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Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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    Behind the veil of agricultural modernization : gendered dynamics of rural change in the Saïss, Morocco
    Bossenbroek, L. - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Jandouwe van der Ploeg; Margreet Zwarteveen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578982 - 171
    agricultural development - modernization - gender relations - women - social change - rural areas - family farms - morocco - north africa - landbouwontwikkeling - modernisering - man-vrouwrelaties - vrouwen - sociale verandering - platteland - familiebedrijven, landbouw - marokko - noord-afrika

    The Moroccan countryside is marked by rapidly changing rural realities. The Moroccan government frames and promotes these changes as linear development towards modernity and progress for all thereby only focusing on the experiences of some audacious men – ‘entrepreneurs’ and ‘modernizing farmers’. The aim of the study is to unveil Morocco’s agricultural modernization plan by illustrating how agrarian processes in the agricultural plain of the Saïss are not a logical, self-evident or smooth transition to a higher stage of development or modernity. They are a form of globalizing capitalist development which is messy and contradictory, and which is marked by, and re-produces existing gender social hierarchies. By putting the experiences that often “fall away” from agrarian analysis at the heart of my study I am to explore how gender and social differences come to matter in process of agrarian change and are intimately linked.

    Paradoxale modernisering : Ede, 1945-1995: groot geworden, herkenbaar gebleven
    Bloembergen-Lukkes, J.R. - \ 2014
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Pim Kooij, co-promotor(en): Anton Schuurman. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462571433 - 365
    geschiedenis - modernisering - politiek - economie - demografie - cultuur - onderwijs - migratie - ruimtelijke ordening - sociologie van vrijetijdsbesteding - lokale geschiedenis - veluwe - nederland - history - modernization - politics - economics - demography - culture - education - migration - physical planning - sociology of leisure - local history - veluwe - netherlands


    Paradoxical Modernization

    Ede, 1945-1995: Grew big, remained recognizable

    After the Second World War, like many other municipalities in the Netherlands and elsewhere in the Western World, Ede experienced a period of rapid economic and population growth, of mobility, increase in scale, urbanization, better education, professionalization, individualization and democratization. Developments that may be summarized in the word modernization. I wondered if modernization is an exogenous process and did it more or less just happen, or is it a planned process or something in between. I decided that the best way to answer these questions was not to study the modernization process on a national level, but on a local level. There I hoped to find the answer on the question what possibilities people have to define their own community.

    I choose the municipality of Ede as my case study for the next reasons. After 1945, the Ede municipal executive opted for growth: economic, population and employment growth. In 1962, the municipal executive formulated a goal to welcome its 100,000 resident by the year 2000, which represented a doubling of the population since the end of the war. Ede was to be transformed into the city of Ede. This milestone of 100,000 inhabitants was reached as early as 1996, 60,000 of whom lived in Ede town. In order to achieve this goal, action was needed on several fronts. The rapid growth achieved was not the result of a policy plan handed down by central government. Ede was not one of the designated development areas. Ede was not regarded as an underdeveloped area requiring a top- down targeted approach for accelerated industrialization and modernization. On the other hand, in 1945, Ede was still clearly a rural community and the town centre clearly showed characteristics of a village society. So the rapid growth meant changes in different policy sectors.

    Ede easily attracted new residents and employment opportunities as a result of its strategic location in the middle of the Netherlands, its good infrastructure and sufficient space. What it did need, however, was the development of housing estates and industrial estates including the necessary infrastructure and the development and expansion of, for example, education facilities and leisure amenities. In a predominantly Protestant community, this raised questions about the persuasion of these types of amenities and led to debates on, if actually desirable, the type of socio-cultural policy most appropriate for local government. Rapid expansion of a community may be perceived as a threat to the characteristics of that society. This question made Ede an extra interesting subject for research. In the case of Ede it was justifiable to assume that tensions would have arisen between the rural and urban ambitions and between Christian and secular developments. The municipal authority is involved in the developments and decision-making process relating to all the elements of the public domain, which is why it was chosen as the focus for this research.

    The policy decisions required in the different areas to facilitate growth are by their nature intertwined. The construction of housing estates and business premises conflict with the interests of the agricultural sector and nature conservation. The arrival of new residents can change the social, political and religious composition of the population, resulting in consequences for how society is organized and for the future local political constellation and vice versa. Every decision must take what has occurred in other areas into account and will, in turn, have consequences for adjacent domains. For these reasons a choice was made for modernization as theoretical concept. Chapter one contains a historiographical discussion of this concept and an elaboration of how this concept has been applied to this research. In line with Schuyt and Taverne, I have chosen not to provide modernization in advance with a specific interpretation by adding ‘controlled’, ‘contested’ or ‘reflexive’. For the research, four policy areas have been selected for further investigation: spatial planning, education, guest workers/migrants and leisure facilities. As an introduction to the chapters on the developments in Ede, chapter two contains a broad outline of the national developments in which the local developments took place. Subsequently, in chapter three I discuss the way in which the modernization process was made visible in the composition of the municipal executive, including its chairpersons over a period of fifty years. Politicians not only partly determine which choices are made in the modernization process, but are also subject to this process themselves both at party and individual level. In this sense, through its decisions the political establishment in no small way contributes to determining its own future and, in turn, the composition of the municipal council and executive. The choices for more or

    less growth, for public-authority or private-authority schools , for providing public amenities or not, et cetera influence who will choose Ede as a place of residence and work. In this way, secularization manifests itself in changes in the population composition and the demand for specific amenities, as well as at the level of the political composition of the municipal council and the individual councillors. As a result of the population growth, by 1966 the newcomers held the majority of the seats on the council. However, the original population of Ede managed to control the executive positions for much longer. Democratization, individualization and secularization led to an increase in the number of political parties represented on the council and enhanced pluralism. Compared to politics at national level, both women’s emancipation and the professionalization of councillors clearly had a delayed start. As was the case at national level the larger parties lost ground, although the SGP (Reformed Political Party) formed an exception in Ede.

    The main theme of chapter four is spatial planning. Ede has profited considerably from the migration of residents and employment opportunities from the Randstad. Ede’s central location put it in a strategic position to benefit from national developments on spatial planning. The size of the municipality ̶ Ede being one of the largest in the Netherlands ̶ , the good infrastructure and the presence of the Veluwe National Park made Ede a popular place of residence and business. This remained the case even after, from the start of the 1960s, the provincial and national governments tried to curb the drift to Ede. As a result of its many qualities, Ede was able to achieve its growth ambitions and disregard the limiting measures imposed by higher government levels. In relation to nature conservation, Ede stayed more in line because the municipal executive regarded the Veluwe National Park as one of the attractive aspects of living in Ede. In respect to agriculture, the municipal executive chose for, on the one hand, an uncompromising policy to develop housing and business premises at the expense of farmland, while, on the other hand, applying a non-interference policy for the agricultural sector and business operations. Both small farmers and the strong growth in intensive animal husbandry could count on an accommodating local government. It was the national government which, as a result of the high levels of environmental pollution, designated the Gelderland Valley as a Spatial Planning and Environment area (ensuring spatial planning was combined with the environmental aspects). This, in turn, forced the municipal authority to impose regulatory measures on the agricultural sector in its spatial planning policies.

    The policy choices in relation to the educational facilities are discussed in chapter five. What is conspicuous here is the clear commitment on the part of the Christian political parties to maintain the Christian character of the education. In the 1950s, this commitment could also count on the support of the Christian councillors representing the PvdA (Labour Party). It was not until the early 1960s that all the PvdA councillors supported the VVD (People’s Party for Freedom and Democracy) in its struggle

    to increase the number of public-authority schools. In the meantime, Protestant Ede had managed, under the leadership of the ARP (Anti-Revolutionary Party) aldermen, to establish broad, and partly above municipality level, private-authority denominational schools. In achieving this, the ARP (Anti- Revolutionary Party) politicians were able to make use of their extensive network, which included national politicians. It was only in the early 1980s that secular Ede achieved a long-cherished goal with the opening of a public-authority neutral secondary school. The presence of a broad range of Protestant-Christian educational facilities is one of the explanations why Ede’s expansion did not lead to a drop, in percentage terms, of the Orthodox-Christian share of the vote. These parties were, however, practically always kept outside the coalition. Nevertheless, they managed to profit from the educational policies implemented by the coalition parties CHU (Christian Historical Union) and ARP (Anti-Revolutionary Party), and later by the CDA (Christian Democratic Appeal). These parties were not, however, rewarded for this policy as they were confronted with continuous and steady losses at the polls. Illustrative of this development was also the establishment in the 1970s of a number of Protestant Reformed primary schools and the establishment of a Protestant-Christian School Advisory Service in 1984. The long-term opposition to a more secular organization of society was also expressed in the opposition until the start of the 1970s to abolishing the dismissal of married teachers.

    Ede’s growth did not only bring an influx of new residents from the rest of the Netherlands to the Veluwe. The shortage of unskilled workers, which continued to increase during the 1960s in the Netherlands, also resulted in the arrival of guest workers in Ede. Chapter six discusses the attitude of the political establishment towards this population group, whose stay was initially expected to be only temporary. It quickly became apparent that their unfamiliarity with our country, language, customs and laws in combination with their low wages and, for the most part, low level of education gave rise to a need for social assistance and specific facilities. The municipal executive did not, however, make use of the possibility to participate in the Migrant Workers’ Assistance Foundation that was established in Gelderland in the 1960s and in which the municipal executives of Apeldoorn and Arnhem participated. The Ede municipal executive maintained the view, as did other places in the Netherlands, that the

    reception of this population group and the facilitating or provision of specific facilities was not the task of government —and most certainly not in the area of religion. In relation to this last point, the constitutional separation of church and state was invariably used as argumentation. Although, in practice in the Netherlands, and this includes Ede, up to that point had not been so strictly adhered to as was preached in Ede. It was only at the end of the 1970s that the first careful steps were taken to arrange for the required facilities. The municipal executive disregarded an official report in 1977 by Ede’s own Sociographical Department, in which migrant workers were considered one of the minority groups in the Netherlands and in which specific mention was made of the role of government in the origination of the problems confronting this population group. The decision of the national government in 1984 to transfer policy on minorities to local government forced the municipal executive to set down its own policy. When social unrest occurred surrounding the desire of and initiatives by the Moroccan and Turkish communities for their own place of prayer, the municipal executive slowly changed its attitude from a wait-and-see approach into an active approach in which a reasonably acceptable solution was sought in consultation with all the parties involved. The strong position of the SGP (Reformed Political Party) in local politics could present an explanation for the fact that in this period the extreme right in Ede, in contrast to national level, never achieved the electoral threshold.

    Growth also places demands on leisure facilities. In the previous topics, especially in relation to the educational facilities and the facilities for migrant workers, there was an ongoing discussion in the background about how big the role of government should be in society. In confessional circles, but also within the VVD (People’s Party for Freedom and Democracy), an ideological preference prevailed for small government, meaning, where possible, the initiative should be left to the community or the individual respectively. Government spending on leisure activities was particularly sensitive in the Protestant-Christian parties. The SGP (Reformed Political Party), on principal, held the opinion that the government should not spend public money on these types of activities. The development of sport fields/sport halls and the accommodation of sports clubs could, however, count on the support of the majority of the council and certainly also of the municipal executive. In the 1950s and 1960s the aldermen of the PvdA (Labour Party), VVD (People’s Party for Freedom and Democracy) and ARP (Anti-Revolutionary Party) were great sport enthusiasts. Subsidies for cultural activities were more sensitive as theatre and opera had been a taboo for a long time within segments of the Protestant- Christian parties and, particularly, within the SGP (Reformed Political Party). If it was, nevertheless, decided to provide funding to support organizations or initiatives, then it was chosen for a strong involvement by the municipality, for example through ownership and tenures. This was an attempt by the municipal executive to exercise more control over the operations and the use of subsidies. At the same time, the municipal executive had a preference for the commercial use of, for example, a swimming pool or a theatre because this presented the possibility of keeping the public funding to a minimum. Particularly this involvement in a commercial organization gave rise, once again, to criticism within the council and within the community because commercialism with the help of public money was considered inappropriate for government and unfair competition. Ultimately, in the middle of the 1980s, the municipal executive distanced itself from the commercial operations by awarding a fixed subsidy amount based on agreements relating to the services provided to the community.

    Reflecting on the fifty year period researched, two cut-off points can be established in the modernization process in Ede. The first period runs from 1945 to 1966 and is characterized by growth and tradition. The prevailing philosophy was that despite the choice for growth the Protestant-Christian character of the municipality should and could be maintained. This is illustrated in the development of a broad and above municipal level provision of private-authority Protestant-Christian educational facilities, in the commitment to non-interference in the agricultural sector including keeping the peasants, and in the conservative policy on developing cultural activities for the leisure sector.

    However, the growth did strengthened aspects such as secularization, professionalization, geographical and social mobility, individualization and democratization: the modernization process continually resulted in changes in society and in the population composition and was not solely restricted to what was desirable or planned.

    The second period runs to 1978 and can be characterized with the terms: change and debate.

    The municipal policy was examined more critically. For example, the city-forming plans were considered undesirable both by the original population and the newcomers. Maintaining the smallness and a more rural character proved to be attractive aspects for Ede. At the same time, the demand for a more pluralistic and broader provision of social and cultural activities increased. In this second period, the non-interference policy in relation to agricultural developments except in the case that agricultural lands were required for housing and business premises, encountered opposition when the negative effects of the continuous expansion in the intensive animal husbandry for the ecology and

    environment became more apparent. In addition, the arrival of migrant workers and with them Islam

    into this predominantly Protestant-Christian community became more problematic during this period. As a consequence of unemployment and family reunification, more pressure was put on the municipal authorities for assistance and the need for a place of prayer for the Muslim community strengthened.

    The societal and economic changes led to a more pluralistic political landscape. The six parties were confronted with increasing competition from new political parties, including the Boerenpartij (Farmers’ Party) which was the first to profit from the discontent. Only the SGP

    (Reformed Political Party) managed to hold onto its share of the vote. The third period is characterized by the development of a new political situation and the search for a new political balance. The municipal executive was forced by the national government to curb the intensive animal husbandry.

    The ARP (Anti-Revolutionary Party) had to part with the education portfolio and, finally, Ede got a public-authority neutral secondary school, the Pallas Athene. It was a long journey, but the Muslim community also received its own place of prayer. At a time when societal opposition to the building of a mosque appeared to favour the national extreme-right political parties and movements, the municipal executive opted to work with the Muslim groups to find a solution acceptable to all parties. The municipality distanced itself from the business operations in how it financed organizations such as swimming pools, the theatre and events such as the Week of the Heather.

    What are the answers to my questions I posed in the beginning: is modernization at the local level more of less an exogenous process, can it be planned, or have local politicians enough opportunities to make a difference? When compared to the national developments it holds true for Ede that the 1950s was certainly a dynamic period, but it is also true to say that a Protestant-Christian community such as Ede required more time to shape its growth ambition so that old and new, conservative and progressive, and religious and secular could achieve a new balance and compromise. The changes were neither imposed from outside nor according to plan. The paradoxical outcome of the modernization process is that it has led to the further convergence of the local with the national developments, but it has at the same time ensured the survival of local characteristics.

    Partially, these are characteristics that have consciously been or were able to be preserved by politicians, such as the predominantly Protestant-Christian education facilities and a conservative policy towards the socio-cultural domain. This policy has not, per definition, turned out favourably for the supporting political parties. It was the SGP (Reformed Political Party) and not the governing parties CHU (Christian Historical Union) and ARP (Anti-Revolutionary Party) (and later the CDA (Christian Democratic Appeal) that managed to hold onto its voters, even though the Protestant-Christian character of the municipality was the reason why a segment of the newcomers chose for Ede. Their votes did not strengthen the confessional parties at the centre of the political spectrum; it was precisely the orthodox element that benefitted, which was illustrated by the arrival of the RPF (Reformed Political Federation/GPV (Reformed Political Union). Other characteristic elements are independent of the local political policy and have ensured that Ede has become and remains a desirable place of residence and business. Its central location on the Veluwe, the good infrastructure, and the size of the municipality stimulated and made growth possible. Ede was a municipality with adequate facilities and the amenities it lacked could be found in the nearby Randstad and Arnhem.

    The Veluwe National Park also forms a large, green and tranquil back garden.

    Modernization was not imposed upon Ede, contrary to what Van Deursen notes in the case of Katwijk. Even so no controlled modernization for Ede, as Van Vegchel describes for Emmen. Like Zwemer states for Zeeland, local politics in Ede has been able to make a difference within the national developments and governmental guidelines. The national government only intervened and imposed their policy at the moment local political choices led to negative effects beyond the municipal boundaries. In accordance with the findings of Schuyt and Taverne the development in Ede was not the result of a ‘grand design’, not even of local politicians. Ede shows quite nice the paradox of modernization. Despite the creation of uniformity in the ongoing process of national integration and globalization, the paradox is that contradictory movements are possible that contribute to ensuring that the unique character of the area can be preserved, even if this characterization is also subject to change.

    Shaping multiple Ajijics and development : a Mexican town in the context of the international retirement migration
    Diaz Copado, F.V. - \ 2013
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Leontine Visser, co-promotor(en): Alberto Arce. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461736772 - 221
    migratie - gepensioneerden - buitenland - regionale ontwikkeling - sociale verandering - stedelijke samenleving - modernisering - steden - woonwijken - infrastructuur - economische ontwikkeling - plaatselijk bestuur - ontwikkeling - mexico - migration - retired people - foreign countries - regional development - social change - urban society - modernization - towns - residential areas - infrastructure - economic development - local government - development - mexico
    Ajijic is a Mexican town that during the 1990s experienced its biggest social, economic, and physical transformation of the last 50 years. This transformation was mainly triggered by two factors: 1) a significant increase in the number of foreign retirees moving into Ajijic (effect of a global phenomenon identified as international retirement migration); and 2) the consequent increase in the construction of residential developments and infrastructure (mainly retiree-oriented). In this thesis the author argues that the international retirement migration phenomenon in Ajijic provoked the emergence of different projects of shaping the physical characteristics of this town. Through these projects, social actors shape Ajijic according to their different interpretations of what the town of Ajijic is, and what local development and modernisation mean to them. The transformation of the physical characteristics of Ajijic, through these projects, has also transformed the social life of this town.
    Mallas y flujos : acción colectiva, cambio social, quinua y desarrollo regional indígena en los Andes Bolivianos
    Laguna, P. - \ 2011
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Leontine Visser, co-promotor(en): Alberto Arce. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085859604 - 522
    chenopodium quinoa - inheemse volkeren - producentengroepen - antropologie - sociale verandering - modernisering - economische ontwikkeling - sociale ontwikkeling - coöperatieve verenigingen - bolivia - andes - ontwikkeling - zuid-amerika - chenopodium quinoa - indigenous people - producer groups - anthropology - social change - modernization - economic development - social development - cooperative societies - bolivia - andes - development - south america

    This thesis studies collective action and social change in indigenous rural organisations (IRO) in the Bolivian Andes. I focus on the effects and importance that these organisations have in the historical process of regional development as social spaces that encapsulate different projects of social, political and economic modernity. I reconstruct the practices and situations that turn rural indigenous organisations into significant spaces in which individuals and groups of people put into practice their life projects and their aspirations of modernity. The main question of this thesis is: what are indigenous rural organisations in the Bolivian Andes and what are their contributions to regional development?

    To answer this question, I argue that we need to leave aside social constructivism and rational action present in current studies of indigenous rural organisations in the Andes that use the concept social capital. These organisations are not essences, totalities, nor are they are stable. Also, they are a more complex process than mere rational and technocratic action. IRO are contextual and situational spaces of social life that contain significant elements or objects, which are material and immaterial. These spaces are heterogeneities of humans and objects united by shared significant objects that are emergent, original and intensive. In this sense this organisations represent meshworks that interweave the changeable relationships between entities (humans and objects) and practices, and encompass the possibility of social change. These meshworks have different dimensions (economical, social, cultural, political). In each one of those, the flow of practices, interactions and experiences of individuals and groups of individuals simultaneously unify and break meaning, identity, affect, materiality and also regulation.

    I study three kindsof indigenous rural organisations fromthe Perisalar (the Bolivian Southern highlands): communities which are based on kinship relationships, ayllus which are ethnic groups and quinoa producer organisations. Communities are social spaces that contain significant elements of modernity, such as the desire for access to State education and to enjoy citizens’ rights, the wish for agricultural machinery and to produce for the global market, the diversity of livelihoods and the affirmation of racial and class identity. Ayllus are made by community assemblages and many comunarios belong to quinoa Producer Organisations. In this sense ayllus and producer organisations are important social spaces as they contain significant elements present in the communities. I present the social life of IRO starting from the intersection of local development practices and experiences with other social spaces: the market, migratory destinations, education, social movements and institutional intervention. In order to better understand the effects of social change and IRO, I chose a long-term historical vision, considering the emerging effects of the intersection of local and external practices and experiences, before and during the quinoa commoditisation process.

    The study concludes that IRO in the Bolivian Andes, are meshworks made by vibrant humans and objects with social vitality and intensity. They have the capacity to actualise significant elements of an economic, social, cultural and political character, in interaction with the Nation-State and the global market. These organisations increase through global market the vibrant character of significant elements such as quinoa, and by their recognition by the State they provide semi-autonomy to their members, and a space to make recognised their citizenship and their trade union, racial and class identities, and to locally redesign the State. Memory, identity and affect reveal the potential of IRO in repositioning past reminiscences and ancestral properties, and at the same time claim for a future that does not contain the same substance of that which is “the Andean”, “the Aymara” or “the Quechua”, rather incorporates new elements that lead to multiple “(neo)Andeans”, “(neo)Aymaras” and “(neo)Quechuas” forms, present in each and every one of the partial connections.

    These organisations contain a variety of symbols, discourses and practices that correspond to heterogeneous knowledge and forms of socialisation and thinking of modernity that sometimes result in tension, fissure and conflict without however being fragmented. That is why structuralism, institutionalism and rationalism partially explain the agency in ambiguous and eclectic social spacessuch areIRO, whose limitsare constantly redefined by the flow of experience of its members. Development through these organisations is a social process, experiential and unpredictable, reflexive and corporeal, cognitive and performative, that contains both cohesion and tear. For understanding IRO contribution to rural development we must describe the relational and the imaginative in the wishes and processes of social change and regional developmentand grasp the relevance of its individual members’ experiences and practices in the creation of social ties. Methodologically this leads us to dissolve analytical categories and to follow and observe individuals past and present practices and their intersections with other individuals, groups, structures and significant objects. Our study underlines the significance of human-object relation as a starting point for generating new analytical frameworks in indigenous Andean organizations.

    Verkenning high tech diermanagement in de varkens en pluimveehouderij
    Lokhorst, C. ; Fels, J.B. van der; Riel, J.W. van; Hogewerf, P.H. ; Holster, H.C. ; Lourens, A. - \ 2011
    Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 508)
    varkenshouderij - pluimveehouderij - dierenwelzijn - diergezondheid - agrarische productiesystemen - technische vooruitgang - modernisering - technologie - landbouwtechniek - varkens - pluimvee - dierlijke productie - pig farming - poultry farming - animal welfare - animal health - agricultural production systems - technical progress - modernization - technology - agricultural engineering - pigs - poultry - animal production
    This report describes the results of interviews in the Dutch pig and poultry sector. The potential role of Precision Livestock Farming and realtime animal observations to support daily management were discussed.
    Genetic erosion in crops: concept, research results and challenges
    Wouw, M.J. van de; Kik, C. ; Hintum, T.J.L. van; Treuren, R. van; Visser, L. - \ 2010
    Plant genetic resources: characterization and utilization 8 (2010)1. - ISSN 1479-2621 - p. 1 - 15.
    genetische diversiteit - plantenveredeling - veredelde rassen - landrassen - genetische erosie - modernisering - genetic diversity - plant breeding - improved varieties - landraces - genetic erosion - modernization - spring bread wheat - oryza-sativa l. - allelic diversity changes - farmers seed selection - triticum-aestivum l. - microsatellite markers - molecular diversity - green-revolution - temporal trends - durum desf.
    The loss of variation in crops clue to the modernization of agriculture has been described as genetic erosion The current paper discusses the different views that exist on the concept of genetic erosion in crops Genetic erosion of cultivated diversity is reflected in a modernization bottleneck in the diversity levels that occurred during the history of the crop Two stages in this bottleneck are recognized the initial replacement of landraces by modern cultivars, and further trends in diversity as a consequence of modern breeding practices Genetic erosion may occur at three levels of integration crop, variety and allele The different approaches in the recent literature to measure genetic erosion in crops are reviewed. Genetic erosion as reflected in a reduction of allelic evenness and richness appears to be the most useful definition, but has to be viewed in conjunction with events at variety level According to the reviewed literature, the most likely scenario of diversity trends during modernization is the following a reduction in diversity clue to the replacement of landraces by modern cultivars, but no further reduction after this replacement has been completed
    Met burgers de boer op : Input voor een maatschappelijk debat over een gewaardeerde en duurzame veehouderij
    Boogaard, B.K. - \ 2010
    Wageningen : Wageningen University - 32
    melkveehouderij - duurzame veehouderij - dierlijke productie - samenleving - tradities - modernisering - attitudes - maatschappelijk draagvlak - nederland - noorwegen - dairy farming - sustainable animal husbandry - animal production - society - traditions - modernization - public support - netherlands - norway
    Dit boekje behandelt de opmerkelijkste resultaten van het kwalitatieve deel van het promotieonderzoek over de beelden, wensen en zorgen van burgers over de melkveehouderij. Deze uitgave is gebaseerd op promotieonderzoek van Birgit K. Boogaard, getiteld "Sociaal-culturele duurzaamheid van de veehouderij", uitgevoerd bij de leerstoelgroepen Dierlijke Productiesystemen en Rurale Sociologie van Wageningen University.
    A demonstration greenhouse for Malaysian Horticulture : trip report October 2010
    Elings, A. ; Stijger, I. - \ 2010
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR Greenhouse Horticulture - 10
    glastuinbouw - tuinbouw - modernisering - productiekosten - gewasopbrengst - maleisië - greenhouse horticulture - horticulture - modernization - production costs - crop yield - malaysia
    This report results from the project “Tropical Horticulture in Malaysia”. Modernization of the greenhouse horticulture sector in Malaysiar is required in order to realize better quality of the product, higher yields and less production costs.
    Peasants, potatoes and pesticides : heterogentiy in the context of agricultural modernization in the Highland Andes of Ecuador
    Paredes Chauca, M.C. - \ 2010
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Jandouwe van der Ploeg, co-promotor(en): Paul Hebinck; D. Cole. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789085858102 - 344
    ontwikkeling - sociologie - akkerbouw - bedrijfssystemen - modernisering - aardappelen - stijlen (plant) - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - pesticiden - ecuador - zuid-amerika - plattelandsontwikkeling - andes - development - sociology - arable farming - farming systems - modernization - potatoes - styles - farm management - pesticides - ecuador - south america - rural development - andes
    Based on community-level research carried out between 2002 and 2009, this dissertation examines agricultural modernization in Ecuador as a combination of agrarian reform accompanied by fundamental policy shift towards intensification through large-scale promotion of agro-industrial technologies tied with commercial production and market integration. In particular, the study explores how different actors struggle to modify, counteract and maintain modernization policies in order to advance local interests, thereby leading to distinct modes of production or “farming styles”. Concentrating on pesticide use and risks associated with peasant farming patterns, the dissertation employs qualitative and quantitative methods in describing and explaining heterogeneity, leading to the identification of four prominent styles: Tradicionales, Seguros, Arriesgados and Experimentadores. In terms of productivity, human health and the environment, the production patterns of the Tradicionales and Seguros out perform production modes based largely on externally based knowledge and technology, thereby representing a promising positive-sum scenario for policy reform.
    Sporen van moderniteit : de sociaal-economische analyse van de regio Liemers (1815-1940)
    Smit, J.B. - \ 2010
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Pim Kooij. - Hilversum : Verloren - ISBN 9789087041618 - 541
    economische ontwikkeling - modernisering - geografie - regionale ontwikkeling - sociale ontwikkeling - inkomensverdeling - beroepen - nederland - agrarische geschiedenis - liemers - gelderland - economic development - modernization - geography - regional development - social development - income distribution - occupations - netherlands - agricultural history - liemers - gelderland
    Dit boek geeft de weerslag van een onderzoek naar de economische ontwikkeling van de Liemers. Het onderzoek start aan het begin van de negentiende eeuw toen een deel van de Liemers van Pruisisch tot Nederlands gebied werd. In feite speelde er zich dus een tweedimensionaal integratieproces af, een proces van regiovorming, terwijl die regio op haar beurt zich moest voegen in de eenwording van Nederland. Als eindpunt van deze studie is 1940 genomen, omdat in de oorlog maar ook de periode erna een sterkere economische sturing van overheidswege optrad, die er in de wederopbouwperiode ook op gericht was de achterstanden van regio’s weg te werken.
    Down to earth : a historical-sociological analysis of the rise and fall of 'industrial' agriculture and of the prospects for the re-rooting of agriculture from the factory to the local farmer and ecology
    Visser, J. - \ 2010
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Jandouwe van der Ploeg; B. Goudzwaard. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085856498 - 597
    rurale sociologie - landbouwbeleid - industrialisatie - landbouw - plattelandssamenleving - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - voedselproductie - landbouwontwikkeling - modernisering - agrarische geschiedenis - beleidsevaluatie - duurzame landbouw - rural sociology - agricultural policy - industrialization - agriculture - rural society - sustainability - food production - agricultural development - modernization - agricultural history - policy evaluation - sustainable agriculture
    Constuccion social de comuninad y migración en Usibamba : un estudio sobre el impacto de los procesos de globalización en los Andes centrales del Perú
    Gilvonio Perez, J.M. - \ 2009
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Jandouwe van der Ploeg, co-promotor(en): Pieter de Vries. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085049197 - 239
    plattelandsgemeenschappen - landbouwsituatie - sociale verandering - modernisering - globalisering - migratie - platteland - dorpen - Peru - andes - economische verandering - rural communities - agricultural situation - social change - modernization - globalization - migration - rural areas - villages - Peru - andes - economic change
    The research for the thesis was conducted in the village of Usibamba, located in a high-Andean area called Alto Cunas east from the Mantaro Valley in the Peruvian Central Andes. Special attention was paid to the institutional context and the everyday life conditions in which the social construction of community takes place. The thesis focuses on ongoing changes in agrarian situations relating to processes of modernization, globalization and different kinds of migration experiences (both national and international). The research consisted of surveys, interviews and the selection of case studies as a means to develop an actor oriented ethnography adapted for the study of social transformations in rural areas.
    The dynamic of the community was analyzed from the perspective of the everyday experiences of a diversity of social actors. Different kinds of life situations were selected such as being part of a family, a neighborhood and a peasant community, taking up authority positions and engaging in new endeavors, such as migration, that require the establishment of new types of social relationships. The following topics were studied: transformations in property relations, land use and possession, changes in community governance, communal life and local forms of organization, as well as changing notions of what it means to be a villager and a member of the peasant community institution (the comunidad). These latter changes are important factors in the creation of a diversity of social networks and relationships inside and outside the locality as well as in the constitution of a local identity. An additional factor influencing the constitution of such a local identity is the high level of competition between different villages, all differentially affected by experiences with national and international forms of migration. As a result past social networks based on relations of kin were redefined. Presently such networks have become more extended and have led to the production of de-territorialized forms of community practices.
    In contrast to other anthropological approaches to the study of Andean communities a constructivist approach is used in order to document and analyze the impacts of globalization processes. In other words these impacts were studied taking as a point of departure experiences and situations internal to the Andean community while taking into account external factors, thus viewing the community as an entity that is continuously being reformulated. This approach made it possible to assess structural modifications in the functioning of the community, changes in the relationship with the state, peasant responses to the globalization of local and regional markets, as well as participation in social networks that extended far outside the locality of Alto Cunas. In short, the socio-cultural process of community construction were studied from the point of view of the livelihoods and lifeworlds of Andean comuneros in a context of globalization that entailed the incorporation of all sorts of values and practices resulting from the migration experience.
    The thesis is composed of 6 chapters. In the first chapter the literature on Andean studies is reviewed paying special attention to the chosen theoretical and methodological frameworks, as well as to the kinds of preoccupations and representations of Andean reality these frameworks engaged with. An historical analysis of the most important ethnographic researches undertaken by Peruvian and foreign anthropologists is presented within the light of the dominant theoretical currents that were in vogue at the time they were written. Also, reference is made to works analyzing historical transformations in Peru and the Central Andes in particular since the 1970’s. These include works undertaken from an actor perspective. Subsequently the central theoretical ideas are presented. The first chapter ends with some methodological reflections which were developed during field work. Concepts such as livelihoods, lifeworlds, human agency and social networks constitute the theoretical and conceptual framework used in this thesis.
    In Chapter 2 a dynamic vision of the locality of Usibamba is presented. Usibamba is a locality in the sense that it is both an administrative entity, a village and district, and a peasant community. Community life is both constituted through a diversity of social events taking place in the midst of the village and the comunidad, as well as in mundane contexts pertaining to family life. These social spaces are full of differences, conflicts and contrasting views, as well as mutual agreements, and mechanisms for reaching consensus. This description of the comunidad contrasts with idyllic representations of the comunidad as constituting a world constituted by forms of reciprocity and mutual support. This chapter thus criticizes essentialist notions of Andean cosmology and (neo)-indigeneism.
    In Chapter 3 I study the formation of the community of Usibamba from the perspective of the continuous struggle by comuneros for access to natural resources. Here we study the formation of the community of Usibamba from the perspective of the continuous struggle by comuneros for access to natural resources. Land in particular is a scarce resource due to demographic growth and as a result property and tenure relations have been subject to change. Neo-liberal privatization models have played an important role in shaping these changes. In order to visualize the process of social construction of community I include in the analysis a number of internal conflicts for resources as part of struggles surrounding what villagers call ‘land division and restructuring ’. These struggles are recurrent and take place after long periods during which land comes to be concentrated in the hands of a restricted number of families. The historical backdrop to these events is the land reform program implemented in Peru since 1969. The deactivation and dissolution of the Communal Enterprise of Usibamba is analyzed as part of a lager process of land restructuring and division that took place under the threat of violent subversive forces (the Shining Path). Together with the rise of a new category of actors - the migrants – this process led to the formation of another arena of dispute and negotiation over communal resources. Finally, I offer a dynamic vision of the significance and role of the community for comuneros.
    Chapter 4 centers on the role of the state in local power relations by focusing on the desire of Usibambinos to upgrade the administrative status of their village by converting it into a district. The strivings for the creation of new districts as part of a program of regional administrative decentralization in rural areas in Peru constitutes an internal dynamic that underpins the permanent reorganization of the Peruvian state. In a context of a weak presence or even absence of the state it is important to pay attention to the importance villagers pay to the administrative status of the locality they inhabit. Interestingly, at the same time they refuse to downplay the role of the peasant community, which in fact is one of the objectives of these programs. To be a district signifies inhabiting a privileged political and social space vis-à-vis the state, and with the external world, and it is within such a symbolic space that power relations unfold and that forms of local leadership are forged. The peasant community as a political springboard plays a central role in the strategies that these local leaders develop in order to capture political positions at district level.
    Chapter 5 discusses the contrasting notions and visions that diverse social categories entertain about the community. Chapter 6 centers on the process of international labor migration to the United States of America by sheep shepherds. Special attention is paid to their perceptions and decisions to migrate, the skills they acquire during the migration experiences as well as the extension, operation and use of social networks that transcend the village and the communal institution. Also the images and notions of community developed by migrants are discussed. In addition I explore the development of new types of social networks among ‘successful’ migrants who use their savings to move to the valley cities of Chupaca and Huancayo. Also the example of social support relations established by ‘sons of residents’ in order to facilitate access to jobs is analyzed. Finally, the establishment and consolidation of other social networks, outside the locality but based on relations of kin and community is studied by centering on the Transport Enterprise Alto Cunas, founded by former shepherd migrants. The thesis ends with the conclusions.
    The Ecological Modernisation Reader. Environmental Reform in Theory and Practice
    Mol, A.P.J. ; Sonnenfeld, D.A. ; Spaargaren, G. - \ 2009
    London/New York : Routledge - ISBN 9780415453707 - 560
    milieubeheer - milieubeleid - milieubescherming - innovaties - innovatie adoptie - modernisering - ecologie - milieutechnologie - environmental management - environmental policy - environmental protection - innovations - innovation adoption - modernization - ecology - environmental technology
    Environmental reform by (inter)governmental agencies, private firms and industries and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) is a worldwide phenomenon. This definitive collection showcases an introduction to Ecological Modernisation Theory; state-of-the-art review essays by key international scholars and a selection of the key articles from a quarter-century of social science scholarship. It is aimed at students, researchers and policymakers interested in a deep understanding of contemporary environmental issues.
    Irrigation-based livelihood challenges and opportunities : a gendered technology of irrigation development intervention in the Lower Moshi irrigation scheme Tanzania
    Kissawike, K. - \ 2008
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Paul Richards; Linden Vincent, co-promotor(en): Margreet Zwarteveen. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085049135 - 235
    ontwikkeling - irrigatie - irrigatiesystemen - watertoewijzing - modernisering - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - man-vrouwrelaties - landbouw met irrigatie - waterbeheer - participatie - tanzania - afrika ten zuiden van de sahara - geslacht (gender) - schaarste - middelen van bestaan - development - irrigation - irrigation systems - water allocation - modernization - sustainability - gender relations - irrigated farming - water management - participation - tanzania - africa south of sahara - gender - scarcity - livelihoods
    This thesis is a study of a modernised irrigation scheme in Tanzania. It aims to
    understand how irrigation and agricultural technologies have interacted with local
    society to transform production, paying particular attention to gender relations and
    changes for women farmers. The thesis seeks to contribute to a better understanding
    of what kinds of livelihood and production changes (negative and positive)
    eventuate under ‘modernised’ irrigation systems, and how these contrast with
    conditions under the older local irrigation systems the scheme has replaced. The
    central research question of the thesis is to understand how irrigation modernisation
    in the 1980s shaped, and has been reshaped by, the livelihood needs and options of
    water users. The thesis analyses the initiatives and interactions of agents at various
    levels – i.e. international, national, community and farm levels – as they attempt to
    make use of and adjust to the technical and operational demands of a modern
    scheme. In methodological terms, this thesis is guided by a technographic approach,
    as advocated by Richards (2002), Richards (2007) and Bolding (2005). A
    technographic approach ‘focuses on the complex interactions between social groups,
    collective representations, innovation processes, technical artifacts and nature’. In
    this case technography is applied to a socio-technical institution, the Lower Moshi
    irrigation scheme, located in semi-arid lowland terrain at the foot of Mount
    The research work took place over three seasons. In addition to careful
    examination of project documentation, and interviews with project staff, the study
    also undertook a randomised sample survey of 300 farmers in the four main project
    area settlements, and made detailed observational studies across the agricultural
    cycle of a smaller number of farm holdings owned and operated by both men and
    women farmers. Since only about 30% of farmers within the scheme actually
    cultivate irrigated plots sampling was designed to ensure proper representation of
    non-irrigating farmers, since the activities of this poorer (non-irrigating) group is
    crucial to the understanding the socio-economic dynamics of the scheme more
    generally. Finally, some attention was paid to off-scheme communities. Many of the
    technical problems experienced by the scheme (notably, the failure to distribute
    water in volumes originally planned) relate to concurrent socio-economic and
    technical changes taking place in up-stream communities, in particular, and an
    account is offered of some aspects of these off-project agro-technical changes, and of
    the disputes that then arose over water rights.
    The thesis first offers an historical summary of irrigation in the Kilimanjaro
    region, based on secondary sources and project documentation. In this part of Africa
    the mountains are wet and forested, and the surrounding plains are dry. The Chagga
    people (Wa-Chagga) were densely populated on the mountain, farming the wetter
    slopes intensively in the 19th century, and it was an aim of colonial government to
    resettle “excess” population in the plains. Some development of irrigation took place
    from the 1920s to encourage this relocation of population, and a diverse population
    (mainly but not exclusively Wa-Chagga) settled in Lower Moshi district to farm,
    assisted by possibilities of irrigation. After independence, the Japanese government
    offered funding and technical assistance to the Tanzanian government to modernise,
    re-develop and extend irrigation in Lower Moshi, and a new scheme came into
    operation in the 1980s, with a strong emphasis on intensive rice production, using
    high-yielding (Green Revolution) semi-dwarf varieties such as IR54.
    22 7
    The central finding from this part of the analysis (covered mainly in Chapters 1
    and 2) is that the planners did not sufficiently take into account that irrigation in
    Lower Moshi and among Wa-Chagga and neighboring populations was no new
    thing. Many of the technical and social problems the scheme subsequently faced can
    be traced to the fact that farmers were already familiar with irrigation techniques and
    had developed traditional institutional arrangements to handle water rights and
    labour burdens. Farmers outside the scheme undercut it by being quick to adopt
    some project innovations, and to adapt their own practices accordingly. They also
    diverted water from flowing into the scheme, arguing that access to water from the
    mountain was an established traditional right under British rule, and still respected
    by the independent government of Tanzania. The scheme thus failed to develop the
    area originally intended, and is chronically short of water, undermining the
    confidence of farmers within the scheme in its management procedures. A further
    important finding is that women were largely excluded from the associations
    involved in traditional irrigation water management (apart from providing labour on
    specific occasions) and gendered notions of task and property rooted in local
    tradition have continued to influence land inheritance and water rights within the
    modern scheme.
    Actual as opposed to planned workings of the scheme are addressed in Chapters 3
    and 4, and an account is offered of the introduction of new agricultural technology.
    Impacts or changes in relation to crop production, hired employment and other
    production strategies, and income distribution among population are discussed,
    along with impact on livelihoods. The scheme has had a highly layered impact.
    Those able to secure plots with reliable water do, indeed, make money out of
    intensive rice production, but the percentage is rather small, since the project is not
    able to irrigate reliably, or at all, many areas within the scheme. Farmers in tail end
    areas with unreliable water, or able only to farm land the project has never succeeded
    to irrigate, lack the capacity to influence management to change water distribution in
    their favour. The scheme lacks capital to invest in technical solutions to inadequate
    water distribution, but in any case the major problem lies in reduced flow, in part a
    product of up-stream diversions by non-scheme farmers. The project management
    has failed to assert its legal water right, since the government agrees that traditional
    rights also apply. Scheme management and maintenance suffer as a result. Farmers
    without water do not see why they should help maintain the scheme or pay dues.
    Some solve their problems by becoming “free riders” and acquire water by illegal
    means; others focus on (less profitable) dry-land crops. A range of these conflicts is
    examined, including contradictions between different classes of scheme settlers, e.g.
    wealthier farmers with better access to the scarce water and poorer farmers
    (including women plot owners) found in tail end areas. A complex interaction of
    modern property regimes and customary values in the modernisation process is
    reported. Irrigation project managements in Africa need to take account of these legal
    and cultural complexities.
    Intra-household gender relations are a specific focus in the later chapters of the
    thesis (5-6). Women play a crucial role in the agricultural labour process, both in
    irrigated and non-irrigated agriculture. They are (by custom) the major providers of
    household food, while husbands focus on earning cash for other household expenses.
    The introduction of a cash crop (rice) complicates this division of responsibility.
    Women continue to provide labour on irrigated plots, but men assume the main
    decision making role. A small number of women has acquired rights to irrigated land
    on the scheme (through purchase or inheritance) but a majority are in the position of
    farm workers or tenants. Irrigated rice increases women's labour burdens and
    responsibilities, since this is a cash crop and they still have to work on household
    food crops as well. The scheme has continued to show many of the problems of
    public irrigation development in Africa since the 1970s discussed in the introduction.
    However, the situation in Lower Moshi is not as reported for parts of (West) Africa,
    where women have been supplanted by men in (modernised) rice farming. Here
    women never enjoyed rights over irrigated crops. What has happened on the scheme
    is that their burdens have intensified. In cases where women have no husbands they
    tend to be among the poorest farmers residing within the scheme, with little reliable
    water or farming only rain-fed crops. In short, the scheme has widened the gap
    between rich and poor, and intensified existing gender inequalities, in regard to
    ownership of plots, agricultural output, division of labour, and coping strategies. The
    thesis also shows that there are strong gender differentials in water rights and in
    participation in water management. Alienation of women from management and
    repair undermines scheme renewal. Irrigation management must develop a stronger
    focus on gender issues to overcome challenges of inequitable water access, if it is to
    provide any wider opportunities for better livelihoods, food security and nutrition in the area.
    Eco-modernizing small en medium-sized agro-industries in Vietnam
    Pham Hong Nhat, - \ 2007
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Arthur Mol. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085048282 - 320
    landbouwindustrie - kleine bedrijven - verontreiniging - milieuafbraak - modernisering - herstel - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - milieubescherming - verontreinigingsbeheersing - slacht - looien - leerverwerkende industrie - zeevruchten - overheidsbeleid - milieubeleid - vietnam - middelgrote bedrijven - agribusiness - small businesses - pollution - environmental degradation - modernization - rehabilitation - sustainability - environmental protection - pollution control - slaughter - tanning - leather industry - seafoods - government policy - environmental policy - vietnam - medium sized businesses
    Following ‘Doi Moi’ (Renovation), which started in 1986, the former centrally planned economy in Vietnam is shifting to an economy where production is linked to market demand and consumption. As a result, the nation has been enjoying an unprecedentedly fast economic growth, especially in recent years: 8.4% in 2005 and 8.17% in 2006. The economic renovation also brought an expansion of the private sector, which consists mainly of small- and medium-sized enterprises, SMEs. The reform process has also positively influenced agriculture, which is an important sector of the national economy. These changes have resulted in a strong growth of Vietnamese SMEs, especially in the agro-food and related fields. Although recognized as a very important sector, the small- and medium-sized agro-industries, SMAIs have high environmental costs. Since a large number of SMAIs operate amidst residential neighbourhoods in urban areas, they not only contribute to urban pollution but also cause severe nuisance to the surrounding residents by discharging their untreated solid, liquid and gaseous emissions. Furthermore, the public has expressed concerns recently that the poor environmental performance of SMAIs may (in)directly influence the safety of food. During the last few years, the Government of Vietnam has worked hard to protect the environment and to mitigate adverse environmental impacts caused by fast economic development. But the current environmental management system, based on a solid command-and-control style, has not been able to cope with the situation. In an attempt to contribute to a sustainable development strategy for the country, this thesis aims to evaluate the current situation and to design approaches that would eco-modernise the existing small- and medium-sized agro-industries in Vietnam. As such, the main objective of the thesis is to answer three central research questions: (1) what are the current contributions of SMAIs to environmental problems in Vietnam?, (2) how can the environmental performance of Vietnamese SMAIs be improved?, and (3) what role can the relevant Vietnamese actors play in such environmental reform strategies? The ideas of the Ecological Modernisation Theory, EMT, were employed as the main theoretical framework for this research. These ideas help us to analyse how to deal with environmental issues which have increasingly become problematic as a result of the recent fast industrial and economic development. With an EMT framework, current available theories and techniques for environmental protection (at industries) were systematically analyzed. They include pollution control, pollution prevention/cleaner production and industrial ecology. Although these approaches were developed as an evolution towards solving the environmental consequences of industrial development, they all have both advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, although the most recent approaches appear to be the most advanced ones, none of them have ever fully rejected the others. In fact, a combination of (most of) them, seems to be useful. A methodology was developed in this dissertation for analyzing and designing the eco-modernization of existing SMAIs, using the main principles of industrial ecology, IE. The methodology focuses on both technical aspects and institutional (re)arrangements and leads to a “closed material cycle model”. Regarding the technical side, the model consists of two levels: (1) the enterprise level and (2) the enterprise-expanded level; and it encompasses three components of environmental performance improvement: (1) the intra-enterprise measures, which consist of mainly source reduction and on-site recycling, (2) the intra-extra enterprise measures, which include mainly (off-site) recycling and/or (on-site) reuse, and (3) the further use of the remaining residues by other industries and/or entities/activities. Regarding the institutional aspects a network analysis – assessing the role of economic, policy and societal networks – was applied, relating designed environmental improvement options to actors configurations. The developed methodology was applied in three SMAI sub-sectors: animal slaughtering, tanning and seafood processing. A multiple case study strategy was employed for this research. After a general study of each of the sub-sectors, six case study enterprises were selected from each sub-sector for in-depth research. Furthermore, one case study from each studied sub-sector was selected for further in-depth research with empirical experiments on closing the material cycles. Moreover, actor networks that embed the case study companies were analyzed to identify their role in promoting the developed environmental options and models. As a result, shortcomings in implementing environmental reforms were identified. The identification of these weaknesses helped to make sound recommendations for institutional rearrangements of future systems leading towards successful eco-modernizing of the SMAIs. As a result of the empirical research the central research questions were answered. Firstly, it has become clear that the current environmental performance of the SMAI sector in Vietnam is poor. This poor performance not only contributes to the degradation of the environment but also (in)directly relates to the issues of food safety. Secondly, the application of an integrated methodology based on the principles of pollution prevention/cleaner production and especially industrial ecology proved to be successful in helping the SMAIs to improve their environmental performance by creating a “closed material cycle” model. Thirdly, through a network analysis, the role of the relevant actors in environmental reform was clarified. Most economic actors do not play an active and “positive” role towards facilitating the implementation of developed environmental improvement model, and the societal network actors are also quite passive. In addition, a number of shortcomings in the policy networks regarding the environmental reform were revealed. Although the role of branch associations was identified as crucial for environmental reform, these either do not exist (in the case of slaughtering industry) or they focus only on the economic interests of their members. Capacity strengthening – both at the individual and the organizational level – is urgently needed as part of a political modernization process, but this has to be coupled with raising environmental awareness and knowledge among the public in general. The empirical research within this study has proved that the idea of industrial ecology can be applied for improving environmental performance of the existing SMAIs by adding well designed options. In other words, industrial ecology fits not only new industrial establishments by carefully designing waste reuse, recycling or exchange, but can also fit existing (agro-)industrial units by (wisely) re-designing their waste flow for the purpose of recycling and/or reuse. Last but not least, recommendations for further research have been made. Firstly, from the point of view of sustainable production and consumption, research could be carried out to elaborate on the production-consumption chain for the SMAIs. This work would help to quantify the contribution and role of each actor in the chain. Furthermore, the applicability and extent of industrial ecology could further be studied for SMEs of other industrial sectors in Vietnam. Finally, comparative studies are recommended to be carried out on environmental reform of the same industrial sub-sectors in similar economic conditions but in different geographical, cultural and political-institutional settings. These studies could help to make the EMT more valuable throughout the developing world.
    The way you do, it matters : a case study: farming economically in Galician dairy agroecosystems in the context of a cooperative
    Dominguez Garcia, M.D. - \ 2007
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Jandouwe van der Ploeg, co-promotor(en): X.S. Fernández. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085047964 - 194
    rurale sociologie - plattelandsontwikkeling - melkveehouderij - sociale economie - sociale verandering - landgebruik - modernisering - stijl - milieueffect - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - coöperatieve landbouw - spanje - melkveehouderijsystemen - economische verandering - agro-ecosystemen - agro-ecologie - rural sociology - rural development - dairy farming - socioeconomics - social change - land use - modernization - style - environmental impact - farm management - cooperative farming - spain - dairy farming systems - economic change - agroecosystems - agroecology
    This thesis aims to study the sustainability of agriculture in Galicia (Spain) in a new and integrative way. Therefore not only economic but also social and ecological data and interest are drawn into the analysis. Farming, undoubtedly, is an economic activity. However, in order to obtain and market the final product natural resources are used and transformed. When pollution and depletion or exhaustion of those resources takes place, the future of the activity is at stake. Furthermore, social relations play an important role. The use of labour, for instance, is based on economic deliberations but also regulated by social interests. Social and political factors are at stake at the institutional level as well. These factors determine not only the orientation of agricultural production but also its volume, and prices. Agriculture is a multi-dimensional activity. It is an ecological activity by its use of natural resources. It is a social activity as production and consumption are based on a specific organisation of social relations. And it is a cultural activity as agriculture roots in a way of living which is time- and place specific and characterized by locally and historically specific norms and values. In short, it is not only an activity that generates economic value. In order to study the sustainability of an agricultural system, it is therefore important to analyse its impact on different (social, economic and ecological) domains but also to look into their interrelation and, hence, interaction. Theoretically there are two possible ways of interaction: (1) the interaction between the different domains has a positive effect and strengthen the sustainability of the whole system (synergy), or (2) the different domains counteract each other and a positive effect in one domains works to the detriment of another domain (trade off effect). In this thesis an integrative approach was chosen which made use of the insights and methods of different disciplines: ecological economics, agro-ecology and sociology. On the basis of the integrative approach we analysed if and how the economic, ecological and social effects of an agricultural system vary depending on the chosen style of farming. In order to understand actual Galician agriculture it is necessary to know the past. The first part of the thesis describes the recent history of Galician agriculture. Since the Second World War the traditional peasant agro-ecosystem transformed into an industrial system; this period is also described as a process of de-structuring. It included the dismantling of the traditional agro-ecosystem in force until the middle of the 20th century; and the recessive dynamics derived from the most recent process of modernisation throughout the period 1960-2005. In this thesis, the traditional agroecosystem is defined as an articulated and joint management of cattle, crops and nature with a high degree of integration and interaction. It analyses of political and socio-demographic factors that have jeopardised the continuation of that model. The dismantling of the traditional agroecosystem is effective during the last process of modernisation after 1960. Its effects come to the fore quite clearly in the changes in land use during that period, demonstrated by the evolution of the Useful Agricultural Area and the Total Area, as well as by the reduction in the number of farms. The main features of this process of modernisation are the alignment of farm management strategies based on intensification, specialisation and the increasing dependency on external market inputs as regards both biological and, specially, mechanical technology. Income squeeze, reduction of labour and abandonment of productive natural resources are the main consequences of that process so far. Although the study of the farming dynamics at the regional level suggests homogeneity of management-strategies, the second part of the thesis -looking for heterogeneity- shows that the practice is actually heterogeneous. Heterogeneity in the practice or the different ways of doing are encountered by applying the Farming Styles approach and methodology. Styles of farming are analysed at the level of the farmer and his/her farm, within the context of a cooperative of services, Os Irmandinos, located in Ribadeo (Lugo, Galicia). In a following step we analysed the social, economic and ecological impact of every style by means of different indicators. In this way we wanted to find out if the way of doing matters in terms of sustainability. This is interesting not only in order to evaluate the farmers' response of the past, but also to see which of the styles might have promising results also for the future and the possibility to achieve a more sustainable agriculture and balanced rural development. Within the different styles of farming, the style characterized as 'Farming Economically' comes to the fore as an interesting point of departure for the construction of sustainability in a multi-dimensional way.

    Greening sanitary systems: and end-user perspectives
    Hegger, D.L.T. - \ 2007
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Arthur Mol; Gert Spaargaren, co-promotor(en): Bas van Vliet. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085047117 - 266
    afvalbeheer - afvalwaterbehandeling - milieubeleid - innovaties - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - nieuwe sanitatie - modernisering - hedendaagse samenleving - verzamelen - urine - stedelijk afvalwater - waste management - waste water treatment - environmental policy - innovations - sustainability - new sanitation - modernization - contemporary society - collection - urine - municipal wastewater
    The central aim of the thesis is to contribute to a transition towards sustainable sanitation and wastewater systems and practices in Western society by developing a social science perspective on sanitation and wastewater management. The empirical core of this study comprises a comparative case study analysis of Dutch, German and Swedish pilot projects in which wastewater management technologies are experimented with in a domestic setting. Desk research, participatory observation and interviews with consumers and providers have been used to analyze these projects in detail
    A quantitative methodology to test ecological modernization theory in the Malaysian context
    Er Ah Choy, - \ 2007
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Arthur Mol; Kris van Koppen. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085047643 - 392
    milieubeleid - ecologie - modernisering - palmoliën - textielindustrie - kleding - maleisië - agro-industriële ketens - vergelijkend onderzoek - environmental policy - ecology - modernization - palm oils - textile industry - clothing - malaysia - agro-industrial chains - comparative research
    The rapid economic development accompanied by increasing manufacturing output in Malaysia for the past two decades is not balanced with sufficient environmental management. Although pollution control measures have been formulated and implemented by the Malaysian government, the improvements and achievements in environmental performance vary from one industrial sector to another. This raises the question on the reasons for the differences in environmental performances of industrial sectors in one country. In addition, most of the studies using Ecological Modernization Theory - a prevailing theory for analyzing and understanding environmental reform in western countries - have a national character, in the sense that the studies do not differentiate between sectors in analyzing and explaining environmental management and performance. And these Ecological Modernization Theory studies have prevailed up till now in Western OECD countries, and hardly in Asian developing economies. Moreover, most studies in the Ecological Modernization Theory tradition are more qualitative by making interesting use of case study research in analyzing environmental reform and further building theory. Limited quantitative research has been done up till now to test the central tenets laid down in Ecological Modernization Theory and no methodology has been developed yet to carry out a more substantive quantitative testing. Against this background, the current study aims to make a scientific contribution. This study aims to understand the differences in sectoral environmental performance in Malaysian industries by applying Ecological Modernization Theory. In investigating sectoral performances, the study has two objectives. The first objective is to develop a quantitative methodology for investigating the claims of successes and failures of environmental reform as hypothesized by Ecological Modernization Theory. This quantitative methodology focuses on two central tenets of Ecological Modernization Theory. The first central tenet pertains to the claim that environmental reforms are stimulated and triggered by transformations in environmental policy, also known as political modernization. The second central tenet relates to the increasing importance of market dynamics and economic agents in successful industrial environmental management in the era of globalization. The second objective of this study is to understand sectoral variations with regard to the drivers for environmental reform and to understand why a particular sector is better than another in environmental performance. The palm oil production chain (POPC) and the textile and apparel production chain (TAPC) in Malaysia are the foci of this study. The POPC in Malaysia is a high priority resource-based industry with heavy government involvement, whereas the TAPC has more laissez faire characteristics with limited government involvement in its economic activities. Based on the two objectives, three research questions emanate. The first research question relates to how the policy and economic tenets of Ecological Modernization Theory can be operationalized into testable factors that contribute to improved environmental performances in industrial sectors. The second question relates to the factors in the policy and economic domains explaining sector variations with respect to environmental performance. The third research question pertains to the recommendations for the development of sector- based industrial development policy in Malaysia, most notably the POPC and the TAPC. The development of a quantitative methodology starts with the operationalization of Ecological Modernization Theory into hypotheses to enable the validity of the Ecological Modernization Theory claims to be tested in a developing country. All the hypotheses formulated are either consistent or consonant with ecological modernization characteristics. The central tenet of political modernization gives birth to the Government-Industry (G-I) linkage which in turn looks at the Ecological Modernization Theory characteristics of policy formulation, technology, regulatory efforts, advocacy of preventive approaches, and local communities' involvement. Likewise, the central tenet of the role of market dynamics and economic actors gives birth to the Industry-Industry (I-I) linkage, which focuses on the Ecological Modernization Theory characteristics of international trade, vertical integration, international relationship, and local collaboration (localization). Each characteristic in the G-I linkage and the I-I linkage is translated into an independent variable and linked to hypotheses. Each of the independent variables is then statistically tested against environmental performance, operationalized as a composition of Environmental Performance Indicators (EPIs) or alternatively known as dependent variables. Hypothesis testing provides the means to support or refute the hypothesis. As hypothesis testing via statistical data analysis is required, the independent and dependent variables are operationalized in a measurable form. To overcome the problem of data limitations for the dependent variables - quite common in developing countries, five categories of EPIs were formulated and merged into one final environmental performance variable. The basic five categories of EPIs offer the advantage of robustness in compensating for data variability and limitation. A minimum of 35 and 36 companies for the POPC and the TAPC respectively were selected via disproportionate stratified random sampling, making over 5% of the population in each sector. The primary purpose of adopting disproportionate stratified random sampling is that it is much more efficient statistically as compared to simple random sampling and in the worst scenario is equal to it. Kendall's tau-b, a non-parametric test, is used as it is the most appropriate tool in view of data characteristics and less stringent requirements. Data were collected at the company sites of each company via interviewing, at the statistical offices of Malaysia, at the offices of the environmental authorities in the districts the sampled companies were located, and with (academic) experts. This research shows that two out of five hypotheses are statistically significant in the G-I linkage for the POPC. However, none are statistically significant in the G-I Linkage for the TAPC. This is mainly due to the fact that the POPC is designated as a high priority industry by the government. Thus political modernization has taken roots in the POPC. In the I-I linkage, three out of four hypotheses are statistically significant for both the POPC and the TAPC. This also signifies the impact of the increasing importance of market dynamics and economic actors in ecological reform in Malaysia palm oil and textile production chains. Studies using Ecological Modernization Theory in China, Vietnam and Thailand showed limited applicability of Ecological Modernization Theory in these countries. The main findings of this research on Malaysia, a developing economy in Southeast Asia, prove in some way better. As mentioned above, the two central tenets of Ecological Modernization Theory, namely political modernization and the increasing importance of market dynamics and economic actors, are to some extent applicable to the POPC. However, for the TAPC, the central tenet of the increasing importance of market dynamics and economic actors is applicable whereas the central tenet of political modernization could not be proven. This shows at least the partial applicability of Ecological Modernization Theory in contemporary Malaysia, a newly industrializing country in Asia. A facet that has to be considered is the refinement of the Ecological Modernization Theory in the context of localized conditions and institutional developments in Malaysia. The central tenet that environmental reforms are stimulated and triggered by transformations in environmental governance shows that the role of the state has turned towards contextual steering for the POPC. This is made possible with the existence of modernized, sector-specific, government related institutions like the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB) and Malaysian Palm Oil Council (MPOC). However, this claim is not valid for the TAPC as it has more laissez faire characteristics. The government's innovative policy of technology development and technology transfer, as hypothesized by ecological modernization scholars, shows a muted response for both the POPC and the TAPC. The highly bureaucratic and time-consuming application process, together with poor public service delivery, act as a deterrence in such technological collaborative efforts. Likewise, poor enforcement of environmental regulations by both direct and indirect environmental government agencies leads to environmental regulations not being main drivers in environmental reform for both the POPC and the TAPC. The Ecological Modernization Theory characteristics of preventive measures and self-regulation are evident in the POPC, but not the TAPC. Preventive measures in the form of the various ISO certifications, strongly advocated by the state, have become part of the standard operating procedures of government agencies like Felda and government-linked companies in the POPC. As mentioned above, the TAPC has a more laissez faire characteristic and as such there is no push or catalyst to toe the government line. The role of civil society in environmental reform, which is very much in evidence in Ecological Modernization Theory literature, is to a large extent absent for the local communities in Malaysia. The environmental dimension has yet to become sufficiently important in the worldview and in the political opportunity structures of the local communities. The central tenet of the increasing importance of market dynamics and economic agents in environmental reform demonstrates a great impact on both the POPC and the TAPC. These two sectors are highly export-oriented and the reverberations of globalization are felt. For the POPC, the market actors in the farm to fork supply chain have adopted environmental standards like ISO 14000. On the other hand, for the TAPC the mere act of exporting to the developed markets acts as a trigger to adopt environmental standards. The adoption of environmental standards has contributed to the harmonization of environmental practices. For the TAPC, transnational corporations (TNCs) in their centrally powerful position in the economic webs, act as a stimulus in triggering environmental reform in supplier companies. However, the role of the TNCs is not merely imposing their requirements but also collaborating by helping the supplier companies to meet the firm-based environmental standards that they have set. On the other hand, the foreign downstream customers of the POPC have not initiated any collaborative effort to meet environmental requirements. The impact of global market forces has a local effect. Local vertically integrated groups with palm oil milling activity, especially the government linked companies (GLCs) in the POPC, have made efforts in accommodating environmental pressures. The strong corporate culture imbued with the environmental dimension, is used as a cornerstone in meeting market requirements as well as toeing the government line. Through local collaboration, they are able to cascade good environmental management systems and practices within the entire group via structural embeddedness. On the other hand, the vertically integrated groups that are involved in low pollutant generating activities in the TAPC, have made efforts in complying with environmental requirements as the investment cost is relatively low as opposed to wet processing. Thus, environmental reform in the TAPC is dictated by local cost condition. The study concludes with recommendations. The first recommendation for the development of sector-based industrial policy is the formation of sector specific, government related institutions with participation of economic actors. These institutions provide the means to formulate, promulgate, implement and monitor environmental policies. The experiences in the POPC show that allowing the industry to cooperate and participate in the policy formulation process, buttressed by the sector-specific government related institutions, has provided a synergistic government-industry linkage leading to a strong relationship with clear environmental reforms. The second recommendation is that advanced preventive and curative environmental technologies should be provided on a pro bono basis to all industries as these technologies are meant for the good of the commonwealth. Currently, the indigenous technologies developed by MPOB are sold to any interested parties based on certain specific terms and conditions. The third recommendation is that the adoption and maintaining of environmental standards and certifications should be highly encouraged, as this proves to be a workable form of self-regulatory practice. Attaining the pioneer or the first environmental certification, especially ISO 14000 standards, is relatively easy but maintaining the certification on a long term basis proves much more difficult. Tax incentives on a graduated scale can be provided for the adoption and maintaining of environmental certifications as these have both economic and environmental benefits. This preventive measure complements and supplements the environmental enforcement agencies in view and in lieu of their poor regulatory enforcement. The fourth recommendation is that a fast track program should be institutionalized for the approval of technological collaboration, technological financing and the application of tax incentives for environment-related projects and technologies by relevant government agencies. This fast track program is to overcome the highly bureaucratic and time consuming application process by relevant government agencies.
    Slim experimenteren in de melkveehouderij : monitoring en evaluatie van een aanpak om systeeminnovaties en transitie naar een duurzame melkveehouderij te bevorderen
    Roep, D. ; Wiskerke, J.S.C. ; Wolleswinkel, A.P. ; Bos, A.P. ; Haan, M.H.A. de - \ 2007
    Lelystad : Animal Sciences Group (Rapport / Animal Sciences Group 26) - 41
    melkveehouderij - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - innovaties - modernisering - methodologie - evaluatie - dairy farming - sustainability - farm management - innovations - modernization - methodology - evaluation
    In het voorafgaande project ‘Innoverende melkveehouders’ zijn innovatieve werkwijzen van melkveehouders, waarmee zij aansprekende resultaten behalen bij het verduurzamen van de melkveehouderij, in kaart gebracht en beschreven. Het huidige rapport blikt terug op het vervolgproject. In dit project is ‘slim experimenteren’ als methode beproefd bij het onderkennen en uitbouwen van potenties van novelties richting systeeminnovaties om zodoende de transitie naar een duurzame veehouderij te bevorderen
    Modernization and the evolution of irrigation practices in the Rio Dulce Irrigation Project, Santiago del Estero, Argentina : una tarea de todos
    Prieto, D. - \ 2006
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Linden Vincent. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085045458 - 290
    irrigatiesystemen - oefening - modernisering - evolutie - argentinië - irrigation systems - practice - modernization - evolution - argentina
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