Carryover of cadmium from feed in growing pigs
Hoogenboom, L.A.P. ; Hattink, J. ; Polanen, A. van; Oostrom, J.J. van; Verbunt, J.T. ; Traag, W.A. ; Kan, K.A. ; Eijkeren, J.C.H. ; Boeck, G. de; Zeilmaker, M.J. - \ 2015
Food Additives & Contaminants. Pt. A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment 32 (2015)1. - ISSN 1944-0049 - p. 68 - 79.
cd-saturation method - sludge-amended soil - metallothionein - tissues - growth - swine - accumulation - dioxins - protein - cortex
Growing male pigs were exposed to cadmium (Cd) at levels around 1 and 10 mg kg–1 feed for up to 12 weeks, administered as CdCl2 or Cd-cysteine (CdCys). Pigs exposed to 10 mg kg–1 showed decreased growth during the last 3 weeks. Liver and kidney concentrations of Cd continuously increased over the entire 12-week exposure, exceeding the European Union limits of 1.0 mg kg–1 (kidney) and 0.5 mg kg–1 (liver) within 3 weeks at the feed level of 10 mg kg–1. A switch to clean feed after 3 weeks for 5 or 9 weeks resulted in steadily decreased levels in kidney and liver, which could be completely attributed to organ growth. At the lower feed level, the level in kidney exceeded the limit almost twofold after 12 weeks, but not after 3 weeks. Liver levels remained below the limit. Metallothionein (MT) levels in livers showed a steady decrease in both untreated and treated animals over time. In kidney such a decrease was only observed in control animals, whereas in the highest-dosed animals the MT concentrations steadily increased. The observed carryover of Cd from feed to liver and kidney was modelled by means of a simple transfer model relating levels in feed via MT levels to accumulation of Cd. Using this model, it was shown that the exposure period of growing pigs to feed containing the European Union limit of 0.5 mg kg–1 feed should be less than 12 weeks in order to prevent Cd levels in the kidneys to exceed the European Union limit.
Effect of copper exposure on histamine concentrations in the marbled crayfish
Soedarini, B. ; Klaver, L. ; Giesen, D. ; Roessink, I. ; Widianarko, B. ; Straalen, N.M. van; Gestel, C.A.M. van - \ 2013
Animal Biology 63 (2013)2. - ISSN 1570-7555 - p. 139 - 147.
metal bioaccumulation - accumulation - toxicity - metallothionein - hepatopancreas - crustacea - decapoda - kinetics - clarkii - shrimp
Crustaceans can store excess copper in the hepatopancreas, an organ playing a role in digestive activity as well as in neurosecretory control. Here, we studied the effect of copper exposure on the level of histamine, an indicator of food spoilage in edibl
Phytase inclusion in pig diets improves zinc status but its effect on copper availability is inconsistent
Bikker, P. ; Diepen, J.T.M. van; Binnendijk, G.P. ; Jongbloed, A.W. - \ 2012
Journal of Animal Science 90 (2012)suppl 4. - ISSN 0021-8812 - p. 197 - 199.
supplemented diets - metallothionein
Complexation of dietary phytate with cations is a major cause of reduced bioavailability of Zn and possibly Cu in pig diets. We conducted 2 studies with 2 treatments in young growing pigs (8 to 40 kg) to estimate potential contributions of phytase to availability and supply of Zn and Cu, respectively. Each treatment comprised 10 pens with 8 pigs each as experimental units. In Exp. 1, 500 phytase units (FTU)/kg of microbial phytase (Natuphos 5000G; BASF) was added to a diet containing 15 mg Zn from ZnSO(4) and 160 mg/kg Cu from CuSO(4) in addition to Cu and Zn from feed ingredients. In Exp. 2, 500 FTU/kg was added to a diet containing 45 mg Zn from ZnSO(4) without added CuSO(4). Feces were collected to determine nutrient digestibility, blood was collected, and pigs were killed to determine Cu and Zn in the liver. In both experiments, phytase inclusion increased (P <0.001) Zn digestibility by on average 10% units, serum Zn level (P <0.001) by 0.4 mg/L, and liver Zn content (P <0.001) by 129 mg/kg DM. In Exp. 1 phytase increased (P = 0.03) Cu digestibility by 6% units but reduced (P = 0.04) liver Cu content by 35 mg/kg DM. In Exp. 2 phytase reduced (P <0.001) Cu digestibility by 16% units without affecting liver Cu content. Results indicate that the effect of phytase on Cu availability depends on dietary Cu and Zn content and the response variable studied. In conclusion, the consistent effects of phytase on indices of Zn status allow a reduction of Zn inclusion in phytase-supplemented diets.
Development of surface plasmon resonance-based sensor for detection of silver nanoparticles in food and the environment
Rebe-Raz, S. ; Leontaridou, M. ; Bremer, M.G.E.G. ; Peters, R.J.B. ; Weigel, S. - \ 2012
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 403 (2012)10. - ISSN 1618-2642 - p. 2843 - 2850.
heavy-metals - metallothionein - immobilization - biosensor - ions - nanosilver - proteins
Silver nanoparticles are recognized as effective antimicrobial agents and have been implemented in various consumer products including washing machines, refrigerators, clothing, medical devices, and food packaging. Alongside the silver nanoparticles benefits, their novel properties have raised concerns about possible adverse effects on biological systems. To protect consumer’s health and the environment, efficient monitoring of silver nanoparticles needs to be established. Here, we present the development of human metallothionein (MT) based surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor for rapid detection of nanosilver. Incorporation of human metallothionein 1A to the sensor surface enables screening for potentially biologically active silver nanoparticles at parts per billion sensitivity. Other protein ligands were also tested for binding capacity of the nanosilver and were found to be inferior to the metallothionein. The biosensor has been characterized in terms of selectivity and sensitivity towards different types of silver nanoparticles and applied in measurements of real-life samples—such as fresh vegetables and river water. Our findings suggest that human MT1-based SPR sensor has the potential to be utilized as a routine screening method for silver nanoparticles, that can provide rapid and automated analysis dedicated to environmental and food safety monitoring.
Copper kinetics and internal distribution in the marbled crayfish (Procambarus sp.)
Soedarini, B. ; Klaver, L. ; Roessink, I. ; Widianarko, B. ; Straalen, N.M. van; Gestel, C.A.M. van - \ 2012
Chemosphere 87 (2012)4. - ISSN 0045-6535 - p. 333 - 338.
metal bioaccumulation - exposure concentration - embryonic-development - inverse relationship - homarus-americanus - trace-metals - marmorkrebs - metallothionein - hepatopancreas - toxicity
Metal pollution e.g. copper, in water bodies occurs worldwide. Although copper is an essential trace metal, at certain levels it is still considered as pollutant. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exposure concentration on copper bioaccumulation in marbled crayfish (Procambarus sp.) by determining uptake and elimination kinetics. Crayfish were exposed to sub-lethal copper concentrations (average measured concentrations of 0.031 and 0.38 mg Cu L-1) for 14 d and transferred to copper-free water for another 14 d. At different time points during the uptake and elimination phases copper concentrations were measured in five organs (exoskeleton, gills, muscle, ovaries and hepatopancreas). At 0.031 mg Cu L-1, copper levels in the crayfish organs were not significantly increased compared to the control animals, suggesting effective regulation. Exposure to 0.38 mg Cu L-1 did lead to not significantly increased copper levels in muscles and ovaries, while the gills and exoskeleton, which are in direct contact with the water, showed significantly higher copper concentrations. In these four organs, copper showed fast uptake kinetics with equilibrium reached within 10 d of exposure. Copper accumulation was highest in the hepatopancreas; uptake in this storage organ steadily increased with time and did not reach equilibrium within the 14-d exposure period. Copper accumulation levels in the marbled crayfish found in this study were hepatopancreas > gills > exoskeleton > muscle.
Isolation of Zn-responsive genes from two accessions of the hyperaccumulator plant Thlaspi caerulescens
Hassinen, V.H. ; Tervahauta, A.I. ; Halimaa, P. ; Plessl, M. ; Peraniemi, S. ; Schat, H. ; Aarts, M.G.M. ; Servomaa, K. ; Karenlampi, S.O. - \ 2007
Planta 225 (2007)4. - ISSN 0032-0935 - p. 977 - 989.
zinc-transporter genes - heavy-metal tolerance - arabidopsis-thaliana - differential display - abc-transporter - accumulation - expression - metallothionein - identification - homeostasis
Several populations with different metal tolerance, uptake and root-to-shoot transport are known for the metal hyperaccumulator plant Thlaspi caerulescens. In this study, genes differentially expressed under various Zn exposures were identified from the shoots of two T. caerulescens accessions (calaminous and non-calaminous) using fluorescent differential display RT-PCR. cDNA fragments from 16 Zn-responsive genes, including those encoding metallothionein (MT) type 2 and type 3, MRP-like transporter, pectin methylesterase (PME) and Ole e 1-like gene as well as several unknown genes, were eventually isolated. The full-length MT2 and MT3 sequences differ from those previously isolated from other Thlaspi accessions, possibly representing new alleles or isoforms. Besides the differential expression in Zn exposures, the gene expression was dependent on the accession. Thlaspi homologues of ClpP protease and MRP transporter were induced at high Zn concentrations. MT2 and PME were expressed at higher levels in the calaminous accession. The MTs and MRP transporter expressed in transgenic yeasts were capable of conferring Cu and Cd tolerance, whereas the Ole e 1-like gene enhanced toxicity to these metals. The MTs increased yeast intracellular Cd content. As no significant differences were found between Arabidopsis and Thlaspi MTs, they apparently do not differ in their capacity to bind metals. However, the higher levels of MT2 in the calaminous accession may contribute to the Zn-adapted phenotype.