Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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Soil greenhouse gas emissions from inorganic fertilizers and recycled oil palm waste products from Indonesian oil palm plantations
Rahman, Niharika ; Bruun, Thilde Bech ; Giller, Ken E. ; Magid, Jakob ; Ven, Gerrie W.J. van de; Neergaard, Andreas de - \ 2019
Global change biology Bioenergy 11 (2019)9. - ISSN 1757-1693 - p. 1056 - 1074.
methane - nitrogen fertilizer - nitrous oxide - nutrient management - organic amendment - plant residue

A continuous rise in the global demand for palm oil has resulted in the large-scale expansion of oil palm plantations and generated environmental controversy. Efforts to increase the sustainability of oil palm cultivation include the recycling of oil mill and pruning residues in the field, but this may increase soil methane (CH4) emissions. This study reports the results of yearlong field-based measurements of soil nitrous oxide (N2O) and CH4 emissions from commercial plantations in North Sumatra, Indonesia. One experiment investigated the effects of soil-water saturation on N2O and CH4 emissions from inorganic fertilizers and organic amendments by simulating 25 mm rainfall per day for 21 days. Three additional experiments focused on emissions from (a) inorganic fertilizer (urea), (b) combination of enriched mulch with urea and (c) organic amendments (empty fruit bunches, enriched mulch and pruned oil palm fronds) applied in different doses and spatial layouts (placed in inter-row zones, piles, patches or bands) for a full year. The higher dose of urea led to a significantly higher N2O emissions with the emission factors ranging from 2.4% to 2.7% in the long-term experiment, which is considerably higher than the IPCC standard of 1%. Organic amendments were a significant source of both N2O and CH4emissions, but N2O emissions from organic amendments were 66%–86% lower than those from inorganic fertilizers. Organic amendments applied in piles emitted 63% and 71% more N2O and CH4, respectively, than when spread out. With twice the dose of organic amendments, cumulative emissions were up to three times greater. The (simulated) rainwater experiment showed that the increase in precipitation led to a significant increase in N2O emissions significantly, suggesting that the time of fertilization is a critical management option for reducing emissions. The results from this study could therefore help guide residue and nutrient management practices to reduce emissions while ensuring better nutrient recycling for sustainable oil palm production systems.

Are dietary strategies to mitigate enteric methane emission equally effective across dairy cattle, beef cattle, and sheep?
Gastelen, Sanne van; Dijkstra, Jan ; Bannink, André - \ 2019
Journal of Dairy Science 102 (2019)7. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 6109 - 6130.
dietary strategy - in vivo measurement - methane - ruminant

The digestive physiology of ruminants is sufficiently different (e.g., with respect to mean retention time of digesta, digestibility of the feed offered, digestion, and fermentation characteristics)that caution is needed before extrapolating results from one type of ruminant to another. The objectives of the present study were (1)to provide an overview of some essential differences in rumen physiology between dairy cattle, beef cattle, and sheep that are related to methane (CH 4 )emission; and (2)to evaluate whether dietary strategies to mitigate CH 4 emission with various modes of action are equally effective in dairy cattle, beef cattle, and sheep. A literature search was performed using Web of Science and Scopus, and 94 studies were selected from the literature. Per study, the effect size of the dietary strategies was expressed as a proportion (%)of the control level of CH 4 emission, as this enabled a comparison across ruminant types. Evaluation of the literature indicated that the effectiveness of forage-related CH 4 mitigation strategies, including feeding more highly digestible grass (herbage or silage)or replacing different forage types with corn silage, differs across ruminant types. These strategies are most effective for dairy cattle, are effective for beef cattle to a certain extent, but seem to have minor or no effects in sheep. In general, the effectiveness of other dietary mitigation strategies, including increased concentrate feeding and feed additives (e.g., nitrate), appeared to be similar for dairy cattle, beef cattle, and sheep. We concluded that if the mode of action of a dietary CH 4 mitigation strategy is related to ruminant-specific factors, such as feed intake or rumen physiology, the effectiveness of the strategy differs across ruminant types, whereas if the mode of action is associated with methanogenesis-related fermentation pathways, the strategy is effective across ruminant types. Hence, caution is needed when translating effectiveness of dietary CH 4 mitigation strategies across different ruminant types or production systems.

Enteric methane emission from Jersey cows during the spring transition from indoor feeding to grazing
Szalanski, Marcin ; Kristensen, Troels ; Difford, Gareth ; Lassen, Jan ; Buitenhuis, Albert J. ; Pszczola, Marcin ; Løvendahl, Peter - \ 2019
Journal of Dairy Science 102 (2019)7. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 6319 - 6329.
dairy - genotype by environment interaction - grazing - Jersey - methane

Organic dairy cows in Denmark are often kept indoors during the winter and outside at least part time in the summer. Consequently, their diet changes by the season. We hypothesized that grazing might affect enteric CH 4 emissions due to changes in the nutrition, maintenance, and activity of the cows, and they might differentially respond to these factors. This study assessed the repeatability of enteric CH 4 emission measurements for Jersey cattle in a commercial organic dairy herd in Denmark. It also evaluated the effects of a gradual transition from indoor winter feeding to outdoor spring grazing. Further, it assessed the individual-level correlations between measurements during the consecutive feeding periods (phenotype × environment, P × E) as neither pedigrees nor genotypes were available to estimate a genotype by environment effect. Ninety-six mixed-parity lactating Jersey cows were monitored for 30 d before grazing and for 24 d while grazing. The cows spent 8 to 11 h grazing each day and had free access to an in-barn automatic milking system (AMS). For each visit to the AMS, milk yield was recorded and logged along with date and time. Monitoring equipment installed in the AMS feed bins continuously measured enteric CH 4 and CO 2 concentrations (ppm) using a noninvasive “sniffer” method. Raw enteric CH 4 and CO 2 concentrations and their ratio (CH 4 :CO 2 ) were derived from average concentrations measured during milking and per day for each cow. We used mixed models equations to estimate variance components and adjust for the fixed and random effects influencing the analyzed gas concentrations. Univariate models were used to precorrect the gas measurements for diurnal variation and to estimate the direct effect of grazing on the analyzed concentrations. A bivariate model was used to assess the correlation between the 2 periods (in-barn vs. grazing) for each gas concentration. Grazing had a weak P × E interaction for daily average CH 4 and CO 2 gas concentrations. Bivariate repeatability estimates for average CH 4 and CO 2 concentrations and CH 4 :CO 2 were 0.77 to 0.78, 0.73 to 0.80, and 0.26, respectively. Repeatability for CH 4 :CO 2 was low (0.26) but indicated some between-animal variation. In conclusion, grazing does not create significant shifts compared with indoor feeding in how animals rank for average CH 4 and CO 2 concentrations and CH 4 :CO 2 . We found no evidence that separate evaluation is needed to quantify enteric CH 4 and CO 2 emissions from Jersey cows during in-barn and grazing periods.

Influence of Atmospheric Transport on Estimates of Variability in the Global Methane Burden
Pandey, Sudhanshu ; Houweling, Sander ; Krol, Maarten ; Aben, Ilse ; Nechita-Banda, Narcisa ; Thoning, Kirk ; Röckmann, Thomas ; Yin, Yi ; Segers, Arjo ; Dlugokencky, Edward J. - \ 2019
Geophysical Research Letters 46 (2019)4. - ISSN 0094-8276 - p. 2302 - 2311.
atmospheric burden - atmospheric transport - CH emissions - interhemispheric difference - methane - TM5

We quantify the impact of atmospheric transport and limited marine boundary layer sampling on changes in global and regional methane burdens estimate using tracer transport model simulations with annually repeating methane emissions and sinks but varying atmospheric transport patterns. We find the 1σ error due to this transport and sampling effect on annual global methane increases to be 1.11 ppb/year and on zonal growth rates to be 3.8 ppb/year, indicating that it becomes more critical at smaller spatiotemporal scales. We also find that the trends in inter-hemispheric and inter-polar difference of methane are significantly influenced by the effect. Contrary to a negligible trend in the inter-hemispheric difference of measurements, we find, after adjusting for the transport and sampling, a trend of 0.37 ± 0.06 ppb/year. This is consistent with the emission trend from a 3-D inversion of the measurements, suggesting a faster increase in emissions in the Northern Hemisphere than in the Southern Hemisphere.

Is rumination time an indicator of methane production in dairy cows?
Zetouni, L. ; Difford, G.F. ; Lassen, J. ; Byskov, M.V. ; Norberg, E. ; Løvendahl, P. - \ 2018
Journal of Dairy Science 101 (2018)12. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 11074 - 11085.
dairy cow - dry matter intake - methane - rumination time

As long as large-scale recording of expensive-to-measure and labor-consuming traits, such as dry matter intake (DMI) and CH4 production (CH4P), continues to be challenging in practical conditions, alternative traits that are already routinely recorded in dairy herds should be investigated. An ideal indicator trait must, in addition to expressing genetic variation, have a strong correlation with the trait of interest. Our aim was to estimate individual level and phenotypic correlations between rumination time (RT), CH4P, and DMI to determine if RT could be used as an indicator trait for CH4P and DMI. Data from 343 Danish Holstein cows were collected at the Danish Cattle Research Centre for a period of approximately 3 yr. The data set consisted of 14,890 records for DMI, 15,835 for RT, and 6,693 for CH4P. Data were divided in primiparous cows only (PC) and all cows (MC), and then divided in lactation stage (early, mid, late, and whole lactation) to analyze the changes over lactation. Linear mixed models, including an animal effect but no pedigree, were used to estimate the correlations among traits. Phenotypic and individual level correlations between RT and both CH4P and DMI were close to zero, regardless of lactation stage and data set (PC or MC). However, CH4P and DMI were highly correlated, both across lactation stages and data sets. In conclusion, RT is unsuitable to be used as an indicator trait for either CH4P or DMI. Our study failed to validate RT as a useful indicator trait for both CH4P and DMI, but more studies with novel phenotypes can offer different approaches to select and incorporate important yet difficult to record traits into breeding goals and selection indexes.

Short communication: Antimethanogenic effects of 3-nitrooxypropanol depend on supplementation dose, dietary fiber content, and cattle type
Dijkstra, J. ; Bannink, A. ; France, J. ; Kebreab, E. ; Gastelen, S. van - \ 2018
Journal of Dairy Science 101 (2018)10. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 9041 - 9047.
3-nitrooxypropanol - cattle - methane

3-Nitrooxypropanol (NOP) is a promising methane (CH4) inhibitor. Recent studies have shown major reductions in CH4 emissions from beef and dairy cattle when using NOP but with large variation in response. The objective of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the factors that explain heterogeneity in response to NOP using meta-analytical approaches. Data from 11 experiments and 38 treatment means were used. Factors considered were cattle type (dairy or beef), measurement technique (GreenFeed technique, C-Lock Inc., Rapid City, SD; sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique; and respiration chamber technique), dry matter (DM) intake, body weight, NOP dose, roughage proportion, dietary crude protein content, and dietary neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content. The mean difference (MD) in CH4 production (g/d) and CH4 yield (g/kg of DM intake) was calculated by subtracting the mean of CH4 emission for the control group from that of the NOP-supplemented group. Forest plots of standardized MD indicated variable effect sizes of NOP across studies. Compared with beef cattle, dairy cattle had a much larger feed intake (22.3 ± 4.13 vs. 7.3 ± 0.97 kg of DM/d; mean ± standard deviation) and CH4 production (351 ± 94.1 vs. 124 ± 44.8 g/d). Therefore, in further analyses across dairy and beef cattle studies, MD was expressed as a proportion (%) of observed control mean. The final mixed-effect model for relative MD in CH4 production included cattle type, NOP dose, and NDF content. When adjusted for NOP dose and NDF content, the CH4-mitigating effect of NOP was less in beef cattle (−22.2 ± 3.33%) than in dairy cattle (−39.0 ± 5.40%). An increase of 10 mg/kg of DM in NOP dose from its mean (123 mg/kg of DM) enhanced the NOP effect on CH4 production decline by 2.56 ± 0.550%. However, a greater dietary NDF content impaired the NOP effect on CH4 production by 1.64 ± 0.330% per 10 g/kg DM increase in NDF content from its mean (331 g of NDF/kg of DM). The factors included in the final mixed-effect model for CH4 yield were −17.1 ± 4.23% (beef cattle) and −38.8 ± 5.49% (dairy cattle), −2.48 ± 0.734% per 10 mg/kg DM increase in NOP dose from its mean, and 1.52 ± 0.406% per 10 g/kg DM increase in NDF content from its mean. In conclusion, the present meta-analysis indicates that a greater NOP dose enhances the NOP effect on CH4 emission, whereas an increased dietary fiber content decreases its effect. 3-Nitrooxypropanol has stronger antimethanogenic effects in dairy cattle than in beef cattle.

In vitro methane and gas production with inocula from cows and goats fed an identical diet
Mengistu, Genet ; Hendriks, Wouter H. ; Pellikaan, Wilbert F. - \ 2018
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 98 (2018)4. - ISSN 0022-5142 - p. 1332 - 1338.
browse species - cow - gas production - goat - inocula - methane
BACKGROUND: Fermentative capacity among ruminants can differ depending on the type of ruminant species and the substrate fermented. The aim was to compare in vitro cow and goat rumen inocula in terms of methane (CH4) and gas production (GP), fermentation kinetics and 72 h volatile fatty acids (VFA) production using the browse species Acacia etbaica, Capparis tomentosa, Dichrostachys cinerea, Rhus natalensis, freeze-dried maize silage and grass silage, and a concentrate as substrates. RESULTS: Total GP, CH4 and VFA were higher (P ≤ 0.008) in goat inoculum than cows across substrates. The half-time for asymptotic GP was lower (P < 0.0001) in phase 1 and higher (P < 0.012) in phase 2, and the maximum rate of GP was higher (P < 0.0001) in phase 1 and phase 3 (P < 0.0001) in goats compared to cows. Methane production and as a percentage of total GP was higher (P < 0.0001) and the half-time tended (P = 0.059) to be at a later time for goats compared to cows. CONCLUSION: Goat inoculum showed higher fermentative activity with a concomitant higher CH4 production compared to cows. This difference highlights the ability of goats to better utilise browse species and other roughage types.
In vitro gas and methane production of silages from whole-plant corn harvested at 4 different stages of maturity and a comparison with in vivo methane production
Macome, Felicidade ; Pellikaan, W.F. ; Hendriks, W.H. ; Dijkstra, J. ; Hatew, Bayissa ; Schonewille, J.T. ; Cone, J.W. - \ 2017
Journal of Dairy Science 100 (2017)11. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 8895 - 8905.
methane - corn silages - Maturity - in vitro - In vivo
The current study investigated the relationship between in vitro and in vivo CH4 production by cows fed corn silage (CS)-based rations. In vivo CH4 production was measured in climate respiration chambers using 8 rumen-cannulated Holstein-Friesian cows. In vitro CH4 production was measured using rumen fluid from the 8 cows that were fully adapted to their respective experimental rations. The animals were grouped in 2 blocks, and randomly assigned to 1 of the 4 total mixed rations (TMR) that consisted of 75% experimental CS, 20% concentrate, and 5% wheat straw [dry matter (DM) basis]. The experimental CS were prepared from whole-plant corn that was harvested at either a very early (25% DM), early (28% DM), medium (32% DM), or late (40% DM) stage of maturity. The 4 experimental TMR and the corresponding CS served as substrate in 2 separate in vitro runs (each run representing 1 block of 4 animals) using rumen fluid from cows fed the TMR in question. No relationship was found between in vivo CH4 production and in vitro CH4 production measured at various time points between 2 and 48 h. None of the in vitro gas production (GP) and CH4 production parameters was influenced by an interaction between substrate and origin of rumen fluid. In vitro measured 48-h GP was not affected by the maturity of whole-plant corn, irrespective whether CS alone or as part of TMR was incubated in adapted rumen inoculum. Incubation of the experimental TMR did not affect the kinetics parameters associated with gas or CH4 production, but when CS alone was incubated the asymptote of GP of the soluble fraction was slightly decreased with increasing maturity of CS at harvest. In vitro CH4 production expressed as a percent of total gas was not affected by the maturity of whole-plant corn at harvest. Several in vitro parameters were significantly affected (GP) or tended to be affected (CH4) by diet fed to donor cows. It was concluded that the current in vitro technique is not suitable to predict in vivo CH4 production from CS-based rations.
Reductie van ammoniak- en methaanemissie via het voerspoor : onderzoek naar de wisselwerking tussen de excretie van Totaal Ammoniakaal Stikstof (TAN) en de emissie van enterisch methaan (CH4) op de Koeien&Kansen praktijkbedrijven in de periode 2010-2013
Spek, J.W. ; Klop, A. ; Šebek, L.B. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Koeien en kansen nr. 79) - 19
ammoniakemissie - methaan - emissiereductie - rundveevoeding - ammonia emission - methane - emission reduction - cattle feeding
Assessing methane emission from dairy cows : modeling and experimental approaches on rumen microbial metabolism
Lingen, Henk J. - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): W.H. Hendriks, co-promotor(en): J. Dijkstra; A. Bannink; C.M. Plugge. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431590 - 207
dairy cows - methane - emission - microbial degradation - rumen metabolism - rumen fermentation - models - fatty acids - biochemical pathways - animal nutrition - nutrition physiology - melkkoeien - methaan - emissie - microbiële afbraak - pensmetabolisme - pensfermentatie - modellen - vetzuren - biochemische omzettingen - diervoeding - voedingsfysiologie

Methane (CH4) is a greenhouse gas (GHG) with a global warming potential of 28 CO2 equivalents. The livestock sector was estimated to emit 7.1 gigatonnes of CO2 equivalents, which is approximately 14.5% of total global anthropogenic GHG emissions. Enteric CH4 production is the main source of GHG emissions from dairy cattle, representing 46% of the global GHG emissions in dairy supply chains. Dairy production has great value in view of the ability of ruminants to effectively turn human inedible biomass into human edible food and to produce food from non-arable land. Consequently, there is an urgent need to develop strategies to decrease dairy cattle enteric CH4 emission. Evaluation of these strategies requires meticulous quantification and increased understanding of anaerobic fermentation and methanogenesis in the rumen ecosystem. The overall aim of this PhD research was, therefore, to quantitatively evaluate enteric CH4 emission from dairy cows as affected by feeding and rumen microbial metabolism.

A meta-analysis was performed to quantify relationships between enteric CH4 yield (per unit of feed and unit of milk) and milk FA profile in dairy cattle and to develop equations to predict CH4 yield based on milk FA profile of cows fed a wide variety of diets. Various milk FA concentrations were significantly or tended to be positively or negatively related to CH4 yield per unit of feed or milk. Mixed model multiple regression resulted in various milk FA included in optimal equations to predict CH4 yield per unit of feed and per unit of milk. These regression equations indicated a moderate potential for using milk FA profile to predict CH4 yield.

For the development of a mechanistic model of CH4 production in the rumen, the thermodynamic control of pH2 on reaction rates of specific fermentation pathways, NADH oxidation and methanogenesis was theoretically explored. This control was determined using the thermodynamic potential factor (FT), which is a dimensionless factor that corrects a predicted kinetic reaction rate for the thermodynamic control exerted. The thermodynamic feasibility of these microbial conversions showed that the control of pH2 on individual VFA produced and associated yield of H2 and CH4 cannot be explained without considering NADH oxidation, with a considerable effect of pH.

For obtaining experimental support of the conclusions drawn from the theoretical exploration, diurnal patterns of gaseous and dissolved metabolite concentrations in the bovine rumen, H2 and CH4 emitted, and the rumen microbiota were monitored. In addition, the effect of dietary inclusion of linseed oil on these patterns was assessed. An in vivo experiment with rumen cannulated dairy cows was performed to study the anaerobic metabolism and the microbiota composition in the rumen. A 100-fold increase in pH2 in the rumen headspace was observed at 0.5 h after feeding, followed by a decline. Qualitatively similar patterns after feeding were observed for H2 and CH4 emission, ethanol and lactate concentrations, and propionate molar proportion, whereas an opposite pattern was seen for acetate molar proportion. Associated with these patterns, a temporal biphasic change in the microbial composition was observed as based on 16S ribosomal RNA with certain taxa specifically associated with each phase. Bacterial concentrations were affected by time and increased by linseed oil supplementation. Archaeal concentrations tended to be affected by time and were not affected by diet, despite linseed oil supplementation tending to decrease the partial pressure and emission of CH4 and tending to increase propionate molar proportion. The various diurnal profiles that were monitored support the key role of the NAD+ to NADH ratio in rumen fermentation and the importance of diurnal dynamics when understanding VFA, H2 and CH4 production.

A dynamic mechanistic model was developed, in which the thermodynamic control of pH2 on VFA fermentation pathways, and methanogenesis in the bovine rumen are incorporated. The model represents substrate degradation, microbial fermentation and methanogenesis in the rumen, with the type of VFA formed to be controlled by the NAD+ to NADH ratio, which in turn is controlled by pH2. Feed composition and feed intake rate representing a twice daily feeding regime were used as model input. The model predicted a marked peak in pH2 after feeding that rapidly declined in time. This peak in pH2 caused a decrease in NAD+ to NADH ratio followed by an increased propionate molar proportion at the expense of acetate molar proportion. In response to feeding, the model predicted a sudden increase and a steady decrease in CH4 production in time. The pattern of CH4 emission rate followed the patterns of pH2 and H2 emission rate, but its magnitude of increase in response to feeding was less pronounced. A global sensitivity analysis indicated the parameter that determines the NADH oxidation rate to explain the most substantial part of the variation of predicted daily CH4 emission. The modeling effort provides the integration of more detailed knowledge than accomplished in previous rumen fermentation models and enables assessment of diurnal dynamics of rumen metabolic pathways yielding VFA, H2 and CH4.

For assessing the general value of the research reported in this thesis, the potential for predicting enteric CH4 emission from dairy cattle based on milk FA profile was discussed in the light of published studies and compared with empirical modeling of enteric CH4 based on feed input. Moreover, the concept of NAD-controlled fermentation was considered in a more general perspective by comparing the rumen ecosystem with bioreactor systems. Furthermore, the feasibility of the developed models as an alternative for IPCC tiered approaches was explored. In conclusion, the research reported in this thesis contributes to an increased understanding of rumen fermentation and microbial metabolism, and has provides a basis to further improve prediction models of enteric CH4 emissions from dairy cattle.

Browse species from Ethiopia: role in methane reduction and nematode control in goats
Mengistu, Genet F. - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Wouter Hendriks, co-promotor(en): Wilbert Pellikaan. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579767 - 130
goats - browsing - nematode control - methane - anthelmintic properties - browse plants - ethiopia - geiten - afgrazen - nematodenbestrijding - methaan - wormdrijvende eigenschappen - graasplanten - ethiopië

The aim of the research reported in this thesis was to evaluate browse species collected from Ethiopia for preference by goats, and for their in vitro anthelmintic and methane (CH4) reduction properties. During the conduct of the studies observations were made warranting a further aim, to compare in vitro fermentation patterns of browse species using inocula from goats and cows kept on identical dietary regime.

The preference of browse species using dry matter intake (DMI) as a proxy and in combination with polyethylene glycol (PEG), relationships between browse species intake and chemical composition were determined in Chapter 2. Air-dried leaves of Acacia etbaica, Cadaba farinosa, Capparis tomentosa, Dichrostachys cinerea, Dodonaea angustifolia, Euclea racemosa, Maerua angolensis, Maytenus senegalensis, Rhus natalensis and Senna singueana were used. Two cafeteria trials, each lasting 10 days were conducted using goats receiving a daily ration of grass hay and wheat bran, without (trial 1) or with (trial 2) the inclusion of PEG. Preference measured as the first 10 min browse DMI differed significantly among browse species and with PEG (P<0.0001). Browse with higher tannin content, D. cinerea, R. natalensis and A. etbaica were the most preferred species regardless of PEG presence. Preference appeared to be based on digestible fibre fraction, hemicellulose rather than tannin levels in the browse species.

Extracts of the 10 browse species were evaluated for their anthelmintic activity against Haemonchus contortus (Chapter 3). The larval exsheathment inhibition assay (LEIA) was applied using H. contortus third stage larvae (L3) in a dose dependent manner with extract concentrations of 0, 150, 300, 600, 1200 µg/ml phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The role of polyphenols in the inhibition against L3 was evaluated using polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP). All browse extracts significantly (P<0.0001) inhibited larval exsheathment in a dose dependent manner with the dose required to inhibit 50% of the L3 (EC50) being highest in C. farinosa and lowest in E. racemosa and M. senegalensis. Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone treated A. etbaica, C. tomentosa, M. angolensis, R. natalensis and D. cinerea were different (P<0.001) from the control (only PBS), indicating that larval inhibition was largely due to non-phenolic compounds. Absence of significant differences between PVPP treated E. racemosa, M. senegalensis, D. angustifolia and S. singueana, and control suggest that inhibition was mostly attributable to tannins and other polyphenols. Browse species anthelmintic property against H. contortus L3 was due to the presence of phenolic and non-phenolic compounds.

In vitro gas production (GP), CH4, volatile fatty acids (VFA) and in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) of the 10 browse species were determined using PEG 6000 in Chapter 4. Proanthocyanidins (PA) were quantified using a modified HCl-butanol method and PA composition was determined by UPLC-DAD, with detection of other polyphenols by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Substrates were inoculated in buffered goat rumen fluid with or without PEG 6000 for 72 h to measure GP with head space gas sample measurements taken at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 30, 48, 54, and 72 h for CH4. At the end of incubation, VFA, ammonia (NH3) and IVOMD were determined. Increased (P<0.0001) GP, CH4 and total VFA were observed after PEG addition indicating PA were mainly involved in reducing methanogenesis and to a lower extent also overall fermentability. Prodelphinidins were the major explaining factors for this reduction but other polyphenols like quercetin, myricetin and kaempferol were also involved in CH4 reduction. The effect of PEG addition on IVOMD was variable among browse and could be due to artefacts from the tannin-PEG complexes in the incubation residue. Proanthocyanidins were mainly responsible for the reduced in vitro fermentative activities with possible minor effects of other phenolic and non-phenolic components.

Due to unusual fermentation patterns observed in Chapter 4, a comparison was made between goat and cow inocula on in vitro gas and CH4 production and kinetics parameters as well as VFA production in Chapter 5. Leaves of A. etbaica, C. tomentosa, D. cinerea, R. natalensis, freeze-dried maize and grass silage, and a concentrate were inoculated for 72 h to measure GP, in buffered inocula from goats and cows kept on an identical feeding regime. During incubation, headspace gas samples were obtained at 0, 3, 6, 9, 24, 30, 48, 54, and 72 h, and analysed for CH4 with VFA determined at the end of incubation. A triphasic and monophasic modified Michaelis-Menten equation was fitted to the cumulative GP and CH4 curves, respectively. Total GP and CH4 (P<0.0001), half-time for asymptotic (P<0.012) and rate (P<0.0001) of GP were higher for goat inoculum. The total VFA were higher (P<0.0001) in goats and the proportion of individual VFA differed significantly (P<0.002) between animal species. Differences between goat and cow inocula were attributable to variation in the activity and composition of the microbial population, and differences were more pronounced for fermentation of browse species than grass and maize silages.

A synthesis of the results from the four research chapters is provided in the general discussion (Chapter 6). The present work highlights the browse species characteristics which can be strategically exploited in goat production systems to improve health and feed utilization efficiency.

Changes in in vitro gas and methane production from rumen fluid from dairy cows during adaptation to feed additives in vivo
Klop, G. ; Laar-van Schuppen, S. van; Pellikaan, W.F. ; Hendriks, W.H. ; Bannink, A. ; Dijkstra, Jan - \ 2017
Animal 11 (2017)4. - ISSN 1751-7311 - p. 591 - 599.
adaptation - dairy cows - essential oils - lauric acid - methane
The adaptation of dairy cows to methane (CH4)-mitigating feed additives was evaluated using the in vitro gas production (GP) technique. Nine rumen-fistulated lactating Holstein cows were grouped into three blocks and within blocks randomly assigned to one of three experimental diets: Control (CON; no feed additive), Agolin Ruminant® (AR; 0.05 g/kg dry matter (DM)) or lauric acid (LA; 30 g/kg DM). Total mixed rations composed of maize silage, grass silage and concentrate were fed in a 40 : 30 : 30 ratio on DM basis. Rumen fluid was collected from each cow at days −4, 1, 4, 8, 15 and 22 relative to the introduction of the additives in the diets. On each of these days, a 48-h GP experiment was performed in which rumen fluid from each individual donor cow was incubated with each of the three substrates that reflected the treatment diets offered to the cows. DM intake was on average 19.8, 20.1 and 16.2 kg/day with an average fat- and protein-corrected milk production of 30.7, 31.7 and 26.2 kg/day with diet CON, AR and LA, respectively. In general, feed additives in the donor cow diet had a larger effect on gas and CH4 production than the same additives in the incubation substrate. Incubation substrate affected asymptotic GP, half-time of asymptotic CH4 production, total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration, molar proportions of propionate and butyrate and degradation of organic matter (OMD), but did not affect CH4 production. No substrate×day interactions were observed. A significant diet×day interaction was observed for in vitro gas and CH4 production, total VFA concentration, molar proportions of VFA and OMD. From day 4 onwards, the LA diet persistently reduced gas and CH4 production, total VFA concentration, acetate molar proportion and OMD, and increased propionate molar proportion. In vitro CH4 production was reduced by the AR diet on day 8, but not on days 15 and 22. In line with these findings, the molar proportion of propionate in fermentation fluid was greater, and that of acetate smaller, for the AR diet than for the CON diet on day 8, but not on days 15 and 22. Overall, the data indicate a short-term effect of AR on CH4 production, whereas the CH4-mitigating effect of LA persisted.
Assessing the case for sequential cropping to produce low ILUC risk biomethane : final report
Peters, Daan ; Zabeti, Masoud ; Kühner, Ann-Kathri ; Spöttle, Matthias ; Werf, Wopke van der; Stomph, Jan - \ 2016
Utrecht : ECOFYS Netherlands - 39
methane - biofuels - sequential cropping - farmers' associations - biogas - ancillary enterprises - farm management - agricultural energy production - transport - biobased economy - fuel crops - biomass production - methaan - biobrandstoffen - estafetteteelt - boerenorganisaties - nevenactiviteiten - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - energieproductie in de landbouw - brandstofgewassen - biomassa productie
In recent years and especially since the COP - 21 climate agreement reached in Paris last year, efforts to mitigate climate change accelerate. All sectors need to contribute in order to achieve the well below 2 degree climate target. The agricultural sector is relevant for climate change in various ways. Like the agricultural sector, the transport sector is also responsible for significant greenhouse gas emissions. Advanced biofuels and biogas produced from wastes and residues can play an increasingly important role in the transport mix. In Italy, 600 Italian farmers are organised in the Italian Biogas Council (Consorzio Italiano Biogas e Gassificazione, CIB). Some years ago, CIB members developed a concept that they coined Biogasdoneright. In collaboration with various research institutes they seeked for a way to combine biogas feedstock production with crop production for food and feed as a way to generate additional income in a sustainable manner. The core of the Biogasdoneright concept is that farmers apply sequential cropping by growing a winter cover crop on land that was previously fallow during winter time, while maintaining the main crop production during summer time as previously. Multiple claims can be made about Biogasdoneright, for example related to the large potential role for biogas in our future energy system. This project focussed on the most relevant claims related to the use of biomethane in transport, with a focus on sustainability aspects.
Rekenregels voor de enterische methaan-emissie op het melkveebedrijf en reductie van de methaan-emissie via mesthandling, het handelings-perspectief van het voerspoor inzichtelijk maken met de Kringloopwijzer
S̆ebek, L.B. ; Mosquera, J. ; Bannink, A. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 976) - 65
methaan - emissie - dierlijke meststoffen - emissiereductie - melkveehouderij - methane - emission - animal manures - emission reduction - dairy farming
Methaanemissie uit mest : schatters voor biochemisch methaan potentieel (BMP) en methaanconversiefactor (MCF)
Groenestein, C.M. ; Mosquera, J. ; Melse, R.W. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 961) - 28
mest - methaan - emissie - broeikasgassen - dierhouderij - manures - methane - emission - greenhouse gases - animal husbandry
This report presents the results of a desk study performed to determine and justify the use of new BMP and MCF values for cattle, pig and poultry manure under Dutch conditions.
Towards improving the manure management chain
Hou, Yong - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Oene Oenema, co-promotor(en): Gerard Velthof. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579620 - 215
manures - manure treatment - livestock - excretion - nitrogen - mitigation - methane - european union - mest - mestverwerking - vee - excretie - stikstof - mitigatie - methaan - europese unie

Animal manures are major sources of nutrients and organic matter, to be used to fertilize crops and improve soil quality. However, when not properly managed, these manures release considerable amounts of ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) into the air, and nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) to water bodies, which create a range of unwanted environment impacts. Nutrient losses from manure depend on the management activities and techniques used at different stages of the whole manure management chain, from animal feeding up to manure application to land. The trade-offs and co-benefits of emission mitigation measures and manure treatment technologies are as yet poorly understood, especially when taking the whole manure management chain into account. Moreover, the effects of combinations of measures and technologies have not been well analyzed, and analyses at national scales are lacking. The overall objective of this PhD thesis research is (i) to enhance the quantitative insight into the effects of emission mitigation measures and treatment technologies on emissions of NH3, N2O and CH4, and the recovery of N and P from animal manure in the whole management chain, and (ii) to explore the effects of combinations of measures and technologies to mitigate these emissions and to increase the N and P recovery.

In Chapter 2, methodologies for estimating N excretion factors for the main animal categories in member states of the European Union (EU) were reviewed. In Chapter 3, a transparent and uniform methodology for estimating annual feed use and N excretion per animal category for all countries of the EU-27 was developed, based on the energy and protein requirements of the animals and statistics of feed use and composition, animal number and productivity. In Chapter 4, firstly the impacts of a suite of NH3 mitigation measures on emissions of NH3, N2O and CH4 at individual stages of the manure management chain were analyzed by means of a meta-analysis of published data. Secondly, the overall impacts of alternative combinations of mitigation measures on emissions from the whole chain were evaluated through scenario analysis. Chapter 5 reports on an integrated assessment of the effects of manure treatment on NH3, N2O and CH4 emissions from manure management chains in EU-27 at the national level for 2010, using the model MITERRA-Europe. Whole-chain effects of implementing twelve treatment technologies in EU-27 on emissions and N and P recovery were further explored through scenario analyses. Chapter 6 reports on a survey conducted under various stakeholder groups with expertise in the domain of manure treatment in four European countries that have regions of high animal density. The survey addressed questions related to i) which factors facilitate and hinder the implementation of treatment technologies in practice, ii) which technologies have the most potential for successful adoption, and iii) how farm characteristics and the scale of the treatment operation affect priorities for adoption. The main conclusions of this PhD thesis are as follows:

In EU-27, the amounts of N and P in manure are as large as or larger than the total amounts of fertilizer N and P used annually. However, there is a huge spatial variation in manure production. Nutrient excretion factors per animal category also vary between countries, as a result of variations in feed use and animal productivity. Clearly, for accurate inventories of national emission there is a need for estimating nutrient excretion using country-specific feed use data.

Increasing the effectiveness of measures to mitigate NH3 and GHG emissions from animal manure requires proper combination of measures in the manure management chain. Lowering the dietary protein content in animal feed is an effective measure to reduce NH3 emissions and other N emissions at all stages of the manure management chain. Other measures may reduce emissions of a specific gas or emissions source, by which there is a risk of unwanted trade-offs in the manure management chain. Joint adoption of these measures with low-N feeding strategies and slurry acidification can greatly decrease the risk of pollution swapping.

Implementation of manure treatment is on average still limited in EU-27. Effects of manure treatment on NH3 and GHG emissions are therefore relatively small at EU level. Increasing the implementation of treatment technologies, including acidification, incineration and thermal drying, or optimized combinations of treatment technologies, can significantly contribute to achieving NH3 and GHG emission targets of EU environmental policies. Implementation of manure treatment technologies provides opportunities to improve the use of plant nutrients in manures, because of the release of manure products with different N/P ratios. Applying acidification technology and optimized combination of NH3 emission mitigation measures increase the N recovery from animal manure, and can decrease the demand of mineral fertilizers. However, some technologies decrease the N and P recovery and/or decrease the availability of the N and P in manure products to plants.

Implementation of manure treatment in practice is forced by the pressure from EU environmental regulations, and is hindered by financial barriers. To encourage the adoption of manure treatment, policies must be economically appealing to attract new adopters (farmers and industries). Long-term financial support schemes (e.g. subsidies) seem to be necessary, especially with the current low prices for fossil fuels. Outreach strategies are required to convey the knowledge to stakeholders from both the supply and the demand side, with respect to the economic, technical and environmental aspects of manure treatment technologies.

Short communication: Using diurnal patterns of 13C enrichment of CO2 to evaluate the effects of nitrate and docosahexaenoic acid on fiber degradation in the rumen of lactating dairy cows
Klop, G. ; Bannink, A. ; Dieho, K. ; Gerrits, W.J.J. ; Dijkstra, J. - \ 2016
Journal of Dairy Science 99 (2016)9. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 7216 - 7220.
C enrichment - feed additives - fiber degradation - methane

Nitrate decreases enteric CH4 production in ruminants, but may also negatively affect fiber degradation. In this experiment, 28 lactating Holstein dairy cows were grouped into 7 blocks. Within blocks, cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 isonitrogenous treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement: control (CON); NO3 [21 g of nitrate/kg of dry matter (DM)]; DHA [3 g of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)/kg of DM]; or NO3+DHA (21 g of nitrate/kg of DM and 3 g of DHA/kg of DM). Cows were fed a total mixed ration consisting of 21% grass silage, 49% corn silage, and 30% concentrates on a DM basis. Based on the difference in natural 13C enrichment and neutral detergent fiber and starch content between grass silage and corn silage, we investigated whether a negative effect on rumen fiber degradation could be detected by evaluating diurnal patterns of 13C enrichment of exhaled carbon dioxide. A significant nitrate × DHA interaction was found for neutral detergent fiber digestibility, which was reduced on the NO3 treatment to an average of 55%, as compared with 61, 64, and 65% on treatments CON, DHA, and NO3+DHA, respectively. Feeding nitrate, but not DHA, resulted in a pronounced increase in 13C enrichment of CO2 in the first 3 to 4 h after feeding only. Results support the hypothesis that effects of a feed additive on the rate of fiber degradation in the rumen can be detected by evaluating diurnal patterns of 13C enrichment of CO2. To be able to detect this, the main ration components have to differ considerably in fiber and nonfiber carbohydrate content as well as in natural 13C enrichment.

Referentieraming van emissies naar lucht uit de landbouw tot 2030 : achtergronddocument bij de Nationale Energieverkenning 2015, met emissies van ammoniak, methaan, lachgas, stikstofoxide en fijnstof uit de landbouw tot 2030
Velthof, G.L. ; Bruggen, C. van; Groenestein, C.M. ; Huijsmans, J.F.M. ; Luesink, H.H. ; Sluis, S.M. van der; Kolk, J.W.H. van der; Oude Voshaar, S.V. ; Vonk, J. ; Schijndel, M.W. van - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2746) - 75 p.
luchtverontreiniging - ammoniakemissie - methaan - distikstofmonoxide - stikstofoxide - fijn stof - landbouw - nederland - air pollution - ammonia emission - methane - nitrous oxide - nitric oxide - particulate matter - agriculture - netherlands
Methodology for estimating emissions from agriculture in the Netherlands. : Calculations of CH4, NH3, N2O, NOx, PM10, PM2.5 and CO2 with the National Emission Model for Agriculture (NEMA)
Vonk, J. ; Bannink, A. ; Bruggen, C. van; Groenestein, C.M. ; Huijsmans, J.F.M. ; Kolk, J.W.H. van der; Luesink, H.H. ; Oude Voshaar, S.V. ; Sluis, S.M. ; Velthof, G.L. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Statutory Research Tasks Unit for Nature & the Environment (WOt-technical report 53) - 164 p.
air pollutants, greenhouse gases, livestock, crops, animal housing, manure storage, manure application, inorganic fertilizer, enteric fermentation, manure management, agricultural soils, liming, NIR, CRF, IIR, NFR - landbouw - gewassen - landbouwgronden - vee - huisvesting, dieren - dierlijke meststoffen - rundveemest - mestverwerking - begrazing - broeikasgassen - luchtverontreinigende stoffen - emissie - ammoniakemissie - kooldioxide - methaan - anorganische meststoffen - fermentatie - bekalking - nederland - compost - rioolslib - teelt - oogstresten - rijp worden - agriculture - crops - agricultural soils - livestock - animal housing - animal manures - cattle manure - manure treatment - grazing - greenhouse gases - air pollutants - emission - ammonia emission - carbon dioxide - methane - inorganic fertilizers - fermentation - liming - netherlands - composts - sewage sludge - cultivation - crop residues - ripening
The National Emission Model for Agriculture (NEMA) is used to calculate emissions to air from agricultural activities in the Netherlands on a national scale. Emissions of ammonia (NH3) and other N-compounds (NOx and N2O) from animal housing, manure storage, manure application and grazing are assessed using a Total Ammoniacal Nitrogen (TAN) flow model. Furthermore, emissions from application of inorganic N-fertilizer, compost and sewage sludge, cultivation of organic soils, crop residues, and ripening of crops are calculated. NEMA is also used to estimate emissions of methane (CH4) from enteric fermentation and manure management, particulate matter (PM) from manure management and agricultural soils, and carbon dioxide
(CO2) from liming. Emissions are calculated in accordance with international guidance criteria and reported in an annual Informative Inventory Report (IIR; for air pollutants) and National Inventory Report (NIR; for greenhouse gases). This methodology report describes the outline and backgrounds of the emission
calculations with NEMA
Biotechnological removal of H2S and thiols from sour gas streams under haloalkaline conditions
Roman, P. - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Albert Janssen, co-promotor(en): Martijn Bijmans. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462577336 - 193
desulfurization - biogas - bioreactors - methane - sulfides - oxidation - ontzwaveling - biogas - bioreactoren - methaan - sulfiden - oxidatie
Biological removal of H2S from sour gas streams became popular in recent years because of high process efficiency and low operational costs. To expand the scope of these processes to gas streams containing volatile organosulfur compounds, like thiols, it is necessary to provide new insights into their impact on overall biodesulfurization process. In the current thesis multidisciplinary investigations are performed, such as investigations of inhibitory effects of organic sulfur compounds on sulfide-oxidizing biomass by biochemical and enzyme studies; modelling of the process performance and biological pathways; preparation of analytical tools for measuring unstable sulfur compounds under the process conditions; following the microbial dynamics. The research described in this thesis increases the understanding of the underlying processes occurring in biological gas desulfurization systems when organosulfur compounds are present in the feed gas and provides solutions how to cope with these compounds in full-scale gas biodesulfurization installations.
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