Cell disruption for microalgae biorefineries
Günerken, E. ; Hondt, E. d'; Eppink, M.H.M. ; Garcia-Gonzalez, L. ; Elst, K. ; Wijffels, R.H. - \ 2015
Biotechnology Advances 33 (2015)2. - ISSN 0734-9750 - p. 243 - 260.
microwave-assisted extraction - fluidized-bed adsorption - electric-field treatment - synechocystis pcc 6803 - life-cycle assessment - chlorella-vulgaris - lipid extraction - microbial-cells - saccharomyces-cerevisiae - biodiesel production
Microalgae are a potential source for various valuable chemicals for commercial applications ranging from nutraceuticals to fuels. Objective in a biorefinery is to utilize biomass ingredients efficiently similarly to petroleum refineries in which oil is fractionated in fuels and a variety of products with higher value. Downstream processes in microalgae biorefineries consist of different steps whereof cell disruption is the most crucial part. To maintain the functionality of algae biochemicals during cell disruption while obtaining high disruption yields is an important challenge. Despite this need, studies on mild disruption of microalgae cells are limited. This review article focuses on the evaluation of conventional and emerging cell disruption technologies, and a comparison thereof with respect to their potential for the future microalgae biorefineries. The discussed techniques are bead milling, high pressure homogenization, high speed homogenization, ultrasonication, microwave treatment, pulsed electric field treatment, non-mechanical cell disruption and some emerging technologies.
Mild disintegration of the green microalgae Chlorella vulgaris using bead milling
Postma, P.R. ; Miron, T.L. ; Olivieri, G. ; Barbosa, M.J. ; Wijffels, R.H. ; Eppink, M.H.M. - \ 2015
Bioresource Technology 184 (2015). - ISSN 0960-8524 - p. 297 - 304.
protein aggregation - cell disruption - microbial-cells - release - food - biomass - purification - extraction - economics - products
In this work, the mild disintegration of the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris for the release of intracellular products has been studied. By means of bead milling the microalgae suspensions were successfully disintegrated at different biomass concentrations (25–145 gDW kg-1) over a range of agitator speeds (6–12 m s-1). In all cases over 97% of cell disintegration was achieved resulting in a release of water soluble proteins. A clear optimum rate of disintegration and protein release was observed at an agitator speed of 9–10 m s-1 regardless of the biomass concentration. Selective extraction of water soluble proteins was observed as proteins released sooner than cell disintegration took place. Proteins could be released at 85% lower energy input than for cell disintegration resulting in specific energy consumptions well below 2.5 kWh kgDW-1.