Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Varken is goed als model voor suikerpatiënt
    Sikkema, A. ; Koopmans, S.J. - \ 2015
    Resource: weekblad voor Wageningen UR 10 (2015)1. - ISSN 1874-3625 - p. 8 - 8.
    varkens - mensen - metabolisme - voeding - suikerziekte - dieet - voedingsonderzoek - pigs - people - metabolism - nutrition - diabetes - diet - nutrition research
    Niet alle dikke mensen zijn ongezond. Dat blijkt uit Wagenings onderzoek dat is gedaan met varkens. Varkens doen het goed als onderzoekmodel om het effect van voeding op onze welvaartsziekten te bepalen. De stofwisseling van mensen en varkens komt namelijk sterk overeen, stelt onderzoeker Sietse Jan Koopmans. Dit artikel gaat hier nader op in.
    Dans met mij : een vierkante kilometer in Dreischor
    Alterra - Centrum Landschap, ; Loo, S. van der; Zaken, D. van der - \ 2014
    StudioBBH
    films - wijnbouw - cultuur - landbouwbedrijven - plattelandsbevolking - landgebruik - mensen - menselijk gedrag - platteland - boeren - zeeuwse eilanden - levensgeschiedenis - films - viticulture - culture - farms - rural population - land use - people - human behaviour - rural areas - farmers - zeeuwse eilanden - life history
    De film gaat over één willekeurige vierkante kilometer in Dreischor, waar de makers ruim een jaar hebben gefilmd en de verhalen van een aantal mensen hebben gevolgd. De documentaire is onderdeel van een groter project onder de titel 'Venster op de wereld' waarbij ook een boek verschijnt, waarin onder andere een aantal wetenschappers zich over de kilometer hebben gebogen. Het project is een initiatief van Joop Schaminée en Anton Stortelder, Alterra Wageningen UR
    Sustainable futures : social sciences research at Wageningen University
    Frankema, E.H.P. ; Houweling, W. ; Mol, A.P.J. ; Möller, O. ; Wesseler, J.H.H. ; Branderhorst, A. ; Versluis, K. ; Tielens, J. - \ 2014
    Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462573833 - 71
    sociale wetenschappen - hogere agrarische scholen - universiteiten - onderzoek - levenswetenschappen - nederland - mensen - samenleving - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - milieu - social sciences - agricultural colleges - universities - research - life sciences - netherlands - people - society - natural resources - environment
    African wildlife and people : finding solutions where equilibrium models fail
    Poshiwa, X. - \ 2013
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Herbert Prins; Ekko van Ierland, co-promotor(en): Ignas Heitkonig; Rolf Groeneveld. - Wageningen : Wageningen UR - ISBN 9789461737618 - 173
    wild - extensieve weiden - evenwicht - droogte - mensen - herbivoren - vee - verstoring - ecologische verstoring - zimbabwe - afrika - wildlife - rangelands - equilibrium - drought - people - herbivores - livestock - disturbance - ecological disturbance - zimbabwe - africa

    Grazing systems, covering about half of the terrestrial surface, tend to be either equilibrial or non-equilibrial in nature, largely depending on the environmental stochasticity.The equilibrium model perspective stresses the importance of biotic feedbacks between herbivores and their resource, while the non-equilibrium model perspective stresses stochastic abiotic factors as the primary drivers of vegetation and herbivore dynamics.In semi-arid and arid tropical systems, environmental stochasticity is rather high, making the systems essentially non-equilibrial in nature, suggesting that feedback between livestock and vegetation is absent or at least severely attenuated for much of the time. In southern Africa, range and livestock management however, has been built around the concept of range condition class and the practices of determining carrying capacities and manipulating livestock numbers and grazing seasons to influence range condition. This management approach is derived from the equilibrium or climax concept of Clementsian succession. The erratic and variable rainfall in many pastoral areas of Africa poses a fundamental challenge to this conventional notion of carrying capacity in range management. This realization has caused a shift towards models that embrace non-equilibrium dynamics in ecosystems. The main concern is that application of the range model may contribute to mismanagement and degradation of some rangeland ecosystems. However, only a few studies in rangelands have empirically tested the non-equilibrium hypothesis leading to the debate on rangeland dynamics remaining unresolved.

    Across the savannas of Africa, grasslands are being changed into cultivation due to increasing human population, at the expense of decreasing wildlife populations. African savannas however, still contain pockets of wilderness surviving as protected areas, but even there, species richness of large mammals is decreasing. The inevitable result is the loss of most of the wild plants and animals that occupy these natural habitats, at the same time threatening the well-being of the inhabitants of these savannas. Hence, to facilitate the management of arid and semi-arid savannas for both biological conservation and sustainable use (improving human welfare) an improved understanding of the complex dynamics of these savannas is critical. Furthermore, it is widely recognized that a high level of uncertainty typifies the lives of rural farmers in developing countries.Non-equilibrium dynamics bring additional uncertainty and risk to the system.However, attempts to understand efficient and sustainable ways to improve biodiversity and human welfare in systems showing non-equilibrium dynamics have been rare.The behaviour of non-equilibrium systems is characterised as more dynamic and less predictable than equilibrium systems. Therefore, non-equilibrium dynamics in dryland ecosystems present a different kind of management problem for both livestock and wildlife systems since their management has been dictated by the equilibrium assumption. Additionally, loss of biodiversity is regarded today as one of the great unsolved environmental problems.Faced with this biodiversity crisis, the challenge is to find ways to respond in a flexible way to deal with uncertainty and surprises brought about by non-equilibrium dynamics.

    In this thesis I use a bioeconomic approach in analyzing the implications of non-equilibrium dynamics for the efficient and sustainable management of wildlife and livestock in dryland grazing systems. The study area for this thesis is southeastern lowveld of Zimbabwe.

    In chapter 2, I investigate the role of abiotic and biotic factors in determining plant species composition. While early studies emphasized the importance of edaphic and environmental controls on plant species distribution and spatial variation in vegetation composition, recent studies have documented the importance of both natural and anthropogenic disturbances in this respect. At a regional scale vegetation structure (i.e., grass/tree ratio) and species composition in savannas is largely determined by precipitation, whereas at the nested landscape-scale vegetation structure and composition is more prominently determined by geologic substrate, topography, fire and herbivory. Chapter 2, shows that at the landscape scale, abiotic variables such as rainfall and soil fertility override the effect of humans and livestock on the herbaceous and the woody plant composition.

    Then, in Chapter 3, I ask the question whether there is something like non-equilibrium and what are the impacts of such dynamics on cattle herd dynamics? I studied the relevance of non-equilibrium theory to my study area by testing whether annual changes in cattle numbers showed the presence of crashes and if so, what were the factors best explaining those crashes and what age and sex classes of cattle were most vulnerable to such crashes? Chapter 3 showed that crashes in annual cattle numbers were evident and were best explained by rainfall and NDVI and their lags. Immigration i.e., movement in of animals was also an important factor in years when rainfall was below the threshold and so it was a possible source of cattle recovery after a crash together with high calving rates. In years when rainfall was above the rainfall threshold, NDVI explained more variation in annual changes of livestock. The impacts of crashes were greater on calves than other cattle age categories thus explaining why there are legacy effects (lags) in cattle numbers that can only partly be offset by cattle purchases from elsewhere because of poverty or lack of surplus stock elsewhere. These findings make the southeastern lowveld system to be dominated by non-equilibrium dynamics.

    The welfare of local people is the issue that I focused on in my economic section of this thesis (Chapters 4 and 5). I addressed the question of how risks of fluctuations in household income can be managed in order to improve human welfare. The expectation was that in systems exhibiting non-equilibrium dynamics people can improve their welfare by exploiting a combination of wildlife and agricultural activities (livestock and cropping) in their attempts to reduce fluctuations in their annual welfare. This would be possible if the risks in wildlife and agro-pastoral systems were sufficiently different. Exploiting different sources of income requires efficient allocation of resources. The most prominent resource is land and land varies spatially in quality and ecological resources require spatial connectivity. Therefore the spatial dimension is important in this allocation.

    In Chapter 4 I asked the question: To what extent can wildlife income buffer rural households’ incomes against fluctuations in rainfall? I studied the extent to which wildlife derived income can buffer local households’ income against fluctuations due to rainfall. The addition of wildlife as an asset for rural farmers’ portfolio of assets showed that wildlife can be used as a hedge asset to offset risk from agricultural production without compromising on return. However, the power of diversification using wildlife is limited because revenues from agriculture and wildlife assets were positively correlated. However, the correlation was very weak (only 0.4 and the explained variance thus only be 16 %) which gives ample scope for buffering. Therefore, revenues from wildlife have potential to reduce household income fluctuations due to drought, but only to a limited extent.

    In Chapter 5 the question was: From a theoretical perspective, can wildlife income have an insurance value to local people? I used a modelling approach to study the extent to which wildlife income offers an insurance value to local people against fluctuating annual rainfall. Findings did not support the common assertion that wildlife can offer insurance to local people against income fluctuations due to rainfall fluctuations. The failure by wildlife income to offer insurance value to local people could be explained by high costs of harvesting the wildlife resource and high densities of both human and livestock populations in southeastern lowveld.As corollary I draw the conclusion that wildlife cannot pay its way in these rangelands as long as there are high densities of people as shown in Chapter 5. Definitely wildlife income becomes insufficient if long-term sustainability of wildlife resources is considered.

    Chapter 6, finally synthesizes the conclusions that can be drawn from the preceding chapters and puts the issues addressed in a broader context. In summary, this thesis shows evidence of non-equilibrium dynamics in semi-arid grazing systems. Furthermore, the small contribution of wildlife income to local people’s welfare goes to show the widely shared view that financial rewards generated through integrated conservation and development programmes such as CAMPFIRE have generally been seen as insufficient. This led me to suggest that if we have a moral or ethical obligation to protect wildlife species, then an important way for people to meet their aspirations economically was suggested by Malthus.

    Transfrontier Conservation Areas: people living on the edge
    Andersson, J.A. ; Garine-Wichatitsky, M. de; Cumming, D.H.M. ; Dzingirai, V. ; Giller, K.E. - \ 2013
    Oxon, UK : Routledge - ISBN 9781849712088 - 216
    beschermingsgebieden - grensgebieden - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - samenleving - sociologie - toerisme - wild - wildbescherming - mensen - zuidelijk afrika - conservation areas - frontier areas - natural resources - sustainability - society - sociology - tourism - wildlife - wildlife conservation - people - southern africa
    This book focuses on the forgotten people displaced by, or living on the edge of, protected wildlife areas. It moves beyond the grand 'enchanting promise' of conservation and development across frontiers, and unfounded notions of TFCAs as integrated social-ecological systems. Peoples' dependency on natural resources – the specific combination of crop cultivation, livestock keeping and natural resource harvesting activities – varies enormously along the conservation frontier, as does their reliance on resources on the other side of the conservation boundary. Hence, the studies in this book move from the dream of eco-tourism-fuelled development supporting nature conservation and people towards the local realities facing marginalized people, living adjacent to protected areas in environments often poorly suited to agriculture.
    Forest-people interfaces : understanding community forestry and biocultural diversity
    Arts, B.J.M. ; Bommel, S. van; Ros-Tonen, M.A.F. ; Verschoor, G.M. - \ 2012
    Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers - ISBN 9789086867493 - 317
    bossen - bosbouw - agroforestry - sociale bosbouw - bosproducten anders dan hout - bosproducten - mensen - gemeenschapsbosbouw - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - hulpbronnenbeheer - bosbedrijfsvoering - bosbeleid - forests - forestry - agroforestry - social forestry - non-wood forest products - forest products - people - community forestry - natural resources - resource management - forest management - forest policy
    This book aims at both academics and professionals in the field of forest-people interfaces. It takes the reader on a journey through four major themes that have emerged since the initiation of 'social forestry' in the 1970s: non-timber forest products and agroforestry; community-based natural resource management; biocultural diversity; and forest governance. In so doing, the books offers a comprehensive and current review on social issues related to forests that other, more specialized publications, lack. It is also theory-rich, offering both mainstream and critical perspectives, and presents up-to-date empirical materials. Reviewing these four major research themes, the main conclusion of the book is that naïve optimism associated with forest-people interfaces should be tempered. The chapters show that economic development, political empowerment and environmental aims are not easily integrated. Hence local landscapes and communities are not as 'makeable' as is often assumed. Events that take place on other scales might intervene; local communities might not implement policies locally; and governance practices might empower governments more than communities. This all shows that we should go beyond community-based ideas and ideals, and look at practices on the ground.
    Q-koorts in 2008 in Nederland en de verwachting voor 2009
    Roest, H.I.J. ; Steenbergen, J. ; Wijkmans, C.J. ; Duijnhoven, Y. van; Stenvers, O. ; Oomen, T. ; Vellema, P. - \ 2009
    Tijdschrift voor Diergeneeskunde 134 (2009)7. - ISSN 0040-7453 - p. 300 - 303.
    q-koorts - dierhouderij - geitenhouderij - schapenhouderij - melk - mensen - q fever - animal husbandry - goat keeping - sheep farming - milk - people
    Sinds 2005 wordt op melkgeiten- en melkschapenbedrijven in Nederland abortus ten gevolge van een infectie met Coxiella burnetti, de verwekker van Q-koorts (Q-fever), waargenomen. In 2007 deed zich in de regio waar de bedrijven met Q-koorts zich concentreerden een epidemie voor van Q-koorts bij mensen. Omdat bij abortus miljarden Coxiellabacteriën vrijkomen, is een oorzakelijk verband aannemelijk
    Vragen en antwoorden over MRSA bij landbouwhuisdieren = Questions and answers on MRSA in agricultural animals
    Wagenaar, J.A. ; Duijkeren, E. van; Troelstra, A. ; Giessen, A. van der; Kluytmans, J. ; Mevius, D.J. ; Tiemersma, E. ; Wolf, P.J. van der - \ 2007
    Tijdschrift voor Diergeneeskunde 132 (2007)14-15. - ISSN 0040-7453 - p. 558 - 560.
    bacterieziekten - methicilline - staphylococcus aureus - vee - dieren - mensen - antibiotica - infecties - varkens - risicofactoren - ziekenhuizen - volksgezondheid - meervoudige resistentie tegen geneesmiddelen - bacterial diseases - methicillin - staphylococcus aureus - livestock - animals - people - antibiotics - infections - pigs - risk factors - hospitals - public health - multiple drug resistance
    Aan de hand van achttien vragen en antwoorden wordt het begrip MRSA (methicilline resistente Staphylococcus aureus) in landbouwhuisdieren behandelt
    De toerist op het spoor : onderzoek naar de tijd-ruimtelijke samenhang in toeristisch gedrag als expressie van een zoektocht naar betekenisvolle ervaringen
    Elands, B. - \ 2002
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): A.G.J. Dietvorst; S. de Vries. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789058085382 - 210
    toerisme - toeristisch onderzoek - toeristen - mensen - bezoekersgedrag - menselijk gedrag - tijd - roodbont maas-rijn-ijsselvee - west-europa - costa rica - ruimtelijke verdeling - tijdsbesteding - ruimte - tourism - tourism research - tourists - people - visitor behaviour - spatial distribution - time allocation - human behaviour - time - meuse-rhine-yssel - western europe - costa rica - space

    Tourist behaviour is increasingly considered to be both erratic and unpredictable. This is due to, among other things, an enormous increase of leisure products and an expanding range in both the temporal-spatial reach and financial power of consumers. Traditional classifications of tourist types, based on demographic or socio-economic characteristics, are less and less able to explain actual holiday behaviour. Moreover, preferences of tourists seem to be changing at an ever greater speed. This unpredictability makes it increasingly difficult for tourist entrepreneurs to make product adjustments based on the market. In terms of product life cycle, a constant renewing of the product is necessary to keep it attractive and innovations need to follow one another more and more quickly. Eventually, due to this development products will be outdated as soon as they appear on the market. This is especially true when taking into account those physical elements of the tourist product that are relatively fixed (such as the landscape, roads, hotels). There is a need to find more stable or permanent elements in tourist preferences for them to be useful as a base for product development. These elements may serve as a point of departure for the development of a physically and economically sustainable tourist product.

    Zorg; wie doet er wat aan : een studie naar zorgarrangementen van ouderen
    Luijkx, K.G. - \ 2001
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): A. Niehof; C. de Hoog. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789058084064 - 250
    ouderen - ouderdom - mensen - thuiszorg - gezondheidszorg - sociaal welzijn - nederland - platteland - elderly - old age - people - home care - health care - social welfare - rural areas - netherlands

    As a result of fertility decline and increasing life expectancy, the age structure of the Dutch population is changing, with a larger proportion and number of elderly persons and declining proportions and numbers of younger adults. Hence, the number of people in need of care is growing. While -at the same time- the number of people that can provide care declines and numerous independently living elderly are on waiting lists for professional care. Concerns about care for the elderly in the future prompted us to do research about the topic of care for independently living elderly. Given the rural orientation of Wageningen University the research was focused on rural elderly. The age groups included were persons aged 75 years and older. The following research questions were formulated:

    What is the picture of instrumental and social-emotional care for rural elderly, who still live independently and are aged 75 and older? Which characteristics of the elderly and which of the informal care givers influence the care that elderly receive? Which problems in the care of the elderly can arise in the future and how could these be solved?

    Data collection for this research proceeded in two stages. First, qualitative research was done to gain insight into the care for the elderly. Eleven elderly people and six informal carers ( mantelzorgsters ) were interviewed. In consequence of the qualitative research, the instrumental-care situation, the instrumental-care arrangement and the social-emotional-care arrangement were defined and hypotheses for the quantitative research were specified. For the quantitative research, the second stage of data collection, a survey was done among a random sample of people aged 75 years and over, stratified according to sex and marital status, living in seven rural municipalities in the Netherlands. We were able to analyse the cases of 465 elderly (response rate of 62,6%). Besides, interviews were conducted with 235 carers who give informal care to elderly persons from the sample. Below we will report about the main findings of the research.

    The instrumental-care situation

    The instrumental-care situation pictures the degree to which the elderly receive instrumental care from people beyond the own household. Elderly people in self-caring households care for themselves and in households consisting of more than one person for each other. Elderly people in cared-for households receive much care of people who are no household members. They themselves cannot do much. In between are elderly persons in households that just can manage ( redzaam ). These elderly care largely for themselves, but in addition receive substantial care from people beyond their own household. They receive more instrumental care than self-caring elderly and less than cared-for elderly. In the quantitative sample 27,5% of the people aged 75 years and over can be called self-caring, 50,1% managing and 22,4% cared-for.

    The quantitative research shows that the instrumental-care situation is significantly related to the variables of household composition, age and health indicators of the elderly. Elderly who live alone and older elderly receive more instrumental care from people who are no household member than elderly who share their household with someone else and younger elderly. At first sight the instrumental-care situation is not influenced by the sex of the elderly person. However, the female elderly in the sample are less healthy than the male elderly. Thus, for a comparison we have to control for health status. When women and men with a comparable health situation are compared, we can see that women receive less instrumental care than men. Besides, elderly who are less mobile receive more care than elderly who are more mobile.

    These results enable us to put the instrumental-care situation in a live course perspective. When people become older their health tends to decline. Thus, the three types of the instrumental-care situation can be seen as phases in the life course.

    Characteristics of informal carers are no predicting factors for the instrumental-care situation of elderly. When people give informal care it does not seem to matter whether they are woman or man and whether they are family or not. Furthermore, the quality of the relationship does not influence the amount of instrumental care elderly receive. The qualitative research has shown that children give informal care even when they experience the relationship with their parents not very positively. The obligations attached to kinship relations seem to be more important than the quality of the relationship.

    The instrumental-care arrangement

    The instrumental-care arrangement pictures the proportion of informal carers and professional carers in the care elderly receive. We defined the instrumental-care arrangement only for the elderly that just can manage. In comparison with the sample, the degree to which these elderly receive instrumental care varies less. The qualitative research shows that elderly who receive predominantly informal care refer to this care in terms of self-care. This way they emphasise that the care they receive from their daughter or son is closely to them. Elderly who receive predominantly formal care emphasis their feeling of independence in the care relationship. From a professional care giver they receive care, pay for it and do not further have a relationship with her. Because of this elderly experience this care, in comparison with informal care, less as a threat to their independence.

    Managing elderly with an informal safety net receive only or predominantly instrumental care of informal carers. Managing elderly with a formal safety net receive only or predominantly formal (professional) care. In the quantitative sample 36,0% of the managing elderly can be called managing with a informal safety net (18,0% of the sample) and 64,0% managing with a formal safety net (32,1% of the sample). The care they receive is diverse. Managing elderly with a formal safety net almost all are supported with the heavy tasks in the household such as vacuum cleaning and cleaning the windows. In comparison with the care managing elderly with an informal safety net, they receive fixed care. The care for elderly people with an informal safety net is more diverse and seems to be more adjusted to their individual needs and wishes.

    The quantitative research shows that the instrumental-care arrangement is significantly related to the normative values and characteristics of the social network of the elderly. Elderly who believe that children (in-law) ought to give informal care and elderly who think traditionally about sex roles have more often an informal safety net than elderly who have other normative values about these topics. Furthermore, elderly who have a social network that consist for more than half of children, elderly who have more children and elderly who have more children without paid employment receive more often predominantly informal care than elderly for whom this is not true.

    Characteristics that can not be influenced by the elderly such as their sex, their age and their health do not influence significantly the instrumental-care arrangement. This enables us to conclude that elderly choose for either informal or formal care.

    Like the instrumental-care situation, the instrumental-care arrangement is not predicted by characteristics of informal carers. These results also show that when people give informal care it does not matter whether they are woman or man and whether they are family or not. Furthermore, the instrumental-care arrangement is not significantly related to reciprocity. The qualitative research has shown that material reciprocity is important to informal carers because they experience it as an expression of appreciation. Especially the meaning and intention of material reciprocity seems to be important.

    The social-emotional-care arrangement

    The social-emotional-care arrangement pictures the degree to which the elderly receive social-emotional care and the proportion of kin and non-kin in this care process. Self-oriented elderly receive hardly any social-emotional care from people beyond the own household. Family-oriented elderly receive this type of care predominantly from family members who do not live in their household. They share the joyful and the more serious parts of social-emotional care with their children and other family members. Community-oriented elderly receive social-emotional care predominantly from non-kin. In comparison with the care for family-oriented elderly, the care for community-oriented elderly is more focused on the joyful parts. In the quantitative sample 19,6% of the elderly people can be called self-oriented, 36,3% family-oriented and 44,1% community-oriented.

    The quantitative research shows that the social-emotional-care arrangement is significantly related to several variables. Elderly women are more often family-oriented and elderly men are more often community-oriented. Also elderly whose social network consists for more than half of family members and elderly who have more children are more often family-oriented than elderly for whom this is not the case. Furthermore, health indicators are related to the social-emotional-care arrangement. Elderly who use more technical aids and elderly who cannot drive a car are more often family-oriented than elderly who use less technical aids and elderly who can drive a car.

    In contrast with instrumental care, characteristics of informal carers predict the social-emotional care elderly receive from people beyond the own household. Informal carers who say that the elderly appreciate the given care and informal carers who talk about their own problems with the elderly have more often a relationship with a community-oriented elderly than informal carers who do not experience immaterial reciprocity. Furthermore, informal carers who experience the care giving as a burden have more often a relationship with a family-oriented elderly than informal carers who do not experience it as a burden.

    Looking at the predicting factors for social-emotional care, we see that this care diverts from instrumental care. Social-emotional care is significantly related to the sex, the number of children and the health situation of the elderly, but also to characteristics of informal carers, such as immaterial reciprocity and the experienced burden. Furthermore, the results show that the relationships with family-oriented elderly are more experienced as relationships containing obligations than the relationships with community-oriented elderly. In comparison to community-oriented elderly, family-oriented elderly seem to have less to offer to their informal carers. They are in poorer health and give less social-emotional care to their informal carers. Because of their better health, community-oriented elderly are much more able to visit other people and seem to give more social-emotional care to others.

    Conclusion

    Our research shows that family members are an important source of care for the elderly. When they provide instrumental care, this care is more adjusted to the individual needs and wishes of the elderly people than the care provided by formal (professional) carers. When they provide social-emotional care, this care also includes the more serious aspects of this care. Furthermore, our data show that the quality of the relationship is not significantly related to the care that informal carers provide. The qualitative research has shown that children care for their parents even when they experience the relationship with them as not very positively.

    People's practices : exploring contestation, counter-development, and rural livelihoods : ...cases from Muktinagar, Bangladesh
    Huq, H. - \ 2000
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): N.E. Long; A. Arce. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789058083272 - 213
    ontwikkelingsstudies - plattelandsontwikkeling - plattelandsgemeenschappen - sociologie - etnografie - ontwikkeling - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - interventie - participatie - mensen - economische groei - bangladesh - development studies - rural development - rural communities - sociology - ethnography - development - sustainability - intervention - people - participation - economic growth - bangladesh

    People's Practices: Exploring contestation, Counter - development, and rural livelihoods

    The central problems explored in the thesis concern the vulnerability of disadvantaged local people, especially women, and their agency; development discourses and counter-development processes; livelihood strategies and local social, cultural, and economic changes especially they relate to the empowerment of women. The people of Muktinagar, a rural community in Gaibandha District in the northern part of Bangladesh, position and reposition themselves vis-à-vis development intervention and apply their capabilities and knowledgeabilities in the building of livelihoods practices and forms of empowerment. A key issue is to define how far development interventions imply control over the day to day lifeworlds of the local people.

    The study aims to contribute to the debate on the negative impact of development interventions on people's lifeworlds. The thesis aims to capture the attention of anthropologists, sociologists, social researchers and development professionals, arguing for the importance of detailed empirical studies on people's livelihoods practices and processes of counter-development. It also aims to re-emphasise the importance of taking full account of people's knowledge, interests, needs, capabilities and discourses in day to day life, including the context of development policy and planning itself.

    The thesis suggests that local, rural people, particularly in Bangladesh, want development inputs in order to support existing livelihood practices and interests, but not development interventions that seeks to control their lives.

    The framework adopted is an actor-oriented one. This enables one to look at local people's experiences of planned intervention, as well as the ways in which they themselves go about making a living and resolving issues concerned with constructing an adequate livelihood and well-being. While the thesis addresses an academic audience, it also should be of value to development practitioners and NGO leaders alike.

    The thesis provides a picture of rural development in Bangladesh and maps out the kinds of macro-policies and models that have predominated. It also explores the ways in which various development interventions designed by international development organisation such as the World Bank have impacted on people's lifeworlds and have determined the shape of national development programmes. It focuses on issues of vulnerability and empowerment, which embrace the complexities of lifeworlds of rural women in Bangladesh and identifies the cultural, social, economic, and political trends that have resulted in a range of vulnerabilities. The ethnographic presentation allows the reader an opportunity to learn about a remote rural community of Bangladesh where disadvantaged women engage in their own struggles for empowerment. It also elucidates issues concerning the nature of power and rights across generations, and how people struggle to cope with critical and other events and experiences that constrain their life chances in their effort to maintain their livelihoods.

    It is argued in this book that individuals should not be seen in isolation from their social context and that individuals are socially conscious, reflexive, and capable of acting with others to rebuild the fabric of society. In other words, the argument takes a clear actor-oriented position. Through the study of the day-to-day lives of local people in Muktinagar, Bangladesh, we have been able to record the ways in which development intervention attempts to establish control by outsiders over the lifeworlds of local people. This generates coercive situations and personal dilemmas but, in the end, it is the social actors themselves who must, on the basis of their previous experiences and commitments, position themselves in relation to these ongoing intervention processes. Their success in managing such changed circumstances depends crucially upon their knowledgeabilities and capabilities, and especially their capacity to act collectively to protect their interests.

    We need to support local people's practices as their path to resilience, and to leave rural livelihood processes firmly in local people's control.

    Recente ontwikkelingen in de emigratie van agrariers
    Kamphuis, B.M. - \ 1992
    Den Haag : LEI-DLO (Mededeling / Landbouw-Economisch Instituut, Afdeling Structuuronderzoek no. 455) - ISBN 9789052421537 - 39
    emigratie - europa - boeren - mensen - sociale klassen - emigration - europe - farmers - people - social classes
    Op basis van gesprekken met ruim vijftig personen die betrokken zijn bij emigratie van agrariërs wordt een beeld geschetst van de ontwikkelingen in de belangstelling voor emigratie vanaf 1988. Ingegaan wordt op de redenen voor emigratie en het aantal emigranten naar landen binnen en buiten Europa. Tevens wordt inzicht gegeven in het aanbod van agrarische bedrijven op basis van een analyse van relevante advertenties in landbouwbladen. Er blijkt een toenemende belangstelling te bestaan voor emigratie binnen Europa, waarbij de aandacht zich onder meer richt op de voormalige DDR.
    Een studie van het traditionele landbouwsysteem onder de Boslandcreolen
    Budelman, A. ; Ketelaars, J.J.M.H. - \ 1974
    Wageningen : Landbouwhogeschool (Celos rapporten no. 96) - 148
    landbouw - zwerflandbouw - mensen - geografie - regio's - reizen - beschrijvingen - suriname - agriculture - shifting cultivation - people - geography - regions - travel - descriptions - suriname
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