Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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‘Force of Nature’ : climate shocks, food crises and conflict in Colonial Africa and Asia, 1880-1960
Papaioannou, Kostadis J. - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): E.H.P. Frankema; E.H. Bulte. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431668 - 238
climatic change - environmental degradation - environmental impact - agricultural development - agriculture - agriculture and environment - historical ecology - history - colonialism - colonization - africa - asia - nigeria - rainfed agriculture - rain - klimaatverandering - milieuafbraak - milieueffect - landbouwontwikkeling - landbouw - landbouw en milieu - historische ecologie - geschiedenis - kolonialisme - kolonisatie - afrika - azië - nigeria - regenafhankelijke landbouw - regen

“Global climate change poses one of the most urgent challenges of our age. The increasing frequency and intensity of weather shocks, such as heat waves, droughts, floods, and hurricanes, are all anticipated to adversely affect conditions of agricultural production, and jeopardize efforts to achieve global food security. In recent years, there has been a rapidly growing body of literature across multiple disciplines aiming to quantify and assess the adverse consequences of climate on relatively poor rural societies. Building entirely on original primary sources, this dissertation provides evidence that weather shocks raised property crime, triggered civil conflict and shaped patterns of human settlement in British colonial Africa and Asia during the first half of the twentieth century (~1880-1960). By merging the theoretical and empirical insights of several strands of literature (e.g. economics, history, geography), this dissertation has both academic and social merit. Its academic merit lies in its promise to disentangle the net effect of climate on societies from the many other contextual factors that may affect them. And its social merit lies in its capacity to reveal key factors that can mitigate the adverse consequences of weather shocks, enabling tailor-made policy interventions. In sum, the present dissertation contributes to a better understanding of long-term agrarian development in tropical Africa and Asia, offering fresh input to academic debates on how to mitigate the effects of weather extremes”

Remote sensing of land use and carbon losses following tropical deforestation
Sy, V. de - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Martin Herold, co-promotor(en): Jan Clevers; L. Verchot. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578036 - 142
remote sensing - tropical forests - land use - carbon - losses - environmental degradation - forest monitoring - remote sensing - tropische bossen - landgebruik - koolstof - verliezen - milieuafbraak - bosmonitoring

The new Paris Agreement, approved by 195 countries under the auspice of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), calls for limiting global warming to “well below" 2°Celsius. An important part of the climate agreement relates to reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, and enhancing carbon stocks (REDD+) in non-Annex I (mostly developing) countries. Over the last decades the growing demand for food, fibre and fuel has accelerated the pace of forest loss. In consequence, tropical deforestation and forest degradation are responsible for a large portion of global carbon emissions to the atmosphere, and destroy an important global carbon sink that is critical in future climate change mitigation.

Within the REDD+ framework, participating countries are given incentives to develop national strategies and implementation plans that reduce emissions and enhance sinks from forests and to invest in low carbon development pathways. For REDD+ activities to be effective, accurate and robust methodologies to estimate emissions from deforestation and forest degradation are crucial. Remote sensing is an essential REDD+ observation tool, and in combination with ground measurements it provides an objective, practical and cost-effective solution for developing and maintaining REDD+ monitoring systems. The remote sensing monitoring objective for REDD+ is not only to map deforestation but also to support policy formulation and implementation. Identifying and addressing drivers and activities causing forest carbon change is crucial in this respect. Despite the importance of identifying and addressing drivers, quantitative information on these drivers, and the related carbon emissions, is scarce at the national level.

The main objective of this thesis is to explore the role of remote sensing for monitoring tropical forests for REDD+ in general, and for assessing land use and related carbon emissions linked to drivers of tropical deforestation in particular. To achieve this, this thesis investigates the following research questions:

What is the current role and potential of remote sensing technologies and methodologies for monitoring tropical forests for REDD+ and for assessing drivers of deforestation?

What is the current state of knowledge on drivers of deforestation and degradation in REDD+ countries?

What are land use patterns and related carbon emissions following deforestation, capitalising on available land use and biomass remote sensing data?

The research conducted in this PhD thesis contributes to the understanding of the role of remote sensing in forest monitoring for REDD+ and in the assessment of drivers of deforestation. In addition, this thesis contributes to the improvement of spatial and temporal quantification of land use and related carbon emissions linked to drivers of tropical deforestation. The results and insights described herein are valuable for ongoing REDD+ forest monitoring efforts and capacity development as REDD+ moves closer to becoming an operational mitigation mechanism.

MetaNatuurplanner v2.0 : status A
Pouwels, R. ; Eupen, M. van; Adrichem, M.H.C. van; Knegt, B. de; Greft-van Rossum, J.G.M. van der - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu, Wageningen UR (WOt-technical report 64) - 102 p.
biodiversiteit - modellen - natuurbeleid - ecosysteembeheer - verdroging - habitatfragmentatie - milieuafbraak - klimaatverandering - wateropslag - biodiversity - models - nature conservation policy - ecosystem management - desiccation - habitat fragmentation - environmental degradation - climatic change - water storage
Het Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving en Alterra Wageningen UR hebben de MetaNatuurplanner ontwikkeld om op nationale of regionale schaal de effecten van beleid en beheeringrepen op de biodiversiteit te bepalen. Het model legt relaties tussen de milieu-, water- en ruimtecondities en de duurzame instandhouding van de biodiversiteit en wordt gebruikt voor zowel signalering, beleidsevaluatie en (nationale) verkenningen. De soortresultaten en het realiseren van duurzame leefgebieden worden geaggregeerd tot indicatoren die aansluiten op het Nederlandse en Europese beleid. In deze rapportage worden alle facetten beschreven van het model die nodig zijn om de kwaliteitsstatus A voor modellen van de WOT Natuur & Milieu te verkrijgen.
Carbonizing forest governance: analyzing the consequences of REDD+ for multilevel forest governance
Vijge, M.J. - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Arthur Mol, co-promotor(en): Aarti Gupta. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576445 - 178
forest policy - governance - deforestation - environmental degradation - forests - carbon - bosbeleid - governance - ontbossing - milieuafbraak - bossen - koolstof

Carbonizing forest governance:

Analyzing the consequences of REDD+ for multilevel forest governance

Marjanneke J. Vijge

Despite the fifty years of global action to combat deforestation and forest degradation, the world is still losing its forests at great scale. A recent governance initiative that has raised high expectations to address global deforestation is Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+), negotiated under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The idea of REDD+ is to compensate developing countries for their forest-related carbon emission reductions. Through REDD+, forests are governed for their carbon content. I therefore see REDD+ as the embodiment of what I call a “carbonization” of forest governance. This thesis analyzes the consequences of carbonization for multilevel forest governance. It studies whether carbonization leads to 1) a simplification of forest governance through a prime focus on carbon, or a focus on multiple carbon and non-carbon benefits; 2) a centralization or dispersion of authority; 3) a privileging of scientific knowledge—what I call a technicalization—or a diversity in the production and use of knowledge; and 4) a primary reliance on market instruments—what I refer to as marketization—or reliance on a mix of market and non-market instruments. I discuss whether REDD+ can be seen as a case of increased homogenization of environmental governance through simplification, centralization, technicalization, and/or marketization.

The research questions are as follows:

1. How does the carbonization of forest governance manifest itself at different levels, and with what consequences for multilevel forest governance?

2. What does this analysis of the consequences of carbonization reveal about the prospects of a homogenization of environmental governance?

This thesis uses discourses as proxies for how and with what consequences the carbonization of forest governance manifests itself. The thesis analyzes how REDD+ is being framed by policy actors and practitioners, and operationalized in policy, institutional and project developments and design. Triangulation of data is established through reliance on qualitative and quantitative research methods, including semi-structured interviews, surveys, reviews of primary and secondary literature, and direct and participant observation during field visits, project meetings and conferences.

Chapter 2 analyzes how carbonization manifests itself in UNFCCC policy debates and developments surrounding measuring, reporting and verification (MRV) systems that are centrally implicated in REDD+. This chapter shows that at the global level, REDD+ is framed as a mechanism to facilitate results-based compensation for carbon emission reductions, to be measured through national, state-based, expert-led MRV systems. The chapter argues that this may well induce a simplified focus on carbon, a technicalization of forest governance, and a centralization of authority in national state agencies responsible for measuring and accounting for forest carbon units. This might marginalize non-carbon forest services and empower certain groups of actors such as technical experts at the cost of, for example, local communities. Who will be empowered through REDD+, however, ultimately depends on the context-specific operationalization and implementation of REDD+ at the national and local level.

Chapter 3 contains an in-depth case study of how carbonization manifests itself in the Green India Mission (GIM), the cornerstone of India’s national REDD+ strategy. The chapter shows that the GIM frames REDD+ as an opportunity to synergistically generate carbon and non-carbon benefits, and promote a further devolution of authority in Indian forest governance to local communities. Chapter 3 nevertheless concludes that this is not likely to be realized without significant investments in benefit-sharing mechanisms and biodiversity and community-based monitoring systems in India.

Chapter 4 presents the in-depth case study of the first REDD+ pilot project in India. The chapter analyzes the prominence of REDD+-related discourses among stakeholders and in project design. The chapter shows that the manifestation of carbonization at project level can be very different from the dominant framing of REDD+ at the global level as a carbon-centric, centralized and technocratic mechanism. The project case study shows how the carbonization of forest governance might become a vehicle to generate multiple carbon and non-carbon benefits, diversify the production and use of knowledge and the types of actors involved therein, disperse authority among actors involved in forest governance, and diversify reliance on both market- and fund-based finances.

Chapter 5 contains a cross-country comparative analysis of the prominence of REDD+-related discourses among national policy actors and in national REDD+ policy documents of seven countries: Cameroon, Indonesia, Nepal, Papua New Guinea, Vietnam, Peru and Tanzania. The chapter shows that though REDD+ is mostly framed as a mechanism to generate carbon and non-carbon benefits, most countries pay very little attention to non-carbon monitoring. Almost all countries lay out detailed plans to diversify the production and use of knowledge through the involvement of local communities in REDD+ MRV systems, but currently lack the institutional capacity to implement such plans. Almost all REDD+ policy documents plan for a national state agency to account for and distribute REDD+ payments. There is, however, strikingly little discussion of how to finance REDD+. The chapter argues that a simplification, a centralization and, to a lesser extent, a technicalization of national forest governance are possible consequences of carbonization.

The concluding chapter shows that carbonization of forest governance manifests itself differently at different levels of governance, with varying consequences for multilevel forest governance. Though homogenization does not yet occur, it may happen in the long run due to the centralization of authority that countries envision in accounting for and distributing REDD+ payments, as well as countries’ capacity gaps in non-carbon and community-based monitoring, which make a simplification and technicalization of national forest governance possible consequences of REDD+. In answering the second research question regarding the prospects of a homogenization of environmental governance, the case of REDD+ shows that developing countries retain authority to design policies, but in diversified ways. I argue that though diversity in policies and practices exist, this goes hand in hand with—and sometimes even flows from—efforts to homogenize in order to measure and regulate environmental outcomes at central (global and/or national) levels. As such, the challenges facing global environmental governance lie not only in measuring and controlling environmental outcomes, but also in managing the diversity and fragmentation that arise from these efforts.

Life and capital : development and change in the 21st century
Büscher, B.E. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen University, Wageningen UR - ISBN 9789462573680 - 36 p.
development studies - rural development - environmental degradation - environmental impact - social change - developing countries - quality of life - ontwikkelingsstudies - plattelandsontwikkeling - milieuafbraak - milieueffect - sociale verandering - ontwikkelingslanden - kwaliteit van het leven
Evaluation of effects of agri-environmental measures on rangeland degradation in two less favoured areas in Portugal
Jones, N.M. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Leo Stroosnijder, co-promotor(en): Jan de Graaff; Luuk Fleskens. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574618 - 154
agrarisch natuurbeheer - extensieve weiden - landdegradatie - milieuafbraak - landgebruik - bedrijfssystemen - portugal - agri-environment schemes - rangelands - land degradation - environmental degradation - land use - farming systems - portugal

Evaluation of effects of agri-environmental measures on rangeland degradation in two less-favoured areas in Portugal

Nadia Manuela Jones

In the past decades there have been significant land use changes in Portugal. After the integration of Portugal in the EU, farmers have been able to benefit from EU policy measures, which were initially mainly aimed at supporting farmer’s income. It soon became apparent that these land use changes led to both intensification and abandonment of land, which were detrimental to the environment in various ways, in particular to higher soil erosion hazards and to an increased incidence of wildfire.

The thesis assesses the impact of agro-environmental policies on agro-ecosystem goods and services and land degradation at farm and regional levels in Portugal. It identifies the main land use changes, provides insight in the role of past policy measures targeting the preservation of extensive grazing in marginal areas, and explores the options for the improvement of future policy measures.

First an historical review is provided of land use changes in Portugal and their implications for land degradation and conservation. Thereafter an analysis is made of the farming systems in two less favoured areas in Centro and Alentejo regions, which showed an increasing focus on livestock and rangeland activities. Subsequently an assessment is made of the role of two specific EU agri-environmental measures (AEM) that preserve extensive grazing in these two less-favoured areas in Portugal. Thereby attention is paid to the uptake of these AEMs and to their effects on preserving reduced stocking rates and sufficient soil cover. An analysis is also made of the AEM payments and other EU subsidy flows, and their changes over the period 2005-2009, and of the effectiveness of the financial incentives offered through the two specific AEMS for preserving extensive grazing in the two research areas. Finally a normative analysis is made, whereby the impact of agri-environmental policy is targeted. Through scenario analysis of different combinations of policy measures for the two research areas, the impacts on extensive livestock farm production, soil erosion risk and wildfire hazard are assessed. A final discussion about the respective research results is presented in the synthesis of the thesis.

Roaming livestock distribution, densities and population estimates for St. Eustatius, 2013
Debrot, A.O. ; Hazenbosch, J.C.J. ; Piontek, S. ; Kraft, C. ; Belle, J. van; Strijkstra, A. - \ 2015
Den Helder : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C088/15) - 27
sint eustatius - vee - wilde dieren - populatiedichtheid - herkauwers - erosie - caribische eilanden - milieuafbraak - livestock - wild animals - population density - ruminants - erosion - caribbean islands - environmental degradation
The problem of roaming livestock is a major impediment to agricultural development and nature conservation on St. Eustatius, as it also typically is on other islands in the region. In support of a government-led culling program, we here conducted a baseline study of livestock abundance and distribution on the island in the final quarter of 2013.
Monitoring quantity and quality of pangasius pond effluent : report of a monitoring program and recommendations for certification
Heijden, P.G.M. van der; Poelman, M. ; Vo Minh Son, ; Duong Nhut Long, ; Bosma, R.H. - \ 2011
Wageningen : Wageningen UR, Centre for Development Innovation - 10
aquacultuur - viskwekerijen - visteelt - vietnam - certificering - milieueffect - waterkwaliteit - milieuafbraak - aquacultuur en milieu - aquaculture - fish farms - fish culture - certification - environmental impact - water quality - environmental degradation - aquaculture and environment
The quantity and quality of pangasius pond effluent was monitored by means of monthly sampling during a study conducted on four striped catfish farms located in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. The study was undertaken to test the practical implications of the standards and guidelines with regard to catfish pond effluent that are at present developed by various certification programs for striped catfish production in Vietnam. The results showed a great variability twelve pangasius pond within the samples that were taken during one period of partial pond draining and refilling. The consequences of such variability with regard to the certification standards and guidelines are discussed and recommendations are given.
Greening textile industry in Vietnam
Nguyen Thi Phuong, L. - \ 2011
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Arthur Mol, co-promotor(en): Harry Bruning. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085858782 - 314
milieubeleid - textielindustrie - verontreiniging - milieuafbraak - afvalwater - waterverontreiniging - duurzame ontwikkeling - industrie - ecologie - vietnam - zuidoost-azië - environmental policy - textile industry - pollution - environmental degradation - waste water - water pollution - sustainable development - industry - ecology - vietnam - south east asia

The textile and garment industry has made a remarkable contribution to the economic development of Vietnam and employs currently a large labor force of 2.5 million people.However, the textile industry is also seen as a most polluting and unsustainable industry due to the use of excessive amounts of materials and the release of large amounts of pollutants into the environment. In order to improve the environmental sustainability and effectiveness of the textile industry in Vietnam this study has looked into preventive measure, reuse/recycling options and improved end-of-pipe technologies, separately and in combination.

The end-of-pipe treatment is the last step in the greening production model. Textile wastewater is very difficult to treat, especially regarding the high color intensity. Removal of color from textile wastewater was studied by varying the pH, the application of a biological treatment step, the application of coagulation/flocculation and of Advanced Oxidation Processes (O3, O3/H2O2, Fenton’s reagent). The coagulation process was very effective in color removal of insoluble dyestuffs (98%), but this process is not so suitable for wastewater containing only soluble dyestuffs (12-55%). Of the Advanced Oxidation Processes, the Fenton’s reagent process was the most effective method for color removal (81-98%)for the four types of wastewater tested. The decolorization with the ozone process at low pH (pH 5)showed that direct oxidation by molecular ozone is much more selective in color removal than the oxidation by hydroxyl radicals. The presence of colloidal particles caused a 12-fold increase for ozone needed to obtain the same color removal efficiency as for a wastewater without colloidal particles.Each of the investigated processes could only remove one or a few types of pollutants from the wastewater, with the consequence that effluents could not meet all the discharge regulations. The combination of an activated sludge process, and a coagulation and ozone process yielded the best color (45 Pt-Co) and COD (30 mg O2/L) removal at the lowest costs (0.3 €/m3), compared with all other tested combinations.

Separate collection of wastewater streams in a factory can also strongly contribute to the efficiency and sustainability of wastewater treatment. In the wet processes of the textile industry 75% of the total water consumption is for rinsing purposes. Wastewater from most rinsing steps contains low amounts of pollutants and can be reused in other process stages or can be discharged without treatment.

An industrial ecology zone model, integrating preventive cleaner production approaches, a waste exchange network for reuse and recycling, and new end-of-pipe technologies, has been developed and assessed in two case studies: the Thanh Cong Company and the Nhon Trach 2 Industrial Zone. The greening production model developed for the Thanh Cong Company, a large-scale textile company in Hochiminh city, included the combination of cleaner production, external waste exchange and end-of-pipe technology. The dyestuffs, auxiliary chemicals, water and energy consumption can be reduced significantly when the proposed cleaner production, the external waste exchange options and the improved end-of-pipe technologies are implemented. Total benefits in savings per day can be more than 1,000 US$.

The industrial ecology zone model was designed in three steps. Firstly the greening production model developed for the Thanh Cong Company was applied to all textile enterprises in the industrial ecology zone that was considered. Secondly an outside waste exchange network was designed. The outside network includes reuse of waste plastics, waste paper and waste oil at recycling companies in the neighborhood. The last step is to treat solid waste and polluted air and to treat and reuse wastewater for irrigation (cotton cultivation), for use in sanitary systems and to water plants in the industrial zone.

The case studies of the greening production model and of the industrial ecology zone model demonstrated that a successful industrial ecology practice not only depends on the interaction between enterprises inside but also on the interaction with the actor networks outside the industrial system:the economic networks, the social networks and the policy networks. These networks can contribute in different ways to the implementation of the models. In the case study of a large textile company the economic network is very important in the implementation of the greening production model and in the case study of an industrial ecology zone the policy network play the most important role in the implementation of the industrial ecology model.

Degraded Forests in Eastern Africa: management and restoration
Bongers, F. ; Tennigkeit, T. - \ 2010
London : The Eartscan Library (The Earthscan forestry library ) - ISBN 9781844077670 - 370
tropische bossen - gedegradeerde bossen - bossen - milieuafbraak - biodiversiteit - watervoorraden - klimaatverandering - bosbedrijfsvoering - houtteelt - agroforestry - natuurbescherming - oost-afrika - tropical forests - degraded forests - forests - environmental degradation - biodiversity - water resources - climatic change - forest management - silviculture - agroforestry - nature conservation - east africa
Forest degradation as a result of logging, shifting cultivation, agriculture and urban development is a major issue throughout the tropics. It leads to loss in soil fertility, water resources and biodiversity, as well as contributing to climate change. Efforts are therefore required to try to minimize further degradation and restore tropical forests in a sustainable way. This is the first research-based book to examine this problem in East Africa. The specific focus is on the forests of Ethiopia, Tanzania and Uganda, but the lessons learned are shown to be applicable to neighboring countries and others in the tropics. A wide range of forest types is covered, from dry Miombo forest and afromontane forests, to forest-savanna mosaics and wet forest types. Current management practices are assessed and examples of good practice presented. The role of local people is also emphasized. The authors describe improved management and restoration through silviculture, plantation forestry and agroforestry, leading to improvements in timber production, biodiversity conservation and the livelihoods of local people.
Environmental impact assessment of the pangasius sector in the Mekong Delta
Bosma, R.H. ; Hanh, C.T.T. ; Potting, J. ; Anh, P.T. ; Dung, V.V. ; Fransen, M. ; Hien, H.T.T. ; Hong, P.T.T. ; Minh, N.T. ; Tuan, T.T. ; Phong, L.T. ; Vuong, D.Q.T. ; Yen, T. ; Ut, V.N. - \ 2009
Wageningen : Wageningen University - 57
aquacultuur - vis - milieueffect - milieuafbraak - milieubeheer - bedrijfsvoering - vietnam - aquacultuur en milieu - milieu-analyse - economische aspecten - aquaculture - fish - environmental impact - environmental degradation - environmental management - management - vietnam - aquaculture and environment - environmental analysis - economic aspects
In the past seven years the export of white pangasius fillets grew fast. The culture method shifted to intensive production of striped catfish (Ca Tra) in deep ponds because this is more efficient than the pen and cage culture of Ca Basa. Today, striped catfish comprises more than 90 % of the culture. The increased production was achieved by producers investing in large ponds. The market chain is gearing towards vertical integration. Most farms keep fish at relatively high densities of 15 to 25 fish/m3 in ponds having a depth of up to 4m, and are advised to exchange daily 20 to 40% of the water. The sustainability of the sector is threatened due to the increased environmental pressure, and hampered by the growing cost of inputs and reduced farm-gate prices of the fish. The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) intends to identify measures for preventing or mitigating the environmental impacts of catfish culture in the Mekong Delta. The EIA was a seven-step process during which we interacted twice with part of the main stakeholders. To build trust among the stakeholders from the sector, we conducted the scoping and goal setting with them.
Environmental degradation and intra-household welfare: the case of the Tanzanian rural South Pare Highlands
Dimoso, R.L. - \ 2009
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Gerrit Antonides. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085852889 - 182
milieuafbraak - allocatie van arbeid - welvaartseconomie - huishoudonderzoeken - huishoudens - platteland - landbouwhuishoudens - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - man-vrouwrelaties - vrouwen - tanzania - gedrag van huishoudens - environmental degradation - labour allocation - welfare economics - household surveys - households - rural areas - agricultural households - natural resources - gender relations - women - tanzania - household behaviour
Key words: Environmental degradation, intrahousehold labour allocation, intrahousehold welfare.
Rural south Pare highlands in Tanzania experience a deteriorating environmental situation. Of particular importance is the disappearance of forests and woodlands. The consequence are declining amounts and reliability of rainfall, declining amounts of water levels and loss of biodiversity. Deterioration of environmental resources increases costs of collecting environmental products, which in many respects have no feasible close substitutes. One of the major components of the increased costs is labour time allocated by household members to collecting environmental products and/or grazing activities.
This study presents an empirical investigation of the impact of this reallocation of intra-household labour resources on livelihood for different members of a household. We used the cross-sectional data. To analyse how variations in the environmental degradation affect intra-household labour allocation, three types of areas are distinguished: severely-degraded, medium-degraded, and non-degraded environments.
Our findings show that (1) the environmental products collection and/or grazing activities are gender biased with husbands specializing in grazing while wives and children working mainly on fetching water and fuel wood; and that the labour time allocation is significantly influenced by environmental condition; (2) environmental degradation is limiting the production and consumption potentials in the area and that a limited adoption of agricultural modernization further aggravates this problem; (3) factors like school crowdedness, illness, bad weather, poor school quality, and school absenteeism due to street vending contribute much negatively to the probability of primary school attainment for a child apart from the environmental degradation situation; and that (4) subjective welfare and well-being of the household members are affected by the quality of the environment.
This study contributes to the understanding of the situation and setting proper measures towards solving the problems of sustainable development, poverty alleviation, environmental policy, human capital formation in south Pare.

The use and fate of pesticides in vegetable-based agroecosystems in Ghana
Ntow, W.J. - \ 2008
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): H.J. Gijzen, co-promotor(en): P. Kelderman. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085048367 - 111
pesticiden - endosulfan - lekkage - oppervlakkige afvoer - beroepsgevaren - choline esterase - ghana - acetylcholine esterase - milieuafbraak - agro-ecosystemen - persistente organische verontreinigende stoffen - bioaccumulatie - pesticides - endosulfan - leakage - runoff - occupational hazards - cholinesterase - ghana - acetylcholinesterase - environmental degradation - agroecosystems - persistent organic pollutants - bioaccumulation
The use of a wide range of chemicals to destroy pests and weeds is an important aspect of agricultural practice in Ghana, contributing to increased crop yield and reduced post-harvest losses. Notwithstanding the beneficial effects of pesticides, their adverse effects on environmental quality and human health constitute a major issue that gives rise to concerns at local, regional and national scales. The situation is particularly worrying in view of the lack of reliable data on the long-term consequences of exposure to pesticides. Ntow’s thesis reports on current knowledge on pesticides use in vegetable farming in Ghana and establishes the fate of pesticides in situ in tropical vegetable-based agroecosystems, as well as their environmental and public health impacts on selected population groups. Thus, water, waterbed sediment and vegetable crops (viz. tomato, cabbage, pepper, onion and eggplant) were checked for residues of the pesticides monitored on the farmers’ fields. Data on persistent pesticide residues in farmers’ breast milk and blood serum indicated the presence of DDTs, dieldrin, HCB, and HCHs; this especially raises concerns for children’s health. The thesis concludes that successful actions to reduce negative impacts of pesticides require sustained, low cost, and well-targeted training interventions.
Land, Water and Ecosystems Management in the Krishna River Basin : Phase 1 (May 2006-March 2007) - DRAFT VERSION
Alterra - Centrum Landschap, - \ 2007
Wageningen : Alterra - 104
waterbeschikbaarheid - waterbalans - watervoorraden - milieuafbraak - water availability - water balance - water resources - environmental degradation
There is no doubt that the water authorities in India have to think and to work towards allocative water management strategies to ensure long-term judicious land and water development and management. Allocative water management strategies offer great opportunities to significantly improve the water productivity in agriculture and in other sectors. It also offers opportunities in combating environmental degradation and in the reconstruction of degenerated natural resources. This report presents a problem analysis and a first inventory and assessment of the opportunities and implications of allocative water management in terms of (economical) water benefits, agricultural benefits and ecological benefits. The report also presents tools for strategical and operational allocative water management and details on institutional aspects. This report describes the activities executed from May 2006 to March 2007 and is aimed as initial knowledge base and starting point for further investigations
Eco-modernizing small en medium-sized agro-industries in Vietnam
Pham Hong Nhat, - \ 2007
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Arthur Mol. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085048282 - 320
landbouwindustrie - kleine bedrijven - verontreiniging - milieuafbraak - modernisering - herstel - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - milieubescherming - verontreinigingsbeheersing - slacht - looien - leerverwerkende industrie - zeevruchten - overheidsbeleid - milieubeleid - vietnam - middelgrote bedrijven - agribusiness - small businesses - pollution - environmental degradation - modernization - rehabilitation - sustainability - environmental protection - pollution control - slaughter - tanning - leather industry - seafoods - government policy - environmental policy - vietnam - medium sized businesses
Following ‘Doi Moi’ (Renovation), which started in 1986, the former centrally planned economy in Vietnam is shifting to an economy where production is linked to market demand and consumption. As a result, the nation has been enjoying an unprecedentedly fast economic growth, especially in recent years: 8.4% in 2005 and 8.17% in 2006. The economic renovation also brought an expansion of the private sector, which consists mainly of small- and medium-sized enterprises, SMEs. The reform process has also positively influenced agriculture, which is an important sector of the national economy. These changes have resulted in a strong growth of Vietnamese SMEs, especially in the agro-food and related fields. Although recognized as a very important sector, the small- and medium-sized agro-industries, SMAIs have high environmental costs. Since a large number of SMAIs operate amidst residential neighbourhoods in urban areas, they not only contribute to urban pollution but also cause severe nuisance to the surrounding residents by discharging their untreated solid, liquid and gaseous emissions. Furthermore, the public has expressed concerns recently that the poor environmental performance of SMAIs may (in)directly influence the safety of food. During the last few years, the Government of Vietnam has worked hard to protect the environment and to mitigate adverse environmental impacts caused by fast economic development. But the current environmental management system, based on a solid command-and-control style, has not been able to cope with the situation. In an attempt to contribute to a sustainable development strategy for the country, this thesis aims to evaluate the current situation and to design approaches that would eco-modernise the existing small- and medium-sized agro-industries in Vietnam. As such, the main objective of the thesis is to answer three central research questions: (1) what are the current contributions of SMAIs to environmental problems in Vietnam?, (2) how can the environmental performance of Vietnamese SMAIs be improved?, and (3) what role can the relevant Vietnamese actors play in such environmental reform strategies? The ideas of the Ecological Modernisation Theory, EMT, were employed as the main theoretical framework for this research. These ideas help us to analyse how to deal with environmental issues which have increasingly become problematic as a result of the recent fast industrial and economic development. With an EMT framework, current available theories and techniques for environmental protection (at industries) were systematically analyzed. They include pollution control, pollution prevention/cleaner production and industrial ecology. Although these approaches were developed as an evolution towards solving the environmental consequences of industrial development, they all have both advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, although the most recent approaches appear to be the most advanced ones, none of them have ever fully rejected the others. In fact, a combination of (most of) them, seems to be useful. A methodology was developed in this dissertation for analyzing and designing the eco-modernization of existing SMAIs, using the main principles of industrial ecology, IE. The methodology focuses on both technical aspects and institutional (re)arrangements and leads to a “closed material cycle model”. Regarding the technical side, the model consists of two levels: (1) the enterprise level and (2) the enterprise-expanded level; and it encompasses three components of environmental performance improvement: (1) the intra-enterprise measures, which consist of mainly source reduction and on-site recycling, (2) the intra-extra enterprise measures, which include mainly (off-site) recycling and/or (on-site) reuse, and (3) the further use of the remaining residues by other industries and/or entities/activities. Regarding the institutional aspects a network analysis – assessing the role of economic, policy and societal networks – was applied, relating designed environmental improvement options to actors configurations. The developed methodology was applied in three SMAI sub-sectors: animal slaughtering, tanning and seafood processing. A multiple case study strategy was employed for this research. After a general study of each of the sub-sectors, six case study enterprises were selected from each sub-sector for in-depth research. Furthermore, one case study from each studied sub-sector was selected for further in-depth research with empirical experiments on closing the material cycles. Moreover, actor networks that embed the case study companies were analyzed to identify their role in promoting the developed environmental options and models. As a result, shortcomings in implementing environmental reforms were identified. The identification of these weaknesses helped to make sound recommendations for institutional rearrangements of future systems leading towards successful eco-modernizing of the SMAIs. As a result of the empirical research the central research questions were answered. Firstly, it has become clear that the current environmental performance of the SMAI sector in Vietnam is poor. This poor performance not only contributes to the degradation of the environment but also (in)directly relates to the issues of food safety. Secondly, the application of an integrated methodology based on the principles of pollution prevention/cleaner production and especially industrial ecology proved to be successful in helping the SMAIs to improve their environmental performance by creating a “closed material cycle” model. Thirdly, through a network analysis, the role of the relevant actors in environmental reform was clarified. Most economic actors do not play an active and “positive” role towards facilitating the implementation of developed environmental improvement model, and the societal network actors are also quite passive. In addition, a number of shortcomings in the policy networks regarding the environmental reform were revealed. Although the role of branch associations was identified as crucial for environmental reform, these either do not exist (in the case of slaughtering industry) or they focus only on the economic interests of their members. Capacity strengthening – both at the individual and the organizational level – is urgently needed as part of a political modernization process, but this has to be coupled with raising environmental awareness and knowledge among the public in general. The empirical research within this study has proved that the idea of industrial ecology can be applied for improving environmental performance of the existing SMAIs by adding well designed options. In other words, industrial ecology fits not only new industrial establishments by carefully designing waste reuse, recycling or exchange, but can also fit existing (agro-)industrial units by (wisely) re-designing their waste flow for the purpose of recycling and/or reuse. Last but not least, recommendations for further research have been made. Firstly, from the point of view of sustainable production and consumption, research could be carried out to elaborate on the production-consumption chain for the SMAIs. This work would help to quantify the contribution and role of each actor in the chain. Furthermore, the applicability and extent of industrial ecology could further be studied for SMEs of other industrial sectors in Vietnam. Finally, comparative studies are recommended to be carried out on environmental reform of the same industrial sub-sectors in similar economic conditions but in different geographical, cultural and political-institutional settings. These studies could help to make the EMT more valuable throughout the developing world.
Indicators for the 'Convention on biodiversity 2010'. National Capital Index version 2.0 : 1. Trends in extent of selected biomes, ecosystems and habitats : 2. Trends in abundance and distribution of selected species : fact sheet
Reijnen, M.J.S.M. - \ 2007
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-werkdocument 53.1) - 20
biodiversiteit - ecosystemen - degradatie - milieuafbraak - indicatorsoorten - soorten - soortenrijkdom - habitats - aquatische ecosystemen - terrestrische ecosystemen - natuur - biodiversity - ecosystems - degradation - environmental degradation - indicator species - species - species richness - aquatic ecosystems - terrestrial ecosystems - nature
Institutionalization of conflict capability in the management of natural resources : theoretical perspectives and empirical experience in Indonesia
Yasmi, Y. - \ 2007
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): H. Schanz; Bas Arts. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085047209 - 188
natuurlijke hulpbronnen - hulpbronnenbeheer - milieuafbraak - conflict - bosbedrijfsvoering - indonesië - sociaal conflict - natural resources - resource management - environmental degradation - conflict - forest management - indonesia - social conflict
Keywords: natural resource conflict, conflict capability, impairment, escalation This study concerns natural resource management (NRM) conflict particularly conflict in forestry sector and how such conflict can be addressed effectively. It consists of two major parts. The first deals with the theoretical review of conflict literature. It shows how conflict can conceptualized distinctively and how such distinctive conceptualization can be used as a strong basis for understanding and addressing conflict. The second part is empirical studies in three locations in Indonesia, namely: Jambi, Sumatra, Bulungan Research Forest, East Kalimantan and Danau Sentarum national Park, West Kalimantan. Forest conflicts studied in these locations cannot be separated with the ongoing decentralization processes in Indonesia. This study finds various horizontal and vertical conflicts that take place as a result of decentralization processes. The study provides an alternative view for addressing NRM conflict by focusing on the so-called “conflict capability”, i.e. how can we develop and institutionalize capacities for dealing with conflict effectively.
Environmental Governance in China.
Carter, N.T. ; Mol, A.P.J. - \ 2007
Abingdon, UK : Routledge - ISBN 9780415371698 - 204
milieubeleid - milieubeheer - milieubescherming - milieuwetgeving - waterbeheer - biotechnologie - energiebeleid - niet-gouvernementele organisaties - economische groei - milieuafbraak - china - governance - environmental policy - environmental management - environmental protection - environmental legislation - water management - biotechnology - energy policy - non-governmental organizations - economic growth - environmental degradation
Oil contaminated sediments in the North Sea: environmental effects 20 years after discharges of OBM drill cuttings
Daan, R. ; Mulder, M. ; Witbaard, R. - \ 2006
Den Burg Texel : Koninklijk Nederlands Instituut voor Onderzoek der Zee (NIOZ-Rapport 2006-4) - 29
olieverontreinigingen - verontreiniging - besmetters - mariene sedimenten - milieutoets - milieuafbraak - milieueffect - marien milieu - noordzee - verontreinigde sedimenten - milieu-analyse - mariene biologie - oil spills - pollution - contaminants - marine sediments - environmental assessment - environmental degradation - environmental impact - marine environment - north sea - contaminated sediments - environmental analysis - marine biology
Economic analysis of deforestation : the case of the gum Arabic belt in Sudan
Rahim, A. - \ 2006
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Ekko van Ierland; Ruerd Ruben, co-promotor(en): Justus Wesseler. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9085044693 - 141
natuurlijke hulpbronnen - hulpbronnenbeheer - ontbossing - milieuafbraak - economische analyse - arabische gom - Sudan - milieueconomie - natural resources - resource management - deforestation - environmental degradation - economic analysis - gum arabic - Sudan - environmental economics
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