Records 1 - 20 / 618
New tuna regimes
Yeeting, Agnes David - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): S.R. Bush, co-promotor(en): H.P. Weikard; V. Ram-Bidesi; M. Bailey. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463438308 - 154
fisheries - marine fisheries - tuna - sustainability - environmental policy - governance - economic policy - pacific ocean - environmental economics - visserij - zeevisserij - tonijn - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - milieubeleid - governance - economisch beleid - grote oceaan - milieueconomie
governing sustainability and equity in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean
Bringing in the floods : a comparative study on controlled flooding in the Dutch, Bangladesh and Vietnamese deltas
Staveren, Martijn F. van - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): J.P.M. Tatenhove, co-promotor(en): J.F. Warner; P. Wester. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463437035 - 174
water management - flooding - deltas - hydraulic engineering - rivers - environmental management - environmental policy - environmental control - netherlands - vietnam - bangladesh - waterbeheer - inundatie - delta's - waterbouwkunde - rivieren - milieubeheer - milieubeleid - milieubeheersing - nederland - vietnam - bangladesh
This thesis investigates contested initiatives to restore controlled flooding in the deltas of the Dutch, Bangladesh and Vietnamese (Mekong) deltas. Restoring controlled flooding is a seemingly contradictory measure in densely populated delta areas, where approaches based on full flood prevention has been typically dominant for decades. This has instigated the question how the emergence of restored controlled flooding initiatives can be explained. Related, this study reflects on how controlled flooding could contribute to long-term flood risk management and sustainable development in deltas, which are simultaneously attractive and vulnerable places for humans to live in. In order to answer this question, a case study approach has been used to investigate social, environmental and technological factors that have shaped controlled flooding initiatives. Cases have been identified that materialized under different conditions: from very dynamic delta environments to relatively stable ones, and from interventions driven by “top-down” policies to “bottom-up” action to modify or remove embankments. This thesis has an article-based structure, which means that individual chapters (2-5) have been designed for publication with peer reviewed academic journals. Chapter 1 provides the general background information, problem definition, and objectives. Chapter 6 ties together the findings of the individual case study chapters and presents the conclusions.
Chapter 2 conceptualizes deltas as interacting social-ecological-technological systems. It argues that a better understanding of how hydraulic infrastructure influences social processes and environmental dynamics in deltas is critical to understand how deltas evolve over time. By means of the delta trajectories concept, the chapter presents a way to understand this interaction. It also presents a way to understand the sustainability of a delta trajectory, and discusses how new flood management concepts might contribute to “realigning” the development trajectory towards more sustainable system states.
In Chapter 3, the first controlled flooding case is investigated. The Noordwaard is an agricultural polder, located at the junction of tides and riverine discharge in the Netherlands. As part of the Room for the River programme, the northern embankments were lowered which enables the inflow of water during high water levels in the river Merwede. This reduces peak water levels in the river, supports the adjacent freshwater Biesbosch wetland by means of restored water dynamics, but also affects the possibilities for agricultural production. The chapter highlights that a strong coupling can be observed between the domains of water safety and nature development objectives, and that a top-down decision concluded a long stakeholder negotiation processes. From the perspective of “subsiding polder lands,” controlled flooding is not regarded for its strategic importance, as excessive sedimentation would hamper the intended design discharge of the area.
Chapter 4 explores the Tidal River Management concept. In the coastal zone of Bangladesh, community-enforced embankment breaches have opened up some of the polders or low-lying areas called “beels,” and exposed them to tidal influence again. Besides stimulating agricultural production and providing safer places to live in, the extensive network of polder embankments also caused increased sedimentation in the region’s rivers, and water logging in enclosed areas due to insufficient drainage possibilities. The chapter highlights that policy debates in Bangladesh have revolved around adopting “open” or “closed” approaches, where TRM represents a hybrid form. The case showed that TRM involves water management and sediment management, and that it represented a “social opening up” for local communities and NGOs to get involved with water projects and embankment removal.
Plans to restore seasonal flooding in the Mekong delta are center stage in Chapter 5. The Mekong delta system is very dynamic and dealing with the delta’s water resources, in connection with intensive rice production, have been heavily debated by Vietnamese and international policy makers. This chapter investigates a number of older and more recent long-term development plans for the Mekong delta. This analysis highlights how ideas about controlled flooding and flood control have gradually evolved over time. The most recent delta management plan suggests to restore seasonal flooding in some parts of the delta, as a way to safeguard downstream urban areas from peak flows, and as a way to improve the conditions for agricultural production.
Chapter 6 summarizes the findings of the case study chapters one by one, and concisely answers the research questions. It highlights key similarities and differences when it comes to social, environmental and technological dimensions, and discusses these findings with the literature on flood risk management policy, complex adaptive systems research, and delta studies. The findings demonstrate that environmental dynamics have been critical to emphasize the potential of restoring controlled flooding, but that social and technological factors have been important enablers or constrainers for controlled flooding initiatives to take shape. In itself, controlled flooding reconciles ecosystem-based ideas about flood management with more mainstream policies based on flood control. For this reason controlled flooding can be seen as a “niche-development” with limited influence on how flood management policies, and environmental delta systems, evolve. At the same time, controlled flooding has been acknowledged for its strategic opportunities, for example when it comes to diverting peak water discharges, land heightening by means of capturing suspended sediment, and by providing nutrient for agricultural. This offers opportunities for further thinking about and conceptual development of controlled flooding.
Marine communities : governing oil & gas activities and cruise tourism in the Arctic and the Caribbean
Bets, Linde K.J. - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): J.P.M. van Tatenhove; A.P.J. Mol, co-promotor(en): M.A.J. Lamers. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436571 - 207
oil and gas industry - oil spills - governance - international tourism - pollution by tourism - tourism impact - marine areas - marine environment - water pollution - environmental policy - caribbean - caribbean sea - arctic ocean - arctic regions - olie- en gasindustrie - olieverontreinigingen - governance - internationaal toerisme - verontreiniging door toerisme - impact van toerisme - mariene gebieden - marien milieu - waterverontreiniging - milieubeleid - caribisch gebied - caribische zee - noordelijke ijszee - arctische gebieden
Oceans and seas are among the most ecologically vital and socio-economically important systems on the planet. Despite the acknowledged pristine nature of the marine environment, there is a growing interest in exploring the sea for human use such as offshore wind production, extraction of sand, oil and gas, deep sea mining, gene mining and aquaculture. This is the result of, among other things, the food and energy needs of the growing world population, globalisation processes and technological innovation. This intensified use of the sea has led to new governance initiatives to address the resulting environmental effects and risks for the marine environment.
Actors involved in governing maritime activities are not necessarily located in the same geographical place and may not even be in direct contact, but they increasingly interact through global and transnational institutions or networks. Globalisation results in communities characterised by the interplay between territorially defined actors (e.g. national states, port agencies and island communities) and less territorially defined actors (e.g. mobile and transnational industries). The community literature conceptualises communities as small spatial units, homogenous social structures or sets of shared norms. These conceptualisation of communities provide insufficient insights in the type of community involved in environmental governance of maritime activities.
This thesis, therefore, presents the marine community concept as a new analytical lens for studying environmental governance of maritime activities. A marine community is a community of socio-economic and policy actors and institutions organised around a certain maritime activity that influences or will be affected by the (marine) ecosystem in which the activity occurs.
The aim of this PhD thesis is twofold: first, to understand environmental governance of maritime activities by different marine communities, and second, to understand how different governance modes, shifts, styles and processes affect the role of the user and policy community in the marine community.
The central research question is: How can the marine community concept enrich our understanding of environmental governance of maritime activities in distinct maritime settings?
1. How are marine communities organised to govern environmental problems in different sectoral and geographical settings?
2. How do marine communities develop in relation to various institutional settings, and how do different governance modes, shifts, styles and processes affect the role of the user and policy community in the marine community?
A case study methodology and cross-case comparative analysis were chosen to study the research question. The selection of cases is based on two distinct marine regions (the Caribbean Netherlands and the European Arctic) and two different maritime activities (cruise tourism and oil & gas activities). The case studies are investigated through the collection of primary data from semi- structured interviews and (participatory) observations, supplemented with secondary data from literature, policy documents, social media, and newspapers.
Chapter 2 illustrates how the marine community of liquefied natural gas production in Hammerfest transforms from a local fisheries marine community into an international oil and gas marine community in Northern Norway, driven by a discourse on economic growth. This is implemented through a strong institutional coalition between the Norwegian State and Statoil in which both actors participate in the user and policy community. Although non-governmental organisations, Sámi indigenous people, fisheries and local inhabitants of Hammerfest engage in strategic and oppositional coalitions to strive for environmental and community development related to liquefied natural gas production, the success of these coalitions is constrained by centralised decision-making by the institutional coalition.
Chapter 3 illustrates the institutional change in the marine community of oil transhipment at St. Eustatius. Since 2010, St. Eustatius is a special municipality of the Netherlands, and since 2015, the Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure & Environment, instead of the island government, is responsible for the environmental management of the oil terminal at St. Eustatius. The Dutch Ministry relies on Dutch and European standards for environmental management, which deviate from the standards of small islands. This structural power change, however, is not perceived as legitimate by part of the local population of St. Eustatius. This chapter analyses the reversal of the existing power relationships from strong intertwinement of the user and policy community, stereotypical of small island developing states, to the user and policy community drifting apart.
In Chapter 4, the marine community of cruise tourism at Bonaire is situated between the transnational cruise network and the local tourism industry of Bonaire. This case study analyses how two interconnected flows of cruise ships and passengers are governed by this transnational-local interplay. An important conclusion is that the transnational cruise ship flow increasingly determines the local cruise passenger flow at Bonaire. As a result, the marine community, and the user community especially, increasingly connects and adapts to the requirements of the transnational cruise network.
Chapter 5 analyses the changes in the marine community of expedition cruise tourism at Svalbard changes because of the establishment of the self-governing Association of Arctic Expedition Cruise Operators. Collective self-governance complements regulation by the Norwegian government through the implementation of an industry code of conduct and providing access to knowledge and information, such as statistical information and a track-and-trace system for cruise ships. At the same time, the demanding information generation and provision of collective self-governance creates distance between the Association of Arctic Expedition Cruise Operators and the Governor of Svalbard in the policy community and the expedition crew in the user community. Information generation and provision becomes a challenge for sustainable cruise tourism. Once information provision requires too much time and resources, self-interest is prioritised over collective interest.
In Chapter 6 the conclusions of the thesis are drawn, based on the cross-case comparative analysis. First, the comparison of environmental governance illustrates the use of different problem-solving styles in marine regions. The islands of Bonaire and St. Eustatius (in the Caribbean Netherlands) are eager for short- term economic growth. The lack of a strong government results in a curative problem-solving style in relation to urgent environmental problems. In the European Arctic the activities are more recent. Governance, therefore, attempts to prevent problems through stakeholder involvement and informed decision-making. Second, the analysis shows that environmental governance of maritime activities depends upon the mobility of the maritime activity and consequently the level at which regulations are developed and implemented. A difference is observed between governing through transnational regulations predominantly by the user community for cruise tourism and governing through territory-bound regulations predominantly by the policy community for oil and gas.
In the second part of the conclusion, marine communities as a governance arrangement is discussed in relation to theories on governance modes and shifts, policy styles and mobilities. In the first place, changes in governance modes illustrate a shift towards more contemporary modes, such as open co-governance and self-governance, with St. Eustatius being the exception because of its political situation. In this thesis the complexity of governance is further structured according to two analytical dimensions: the governance style, ranging from reactive to proactive, and the governance process, which distinguishes governance of the marine community from governance through the marine community. In the analysis it becomes clear that the spatial scale of the maritime activity is crucial as it defines the mobility of the activity and the marine community. Therefore, the thesis concludes that the maritime activity has a larger influence on environmental governance than the marine region. The chapter ends with methodological reflections, future research and policy implications for the new concept of marine community.
Green deals : van ruimte maken naar richting geven
Ganzevles, Jurgen ; Oorschot, Mark van; Potting, J.M.B. ; Henkens, R.J.H.G. - \ 2017
Tijdschrift Milieu : Vereniging van milieuprofessionals (2017)juni. - p. 35 - 39.
overheidsbeleid - milieubeleid - overeenkomsten - emissiereductie - samenwerking - evaluatie - duurzame ontwikkeling - government policy - environmental policy - agreements - emission reduction - cooperation - evaluation - sustainable development
Green Deals zijn vrijwillige afspraken tussen de Rijksoverheid en maatschappelijke partijen om innovatie en verduurzaming te bevorderen. Met deze aanpak geeft de overheid ruimte aan vernieuwing vanuit de maatschappij. Maar wat leveren Green Deals nu eigenlijk op? Partijen blijken warm te lopen voor samenwerking en vernieuwing. Maar wat mist is het vooraf goed doordenken van de ver wachte milieuwinst en het moni- toren er van tijdens de uitvoering van deals. Door meer richting te geven, zowel aan het begin als aan het einde van individuele deals, kan de Rijksoverheid bevorderen dat de Green Deals verder bijdragen aan maatschappelijke doelen.
Knowledge production at boundaries : an inquiry into collaborations to make management plans for European fisheries
Stange, Kari - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Jan van Tatenhove, co-promotor(en): Judith van Leeuwen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463430623 - 160
fishery management - european union - stakeholders - european union countries - fishery policy - multi-stakeholder processes - knowledge - knowledge transfer - environmental policy - fisheries - companies - europe - visserijbeheer - europese unie - stakeholders - landen van de europese unie - visserijbeleid - multi-stakeholder processen - kennis - kennisoverdracht - milieubeleid - visserij - kapitaalvennootschappen - europa
This thesis addresses how knowledge is used and produced in stakeholder-led collaborations to make long-term management plans for European fishery management. Boundary object theory is applied and developed to explain how stakeholders from the fishing industry interact with each other, and with fishery scientists and managers, in initiatives to produce management plans. Using a qualitative case study approach, two initiatives were investigated in-depth: the North Sea Advisory Council’s development of a long-term management plan for North Sea Nephrops fisheries, and the Pelagic Advisory Council’s development of a long-term management plan for a new boarfish fishery in the Northeast Atlantic. A conceptual framework with emphasis on boundary spaces was developed to analyse knowledge exchange and the interaction between actors, objects and activities. The findings point to the importance of entry points for actors to become directly involved in knowledge-production processes. Direct stakeholder engagement in management plan production created a sense of ownership of the problems identified and triggered solution-oriented ways of working. The findings highlight the multiple roles played by fishery scientists in the diverse settings where management plans for European fisheries are produced, and draw attention to the need for clear procedures to ensure that different roles are acted out transparently.
Systeemverantwoordelijkheid in het natuurbeleid : input voor agendavorming van de Balans van de Leefomgeving 2014
Boonstra, F.G. ; Gerritsen, A.L. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 47) - 35
natuur - natuurbeleid - verantwoordelijkheid - overheid - milieubeheer - milieubeleid - nederland - nature - nature conservation policy - responsibility - public authorities - environmental management - environmental policy - netherlands
The Natinonal Government carries system responsibility for nature. Some ambiguity in the understanding ofthe concept of system responsibility seems to exist, however. The ways in which system responsibility isimplemented vary in practice also. The Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment gives expression to itssystem responsibility within spatial planning in a largely facilitating manner, but its role also shows someregulating elements. With regard to water policy there is, on the contrary, a largely regulating interpretationwith some facilitating elements. The Ministry of the Interior has a facilitating role concerning the issue ofdemographic decline. The Ministry of Economic Affairs is still searching for a way to handle its systemresponsibility in nature policy and is showing at the time of this research (beginning 2013) an inclinationtowards a largely facilitating role. The Assessment of the Dutch Human Environment may be helpful with thissearch by clarifying the concept, indicating further options for implementation and making clear what theconsequences will be of the different possible roles.
Nationale parken in transitie : governance-implicaties van een veranderend beleidskader
Pleijte, M. ; During, R. ; Michels, R. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 87) - 78
nationale parken - natuurbeleid - milieubeleid - milieubeheer - governance - financiën - national parks - nature conservation policy - environmental policy - environmental management - finance
De nationale parken verkeren in een transitie. Met de decentralisatie van het natuurbeleid heeft het Rijksinds januari 2013 veel Rijkstaken voor nationale parken laten vallen. Het Rijk is alleen nog verantwoordelijkom nationale parken in te stellen en te begrenzen. Provincies konden zelf beslissen of zij die vervallenRijkstaken al dan niet overnamen. Hierdoor is onduidelijk geworden wie nu verantwoordelijk is voor denationale parken en waar ze hun middelen vandaan moeten halen. Dit heeft geleid tot een zoektocht naarregionale inbedding en nieuwe financieringsvormen. Daarbij zijn grote verschillen ontstaan tussen nationaleparken. Het merendeel van de nationale parkorganisaties is hierdoor bezig met overleven. Een motie en eenamendement in de Tweede Kamer vormden begin 2015 de opmaat voor het Programma Nationale Parkenvan Wereldklasse, waarbij onder andere het ministerie van Economische Zaken en provincies zijn betrokken.Hierdoor is een groot contrast ontstaan tussen nieuwe ambities en de feitelijke situatie.---The national parks are going through a period of transition. Since January 2013, when the decentralisation ofnature policy began, the national government has abandoned many of its responsibilities, except thedelineation of national park boundaries. The provinces were free to decide whether or not to take over thesenational government tasks, which resulted in a diversity of commitments. Where provincial governmentcommitment was lacking, the park authorities sought closer integration into the regional economy andregional society and looked for new forms of financing. As a result, there are now large differences betweenthe national parks. Most of the national park organisations are simply trying to survive. A motion and asubsequent amendment in Parliament laid the foundation for the launch early in 2015 of the World ClassNational Parks Programme (Nationale Parken van Wereldklasse), with a contest for the most ambitiousinternationally oriented park. Among the organisations involved are the Ministry of Economic Affairs and theprovincial governments. The new ambitions created by this contest stand in stark contrast to the actualsituation on the ground.
Rijksprojecten: hét natuurinclusieve werken? : een analyse van relaties tussen rijksprojecten en de Rijksnatuurvisie
Pleijte, M. ; Beunen, R. ; During, R. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 82) - 116
infrastructuur - natuurbeleid - milieubeleid - overheidsbeleid - projecten - landbouw - nederland - infrastructure - nature conservation policy - environmental policy - government policy - projects - agriculture - netherlands
In de Rijksnatuurvisie ‘Natuurlijk Verder’ zijn de concepten natuurcombinaties en natuurinclusiefgeïntroduceerd. In deze studie is nagegaan of rijksoverheden in rijksprojecten zelf met natuurcombinaties ennatuurinclusief werken en welke mogelijkheden er zijn om deze manier van werken te versterken. Om hetonderzoek uit te voeren, is gebruik gemaakt van inzichten uit Evolutionary Governance Theory. Dit is eentheoretisch kader om de co-evolutie van discoursen, actoren en institutionele kaders te analyseren. Voor vierbeleidsvelden, te weten windenergie, landbouw, water en infrastructuur is nagegaan hoe rijksoverhedenwerken. Het onderzoek laat zien dat de begrippen natuurinclusief werken en natuurcombinaties steeds meeraandacht krijgen in het beleid en de programma’s en projecten van de Rijksoverheid. Vooralsnog lijktnatuurinclusief werken nog meer uitzondering dan regel.---The government vision ‘The Natural Way Forward’ (2014) introduced the policy concepts of naturecombinations and the nature-inclusive approach. This study investigates whether national governmentagencies implement these strategies in national projects and what possibilities exist to strengthen this wayof working. The researchers made use of ideas from Evolutionary Governance Theory, a theoreticalframework for analysing the coevolution of discourses, actors and institutional frameworks. The workingmethods employed by national government agencies were investigated in four policy areas: wind energy,agriculture, water management and infrastructure. The study shows that nature-inclusive working andnature combinations are gradually being adopted in national government policies, programmes and projects,but that so far nature-inclusive working has been more the exception than the rule.
EUROBATS : Analyse van de resoluties die zijn aangenomen tijdens de vergadering van de partijen (Meeting of the Parties) in 2014
Ottburg, F.G.W.A. ; Adrichem, N.H.C. van; Limpens, H.J.G.A. ; Schillemans, M.J. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-rapport ) - 31
chiroptera - wildbescherming - monitoring - bosbedrijfsvoering - milieubeleid - nederland - wildlife conservation - forest management - environmental policy - netherlands
Nederland is Party van ‘the Agreement on the Conservation of Populations of European Bats’, ofwel EUROBATS. De EUROBATS-agreement is een verdrag onder de conventie van Bern en met name de conventie van Bonn, de ‘Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals’. EUROBATS is een instrument bij de uitvoering van de verplichtingen vanuit de Europese Habitatrichtlijn. De Scientific Advisory Committee ontwikkelt resoluties, welke door de overheden van de Party-States van de EUROBATS-Agreement gezamenlijk worden aangenomen. Deze resoluties benoemen – specifiek vanuit de ecologie van de vleermuizen – knelpunten, speciale aandachtspunten en kansen, welke helpen de uitvoering van wet- en regelgeving in het kader van de Flora- en faunawet en Habitatrichtlijn effectief te focussen. De voorliggende rapportage geeft een overzicht van de resoluties en maakt inzichtelijk wat de Rijksoverheid, provincies of andere organisaties reeds doen voor vleermuizen. Tevens is een kennisagenda opgenomen met aanbevelingen ten behoeve van vleermuizen voor de nabije toekomst.
Improving communication and validation of ecological models : a case study on the dispersal of aquatic macroinvertebrates
Augusiak, Jacqueline A. - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Paul van den Brink, co-promotor(en): V. Grimm. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579378 - 192
macroinvertebrates - aquatic invertebrates - ecological modeling - ecology - models - dispersal - environmental policy - macroinvertebraten - waterinvertebraten - ecologische modellering - ecologie - modellen - verspreiding - milieubeleid
In recent years, ecological effect models have been put forward as tools for supporting environmental decision-making. Often they are the only way to take the relevant spatial and temporal scales and the multitude of processes characteristic to ecological systems into account. Particularly for environmental risk assessments of pesticides the potential benefits of including modelling studies were recognized and a dialogue between different stakeholder groups was opened. Representatives from academia, pesticide-producing industries, and regulators are nowadays discussing their needs, possibilities, and ways of implementation for improving the use and usefulness of such models. However, it quickly became evident that not all involved parties possess the same background knowledge in regards to modelling terminology and model quality understanding. Proper communication of a given model's structure, robustness, and soundness is crucial to render a model of real use to the decision-making. Doubts about a model's quality and mode of operation may lead to an immediate rejection of the conclusions drawn from its estimations.
In this thesis, we addressed this point of concern, and performed a literature review focusing on aspects surrounding quality assessments, validation, and communication of models. "Validation" was identified as a catch-all term, which is thus useless for any practical purpose. Based on the review, we developed a framework that splits the seemingly blurry process into associated components and introduce the term ‘evaludation’, a fusion of ‘evaluation’ and ‘validation’, to describe the entire process of assessing a model's quality and reliability. Considering the iterative nature of model development, the modelling cycle, we identified six essential elements of evaludation: (i) ‘data evaluation’ for scrutinising the quality of numerical and qualitative data used for model development and testing; (ii) ‘conceptual model evaluation’ for examining the simplifying assumptions underlying a model's design; (iii) ‘implementation verification’ for testing the model's implementation in equations and as a computer programme; (iv) ‘model output verification’ for comparing model output to data and patterns that guided model design and were possibly used for calibration; (v) ‘model analysis’ for exploring the model's sensitivity to changes in parameters and process formulations to make sure that the mechanistic basis of main behaviours of the model has been well understood; and (vi) ‘model output corroboration’ for comparing model output to new data and patterns that were not used for model development and parameterisation.
In a subsequent step, we used the evaludation framework to re-evaluate and adjust the documentation framework TRACE (TRAnsparent and Comprehensive Eco- logical modelling; Schmolke et al. 2010), a general framework for documenting a model's rationale, design, and testing. TRACE documents should provide convincing evidence that a model was thoughtfully designed, correctly implemented, thoroughly tested, well understood, and appropriately used for its intended purpose. TRACE documents link the science underlying a model to its application, thereby also linking modellers and model users, for example stakeholders, decision makers, and developers of policies. TRACE thus becomes a tool for planning, documenting, and assessing model evaludation, which includes understanding the rationale behind a model and its envisaged use.
To provide an example of the measures that can be taken to increase general trust in a model's design and output, we chose MASTEP (Metapopulation model for Assessing Spatial and Temporal Effects of Pesticides) for a case study. MASTEP is an individual-based model used to describe the effects on and recovery of the water louse Asellus aquaticus after exposure to an insecticide in pond, ditch, and stream scenarios. The model includes processes of mortality of A. aquaticus, life history, random walk between cells and density dependence of population regulation. One of the submodels receiving particular criticism was the random walk procedure and the uncertainty attached to the parameters used. The parameters were estimated based on experimental studies performed under very limiting conditions.
We designed and performed experiments to derive more precise parameters and to better understand the movement behaviour of this freshwater isopod. The experimental procedure that we developed employed video tracking of marked individuals that were introduced alone or as part of a group of unmarked individuals into arenas of approximately 1m2 in size. We recorded the paths of the marked individuals under a set of different conditions, i.e. presence or absence of food or shelter, population density, and after sublethal exposure to chlorpyrifos and imidacloprid. Based on the experimental findings, we refined the movement modelling procedure used in MASTEP to derive more realistic dispersal estimates, with which we revisited a modelling study performed previously by Galic et al. (2012). In this study, the effects of pesticide application timing on population dynamics and recovery times were tested and compared to outcomes from previous versions. It was furthermore possible to integrate an increased level of environmental complexity that could not be addressed before due to a lack of data. Compared to former versions of the population model, recovery times did not change significantly when the same movement parameters were applied to all simulated individuals. This indicates that the previous assumptions already yielded robust estimations. Accounting for life stage dependent movement restraints, though, delayed recovery when exposure occurred shortly before a reproduction cycle. Based on these findings, it was concluded that an increase of ever more realism and environmental complexity in modelling studies needs to be done carefully on a case-by-case basis. Increased realism in models can introduce an unwarranted increase in model complexity and uncertainty, which is not always supporting an improved credibility level of a model.
Despite the need for basic ecological research for more comprehensive ecological models, we further argue that a modelling study in general can benefit greatly from an improved plan that considers communication needs from the start. Considering such needs early on can help develop a time- and cost-saving strategy for model testing and data collection, while providing a thorough understanding of a model's underlying mechanisms across several layers of stakeholder groups.
REDD+ and Climate Smart Agriculture in landscapes : from national design to local implementation
Salvini, G. - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Arnold Bregt; Martin Herold, co-promotor(en): Arend Ligtenberg. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578371 - 143
climate adaptation - environmental policy - governance - un - landscape management - deforestation - klimaatadaptatie - milieubeleid - governance - vn - landschapsbeheer - ontbossing
Global challenges posed by an increasing food demand and climate change call for innovative mechanisms that consider both agriculture and forests. Agriculture and forests are deeply interconnected in mosaic landscapes, just as multiple pieces of the same puzzle. These pieces are handled by numerous stakeholders with different and often contrasting goals. Hence landscape management is steered by power, access to scarce resources, but also vulnerability and hazards. In this thesis I analyze the roles each stakeholder plays on these dynamics, including policy makers, agribusiness actors and subsistence farmers. I explore landscapes as interconnected tiles of a game, in which players are real stakeholders and their goals determine land use dynamics on the game board just as in reality. Sometimes agreements made in the game translate to real-life actions influencing policy and management decisions. Other times the game is just fun and eventually contributes to social learning and trust.
Neo-liberal transitions in nature policies in the Netherlands
Kamphorst, D.A. ; Coninx, I. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-paper 46) - 14
nature conservation policy - nature conservation - environmental policy - netherlands - natuurbeleid - natuurbescherming - milieubeleid - nederland
In 2010, the national government made drastic changes in nature policy in the Netherlands. The choices they made appeared to reflect a neo-liberal ideology, given the strong emphasis on private responsibility and limited governmental interference in nature policy. One of the changes was further decentralisation of nature policies to the provinces. This paper aims to analyse if the national
governments changes in nature policy in 2010 resulted in a process of neo-liberalisation of nature policies in the twelve
provinces in the Netherlands in the period 2010-2012.
Based on policy documents and interviews, data were collected on the new character of the national and twelve provincial nature policies. This research was carried out in 2011 and 2012. This data was afterwards analysed in a structured way, by developing a neo-liberal index and categorising the provinces’ policies according to this index by the researchers, as an experiment with systematic policy comparison.
The conclusion of the article is that the national government’s neo-liberal aspirations in 2010 are mainly related to deregulation, efficiency and an increase of the societal relevance of nature. In addition, it is clear that national decision affects provincial policies, but in diverse, even sometimes opposing, ways. Provinces are on their way to develop hybrid policies and practices in terms of
neo-liberalism. In future research, it is worth to explore how the provincial policies develop further, and to look into the factors and mechanisms that cause these diversities.
Shaping tomorrow’s urban environment today : Environmental Policy Integration in urban planning: the challenges of a communicative approach
Grift-Simeonova, V.S. van der - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Arnold van der Valk. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578364 - 215
urban planning - environmental policy - urban areas - ecological network - communication - participation - nature conservation - bulgaria - netherlands - stedelijke planning - milieubeleid - stedelijke gebieden - ecologische hoofdstructuur - communicatie - participatie - natuurbescherming - bulgarije - nederland
The debate on sustainable development emphasizes the importance of integrating environmental policy into other policy sectors. It is increasingly recognized that such integration is needed at the national, regional and local levels of governance. Hence the Environmental Policy Integration (EPI) principle has been proposed, which is defined as “the incorporation of the environmental objectives into all stages of policy making in non-environmental policy sectors, with the recognition of this goal as the guiding principle for the planning and execution of policy”. Currently EPI is agreed upon in a number of EU commitments and is receiving the attention of urban planning scholars. The achievability of EPI, however, has not yet been well studied, particularly in the urban planning context, while its implementation often seems to be hindered by organizational fragmentation.
This thesis assesses the potential role of EPI as an operational principle for achieving sustainable urban development in Europe. It addresses the scientific premises of EPI and the current knowledge gaps in applying it in the urban planning domain. The research combines theoretical and empirical dimensions. The theoretical dimension includes evidence of the current knowledge gap regarding the integration of environmental aspects into urban planning and the emergence of EPI as a promising perspective in urban sustainability research and planning practice. This includes reflections on EPI’s definitions, interpretations and its different approaches. The empirical dimension of the thesis explores evidence regarding the EPI process in actual planning practices, with an assessment of the relevance of different EPI approaches. Based on the exploration of case studies within different planning contexts, the empirical research provides insights into the key challenges and barriers to achieving EPI in urban planning and identifies key success factors for local governments addressing specific environmental issues in urban land-use plans. The key objective of the thesis is, therefore, to explore the responses of planning systems to the current EPI challenges, with the twin goals of gaining insight into the role of EPI in integrating environmental concerns in urban land-use planning processes and of identifying the most promising approaches for achieving EPI. The thesis provides an answer about the potential benefits of, among other approaches, a communicative approach to achieve EPI in urban planning practice.
Blauwe groei: duurzame bedrijvigheid opde Noordzee : perspectieven uit een scenarioanalyse
Burg, S.W.K. van den; Bolman, B.C. ; Borgstein, M.H. ; Valk, O.M.C. van der; Vos, B.I. de; Selnes, T. - \ 2016
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (Nota / LEI Wageningen UR 2016-017) - 25
energievoorraden - duurzame energie - aquacultuur - noordzee - toerisme - natuurbescherming - milieubeleid - beleid - regelingen - energy resources - sustainable energy - aquaculture - north sea - tourism - nature conservation - environmental policy - policy - regulations
Door een groeiend belang van nieuwe maritieme sectoren neemt de bestuurlijke drukte op zee toe. In dit project is een kwalitatieve scenarioanalyse uitgevoerd om te beschrijven hoe de gebeurtenissen zich in de toekomst kunnen ontvouwen, om risico’s te identificeren en om zo beslissers in staat te stellen over verschillende ontwikkelrichtingen te oordelen. De ontwikkelingen in de sectoren energie, aquacultuur en toerisme zijn ook van invloed op de (on)mogelijkheden voor natuurbeleid op zee. De mariene natuur zal zich moeten schikken naar deze ontwikkelingen. De trend van wet- en regelgeving voor individuele sectoren naar een meer geïntegreerde aanpak van alle sectoren, inclusief natuurbescherming, zet zich door.
Advies 'Mestverwerkingspercentages 2017'
Oenema, O. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 76) - 68
dierlijke meststoffen - mestverwerking - mest - fosfaten - mestbeleid - milieubeleid - animal manures - manure treatment - manures - phosphates - manure policy - environmental policy
On 1 January a system of compulsory manure treatment was introduced in the Netherlands. All livestock farmerswith a manure surplus (expressed in kg phosphate) are required to have part of this manure surplus treated. Eachyear the State Secretary for Economic Affairs determines the official manure treatment percentages per region inconsultation with the agricultural organisations. These percentages are based on the results of an analysis by theScientific Committee on the Nutrient Management Policy (CDM), which is carried out in accordance with a protocolagreed with the ministry. This report presents the results of the analysis of the calculated manure treatmentpercentages per region for 2017, under different assumptions. These percentages are based on an empiricalanalysis of the manure production per region in 2015 and an analysis of the maximum permitted manure allocation(in kg phosphate) and expected actual manure input per region in 2017. The analyses take account of the effects ofredistribution of manure between farms within and between regions, and of exemptions from the compulsorymanure treatment regulation. The total amount of manure to be treated in 2017 is 45±5 kg phosphate. The manuretreatment percentages in the ‘baseline’ variant are 10% for the region ‘Other’ (minimum manure treatmentpercentage), 55% for the region ‘East’, 60% the region ‘South’, and 45% for the whole of the Netherlands. Changesin the assumptions about manure production and the manure input ratio (the ratio of actual manure input, in kgphosphate, to the average total permitted phosphate input) have a large effect on the manure treatmentpercentages for region East (34–75%), region South (39–82%) and for the Netherlands as a whole (30–60%).Implementation of the Responsible Growth of Dairy Farming Act (Wet verantwoorde groei melkveehouderij) incombination with the Order in Council on ‘land-based growth of dairy farming’ leads to figure for the total amount ofdairy farm manure (in kg phosphate) to be treated of 3.7 million kg phosphate
Policy instruments and modes of governance in environmental policies of the European Union : past, present and future
Bouwma, I.M. ; Gerritsen, A.L. ; Kamphorst, D.A. ; Kistenkas, F.H. - \ 2015
Statutory Research Tasks Unit for Nature & the Environment (WOT Natuur & Milieu) (WOt-technical report 60) - 42
environmental policy - government policy - nature conservation - european union - milieubeleid - overheidsbeleid - natuurbescherming - europese unie
This report reviews the trends in EU policy instruments and governance modes. Prior to discussing these thereport provides definitions for and describes a typology for governance modes and policy instruments. Thereport identifies three major trends in policy instruments and policy modes of the EU based on the availableliterature and a quick scan of five EU environmental directives, regulations or policies (Habitats Directive,Renewable Energy Directive, Timber Regulation, Water Framework Directive & Common Agricultural Policy).The trends are: a move from strict compulsory settings to due diligence in new legislation, a move fromregulatory to networking, information based instruments and knowledge instruments and an increasingreliance on self-governance.
Societal involvement in Natura 2000 areas : Experiences in Denmark, England and Germany
Kamphorst, D.A. ; Bouwma, I.M. ; Selnes, T. - \ 2015
Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-paper 41) - 10
natura 2000 - nature conservation - environmental policy - germany - denmark - england - natura 2000 - natuurbescherming - milieubeleid - duitsland - denemarken - engeland
Since 2013, involving society in nature conservation has become an explicit ambition of the Dutch government. As neighbouring countries of the Netherlands have similar ambitions, this research reviewed the policies in these countries and the experiences gained in three study areas: Exmoor National Park (England); Naturpark Aukrug (Schleswig-Holstein, Germany) and Lille Vildmose (Denmark). The research shows that early engagement of local stakeholders, a motivating narrative, equality in cooperation, flexibility of subsidies and presence of local brokers are important elements of successful governance aimed at involving society.
Multi-use platform solutions in the North Sea, Baltic Sea, Atlantic and Adriatic Sea : MERMAID
Rockmann, C. ; Stuiver, M. ; Burg, S.W.K. van den; Zanuttigh, B. ; Zagonari, Fabio ; Airoldi, L. ; Angelelli, E. ; Suffredini, R. ; Franceschi, G. ; Belloti, G. ; Schouten, Jan Joost ; Soderqvist, T. ; Garcao, R. ; Garcia, R.G. ; Martinez, J. ; Petersen, O.S. ; Ahrensberg, N.A. - \ 2015
European Union - 109
oceans - space - offshore - design - stakeholders - environmental policy - oceanen - ruimte - offshore - ontwerp - stakeholders - milieubeleid
A new role for forests and the forest sector in the EU post-2020 climate targets
Nabuurs, G.J. ; Delacote, Philippe ; Ellison, David ; Hanewinkel, Marc ; Lindner, Marcus ; Nesbit, Martin ; Ollikainen, Markku ; Savaresi, Annalisa - \ 2015
European Forest Institute (From Science to Policy 2) - ISBN 9789525980202 - 30
forestry - environmental policy - land use - european union - carbon sequestration - forests - biomass production - biobased economy - bosbouw - milieubeleid - landgebruik - europese unie - koolstofvastlegging - bossen - biomassa productie - biobased economy
We are living in a time of accelerated changes and unprecedented global challenges: energy security, natural resource scarcity, biodiversity loss, fossil-resource dependence and climate change. Yet the challenges also demand new solutions and offer new opportunities. The cross-cutting nature of forests and the forest-based sector provides a strong basis to address these interconnected societal challenges, while supporting the development of a European bioeconomy. The |European Forest Institue is an unbiased, science-based international organisation that provides the best forest science knowledge and information for better informed policy making. EFI provides support for decision-takers, policy makers and institutions, bringing together cross-boundery scientific knowledge and expertise to strengthen science-policy dialogue.
Bruinvis volgt spiering naar westerschelde
Ramaker, R. ; Leopold, M.F. - \ 2015
Resource: weekblad voor Wageningen UR 10 (2015)8. - ISSN 1874-3625 - p. 9 - 9.
phocoenidae - milieubeleid - westerschelde - habitats - habitatgeschiktheid - osmerus - rivieren - wilde dieren - populatie-ecologie - environmental policy - western scheldt - habitat suitability - rivers - wild animals - population ecology
In de Westerschelde zwemmen voor het eerst in decennia weer bruinvissen. De dieren jagen op de eveneens teruggekeerde trekvis spiering. Het is een succesverhaal van het Nederlands milieubeleid, zegt Mardik Leopold, onderzoeker van Imares Wageningen UR, die vandaag promoveert op onderzoek naar het eetgedrag van bruinvissen.