (Report / Wageningen IMARES no. C011/09) - 31
    ecosystemen - noordzee - mariene gebieden - menselijke invloed - aquatische ecosystemen - ecosystems - north sea - marine areas - human impact - aquatic ecosystems
    The relationship between the intensity of seven types of human based disturbances and their resulting effects on survival and reproduction of 30+ species were described as a function of increased mortality or reduced reproduction in the report of Jak et al 2000. The numerical values of the parameters in these functions were, as far as possible, estimated on the basis of data from literature, dealing with the sensitivity of the considered species, or otherwise of related species or biota in general, for the regarded disturbance
    BioScore: A tool to assess the impacts of European Community policies on Europe's biodiversity
    Delbaere, B. ; Nieto Serradilla, A. ; Snethlage, M. ; Alkemade, R. ; Boitani, L. ; Eggers, J. ; Falcucci, A. ; Framstad, E. ; Heer, M. de; Hennekens, S.M. ; Kemitzoglou, D. ; Knegt, B. de; Knijf, G. de; Louette, G. ; Maes, D. ; Maiorano, L. ; Nagy, S. ; Ozinga, W.A. ; Schaminée, J.H.J. ; Tol, S. van; Tröltzsch, K. - \ 2009
    Tilburg : ECNC - ISBN 9789076762289 - 92
    biodiversiteit - flora - fauna - impact - beleid - beoordeling - europa - menselijke invloed - ecologische beoordeling - biodiversity - flora - fauna - impact - policy - assessment - european union countries - human impact - ecological assessment
    BioScore offers a European biodiversity impact assessment tool. The tool contains indicator values on the ecological preferences of more than 1000 species of birds, mammals, amphibians, reptiles, fish, butterflies, dragonflies, aquatic macro-invertebrates and vascular plants. These values are linked to policy-related pressures and environmental variables.
    Gebiedsbescherming Noordzee : habitattypen, instandhoudingdoelen en beheermaatregelen
    Lindeboom, H.J. ; Witbaard, R. ; Bos, O.G. ; Meesters, H.W.G. - \ 2008
    Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-werkdocument 114) - 45
    noordzee - habitats - bescherming - natuurbescherming - mariene ecologie - milieubeleid - nederland - menselijke invloed - north sea - habitats - protection - nature conservation - marine ecology - environmental policy - netherlands - human impact
    In het Integraal Beheerplan Noordzee 2015 is een aantal gebieden aangewezen als potentieel te beschermen gebieden. Voor deze gebieden dienen instandhoudingsdoelen te worden opgesteld. Echter, door de grote variatie van het mariene ecosysteem en het feit dat grote delen van de Noordzee al gedurende decennia enorm door menselijke activiteiten zijn beïnvloed, kleven hier een aantal problemen aan. In dit werkdocument worden deze nader uiteengezet en worden bouwstenen voor mogelijke oplossingen aangedragen. Het werkdocument bevat een korte beschrijving van de (eventueel) te beschermen gebieden; een overzicht van natuurlijke en door de mens gecreëerde habitattypen; een beschrijving van de natuurlijke fluctuaties van het mariene ecosysteem en de mogelijke consequenties voor aanwijzing en beheer van te beschermen gebieden. Gezien de grote variatie van het systeem is het vaststellen van instandhoudingdoelen die gebaseerd zijn op het voorkomen van soorten en het daarna handhaven van zulke doelen in een dergelijk sterk wisselend systeem waarschijnlijk niet efficiënt. Voorgesteld wordt om beheersdoelen of managementdoelen te definiëren uitgaande van de beschreven habitatindeling. Het beheer zou gericht moeten zijn op de menselijke invloeden op de verschillende habitattypen waardoor men een rigide nastreven van mogelijk onbereikbare doelen voorkomt.
    De veranderlijke zee in het Antropoceen : over regime shifts, menselijk gebruik en bescherming
    Lindeboom, H.J. - \ 2008
    Wageningen : Wageningen Universiteit, Wageningen UR - ISBN 9789085852667 - 26
    mariene ecologie - visserij - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - bescherming - menselijke invloed - openbare redes - marine ecology - fisheries - sustainability - protection - human impact - public speeches
    De beleving van grote wateren : de invloed van een aaantal man-made elementen onderzocht
    Vries, S. de; Boer, T.A. de; Goossen, C.M. ; Wulp, N.Y. van der - \ 2008
    Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-rapport 64) - 98
    mariene gebieden - meren - perceptie - gebouwen - jachthavens - turbines - cyanobacteriën - kustgebieden - omgevingspsychologie - menselijke invloed - marine areas - lakes - perception - buildings - marinas - turbines - cyanobacteria - coastal areas - environmental psychology - human impact
    De invloed van boorplatforms, windturbines, hoogbouw aan de kust, jachthavens en vooroevers op de beleving van grote wateren is onderzocht. Als enige niet man-made element is blauwalg meegenomen. De beleving beperkt zich hier tot de waardering voor de visuele component. Door middel van (gemonteerde) foto’s kreeg de ene groep de situatie met het element voorgelegd, een andere zonder. Ongeveer 2300 leden van een consumentenpanel, verdeeld over vier groepen, namen via het internet deel aan het onderzoek. Elke groep beoordeelde 30 foto’s. Boorplatforms hebben de grootste negatieve impact, gevolgd door windturbines en daarna hoogbouw. Vooroevers hebben als enige gemiddeld een (licht) positieve impact. De negatieve impact bleek groter naarmate de situatie zonder element aantrekkelijker werd gevonden. Systematische variaties van de verschijningsvorm van een element lieten zien dat de ‘stap’ van niet naar wel aanwezig zijn het grootste effect opleverde: de negatieve impact nam slechts gering toe met de variabelen nabijheid, grootte en aantal van het element. Trefwoorden: belevingswaarde, grote wateren, boorplatforms, windturbines, hoogbouw, jachthavens, vooroevers, blauwalg
    Impact of human activities on water level and clarity and underwater light climate of Vallisneria spiralis L. in Poyan Lake, China
    Wu, G. - \ 2008
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Andrew Skidmore; Herbert Prins, co-promotor(en): J. de Leeuw. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085049074 - 119
    meren - china - water - oppervlaktewater - waterkwaliteit - watervogels - waterplanten - lichtsterkte - vallisneria spiralis - troebelheid - voedselplanten - groei - remote sensing - oppervlaktewaterkwaliteit - waterstand - aquatische ecosystemen - menselijke invloed - lakes - china - water - surface water - water quality - waterfowl - aquatic plants - light intensity - vallisneria spiralis - turbidity - food plants - growth - remote sensing - surface water quality - water level - aquatic ecosystems - human impact
    Almost 95% of the world population of Siberian crane (Grus leucogeranus) winter in Poyang Lake, China. Here they forage on the tubers of the submerged aquatic macrophyte Vallisneria spiralis L. The growth and production of V. spiralis are regulated by the local hydrology, which might also be influenced by the changed hydrology of the Yangtze River induced by engineering projects. This thesis investigated the impact of dredging activities in the northern Poyang Lake and the Three Gorges Dam in the Yangtze River on the water turbidity and water level of Poyang Lake, analyzed how these hydrological changes influenced the underwater light climate of V. spiralis, and discussed their potential impacts on the growth and productivity of V. spiralis and further on the food habitat of Siberian crane in Poyang Lake. The principal results obtained can be summarized as follows:
    (1) Moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Landsat thematic mapper (TM) images were compared for mapping the tempo-spatial dynamics of water clarity. Two multiple regression models including the blue and red bands of Landsat TM and MODIS respectively explained 83% and 88% of the variation of the natural logarithm of Secchi disk depth. On the basis of the comparison of water clarity predicted from Landsat TM and MODIS data as well as the advantages and contras of both sensors, it is concluded that MODIS offers the possibility to monitor the dynamics of water clarity more regularly and cheaply in relatively big and frequently cloud covered lakes like Poyang Lake.
    (2) The performance of the various Landsat TM bands for detecting dredging ships was explored in the turbid water of the northern Poyang Lake. The result revealed that the TM bands 1 to 4 had limitation especially in turbid water, while bands 5 and 7 better discriminated vessels from surrounding waters. Therefore, it is recommended using the mid-infrared bands of Landsat TM for operational ship monitoring in turbid water.
    (3) The possibility to strengthen inference of dredging impact while simultaneously monitoring vessels and water turbidity with remote sensing techniques was investigated in the northern Poyang Lake. Time-series MODIS images revealed a significant increase in water turbidity from 2001 onwards, while Landsat TM image analysis indicated a simultaneous increase in the number of vessels. Regression analysis further showed a highly significant positive relation (R2 = 0.92) between water turbidity and vessel number. On the basis of discussion of ship-related resuspension, final destinations of vessels and coincidence of vessel clusters with irregular dented patterns and turbid plume development, it is confirmed that dredging caused the increase in water turbidity. Therefore, it is concluded that simultaneously monitoring water turbidity and vessels enhanced the strength of evidence in remotely sensed dredging impact assessments.
    (4) Three extrapolation and interpolation methods were compared for predicting daily photosynthetically active radiation reaching the earth surface over the Poyang Lake national nature reserve. The result revealed that the triangulated irregular network (TIN) and inverse distance weighted (IDW)-based interpolation method produced more reliable result than the extrapolation methods.
    (5) The photosynthetically active radiation reaching the top of V. spiralis (PARlc) in Lake Dahuchi from 1998 to 2006 was modelled. The results revealed significant between year differences in PARtc, which were determined primarily by fluctuation in water level. Six years of Secchi disk depth records revealed seasonal switching of the lake from turbid at low water level in autumn, winter and spring to clear at high water level in summer. The highest PARtc occurred at intermediate water levels, which were reached when the Yangtze River forces Lake Dahuchi out of its turbid state in spring. The operation of the Three Gorges Dam, which will increase water level of Yangtze River from May to June may force Lake Dahuchi out of its turbid state earlier and increase the light intensity reaching the canopy and the production of V spiralis. It is concluded that the operation of the Three Gorges Dam might at the short term increase the light regime and productivity of V. spiralis and possibly affect the food habitat of Siberian crane in Poyang Lake.
    (6) A conceptual framework to integrate a simulation model of plant biomass for V. spiralis with remote sensing and a geographical information system was introduced. It is expected that the system, once implemented, could contribute to evaluate the impact of possible hydrological changes on the growth and productivity of V. spiralis, and assess whether tuber feeding bird populations are constrained by the regional availability of food resources in Lake Poyang.
    It is anticipated that these results provide a basis for the future research and necessary information for decision-making that need to be made by the responsible authorities to decide how to rationally manage this unique lake ecosystem.

    Low flow and drought studies : the Northern European (NE) FRIEND experience
    Tallaksen, L. ; Demuth, S. ; Lanen, H.A.J. van - \ 2007
    In: Climatic and anthropogenic impacts on the variability of water resources. - Paris : Unesco - p. 99 - 106.
    watervoorraden - klimaat - klimaatverandering - conferenties - menselijke invloed - water resources - climate - climatic change - conferences - human impact
    Invloed van varkenshouder op weerstand varkens onderzocht
    Mul, M.F. - \ 2006
    V-focus 3 (2006). - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 40 - 41.
    varkenshouderij - varkens - weerstand - ziekteresistentie - kennisniveau - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - menselijke invloed - pig farming - pigs - resistance - disease resistance - knowledge level - farm management - human impact
    In juni 2005 startte ASG een praktijkproef met 35 varkenshouders in Overijssel, Gelderland, Noord-Brabant en Limburg, waarbij wordt onderzocht of een hoger kennisniveau bij de varkenshouder leidt tot een verbetering van de weerstand van z'n dieren. Er is sprake van kennisuitwisseling tussen varkenshouders, onderzoekers en dierenartsen samen
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