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Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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History of tourism after industrialisation | WURcast
Skutka, Jonas - \ 2019
Wageningen :
tourism - history - modernization
Special Issue: Christian Philosophical Perspectives on Sustainable Development
Massink, Henk ; Jochemsen, Henk - \ 2018
Philosophia Reformata 83 (2018)1. - ISSN 0031-8035 - p. 3 - 18.
Christian philosophy - environment - Herman Dooyeweerd - modal aspects - modernization - normative practice - sustainability

In this introductory article, the authors first briefly present the debate on the meaning of sustainability and consider the question of how to connect the concept of sustainability with a Christian-in particular, Reformational-way of doing philosophy. After examining the various uses of Dooyeweerdian philosophy in this regard, this introduction closes with an overview of the contributions to this special issue.

How African Households Shop: Evidence from Dairy Chains in Ethiopia
Bekele, Alemayehu Dekeba ; Beuving, Joost ; Ruben, Ruerd - \ 2017
European Journal of Development Research 29 (2017)4. - ISSN 0957-8811 - p. 806 - 826.
dairy retail outlet choice - Ethiopia - household consumption behaviour - modernization - traditional retail outlets
Modern food retail outlets have expanded rapidly in Africa, yet their diffusion into the semi-processed and perishable sector is not well understood. Consumption is helpful in understanding the reasons for this: applying a novel demand-side perspective to the dairy sector in Ethiopia, we show how increased economic ability, the presence of educated adult women and retail outlet attributes are key factors shaping household purchasing behaviour. Nevertheless, contrary to previous studies, we found a varied effect of these factors across dairy products. It suggests that modern retail diffusion into dairy supply chains is limited by lower prices, the perceived quality of dairy products and the reputation of traditional retail channels. Thus, we add to discussions of how African households shop an analysis of non-price factors in the development of retail channels.
Behind the veil of agricultural modernization : gendered dynamics of rural change in the Saïss, Morocco
Bossenbroek, L. - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Jandouwe van der Ploeg; Margreet Zwarteveen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578982 - 171
agricultural development - modernization - gender relations - women - social change - rural areas - family farms - morocco - north africa - landbouwontwikkeling - modernisering - man-vrouwrelaties - vrouwen - sociale verandering - platteland - familiebedrijven, landbouw - marokko - noord-afrika

The Moroccan countryside is marked by rapidly changing rural realities. The Moroccan government frames and promotes these changes as linear development towards modernity and progress for all thereby only focusing on the experiences of some audacious men – ‘entrepreneurs’ and ‘modernizing farmers’. The aim of the study is to unveil Morocco’s agricultural modernization plan by illustrating how agrarian processes in the agricultural plain of the Saïss are not a logical, self-evident or smooth transition to a higher stage of development or modernity. They are a form of globalizing capitalist development which is messy and contradictory, and which is marked by, and re-produces existing gender social hierarchies. By putting the experiences that often “fall away” from agrarian analysis at the heart of my study I am to explore how gender and social differences come to matter in process of agrarian change and are intimately linked.

Environmental potentials of policy instruments to mitigate nutrient emissions in Chinese livestock production
Zheng, C. ; Liu, Y. ; Bluemling, B. ; Mol, A.P.J. ; Chen, J. - \ 2015
Science of the Total Environment 502 (2015). - ISSN 0048-9697 - p. 149 - 156.
spatial models - phosphorus - innovation - implementation - modernization - agriculture - simulation - diffusion
To minimize negative environmental impact of livestock production, policy-makers face a challenge to design and implement more effective policy instruments for livestock farmers at different scales. This research builds an assessment framework on the basis of an agent-based model, named ANEM, to explore nutrient mitigation potentials of five policy instruments, using pig production in Zhongjiang county, southwest China, as the empirical filling. The effects of different policy scenarios are simulated and compared using four indicators and differentiating between small, medium and large scale pig farms. Technology standards, biogas subsidies and information provisioning prove to be the most effective policies, while pollution fees and manure markets fail to environmentally improve manure management in pig livestock farming. Medium-scale farms are the more relevant scale category for a more environmentally sound development of Chinese livestock production. A number of policy recommendations are formulated as conclusion, as well as some limitations and prospects of the simulations are discussed.
Paradoxale modernisering : Ede, 1945-1995: groot geworden, herkenbaar gebleven
Bloembergen-Lukkes, J.R. - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Pim Kooij, co-promotor(en): Anton Schuurman. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462571433 - 365
geschiedenis - modernisering - politiek - economie - demografie - cultuur - onderwijs - migratie - ruimtelijke ordening - sociologie van vrijetijdsbesteding - lokale geschiedenis - veluwe - nederland - history - modernization - politics - economics - demography - culture - education - migration - physical planning - sociology of leisure - local history - veluwe - netherlands

Summary

Paradoxical Modernization

Ede, 1945-1995: Grew big, remained recognizable

After the Second World War, like many other municipalities in the Netherlands and elsewhere in the Western World, Ede experienced a period of rapid economic and population growth, of mobility, increase in scale, urbanization, better education, professionalization, individualization and democratization. Developments that may be summarized in the word modernization. I wondered if modernization is an exogenous process and did it more or less just happen, or is it a planned process or something in between. I decided that the best way to answer these questions was not to study the modernization process on a national level, but on a local level. There I hoped to find the answer on the question what possibilities people have to define their own community.

I choose the municipality of Ede as my case study for the next reasons. After 1945, the Ede municipal executive opted for growth: economic, population and employment growth. In 1962, the municipal executive formulated a goal to welcome its 100,000 resident by the year 2000, which represented a doubling of the population since the end of the war. Ede was to be transformed into the city of Ede. This milestone of 100,000 inhabitants was reached as early as 1996, 60,000 of whom lived in Ede town. In order to achieve this goal, action was needed on several fronts. The rapid growth achieved was not the result of a policy plan handed down by central government. Ede was not one of the designated development areas. Ede was not regarded as an underdeveloped area requiring a top- down targeted approach for accelerated industrialization and modernization. On the other hand, in 1945, Ede was still clearly a rural community and the town centre clearly showed characteristics of a village society. So the rapid growth meant changes in different policy sectors.

Ede easily attracted new residents and employment opportunities as a result of its strategic location in the middle of the Netherlands, its good infrastructure and sufficient space. What it did need, however, was the development of housing estates and industrial estates including the necessary infrastructure and the development and expansion of, for example, education facilities and leisure amenities. In a predominantly Protestant community, this raised questions about the persuasion of these types of amenities and led to debates on, if actually desirable, the type of socio-cultural policy most appropriate for local government. Rapid expansion of a community may be perceived as a threat to the characteristics of that society. This question made Ede an extra interesting subject for research. In the case of Ede it was justifiable to assume that tensions would have arisen between the rural and urban ambitions and between Christian and secular developments. The municipal authority is involved in the developments and decision-making process relating to all the elements of the public domain, which is why it was chosen as the focus for this research.

The policy decisions required in the different areas to facilitate growth are by their nature intertwined. The construction of housing estates and business premises conflict with the interests of the agricultural sector and nature conservation. The arrival of new residents can change the social, political and religious composition of the population, resulting in consequences for how society is organized and for the future local political constellation and vice versa. Every decision must take what has occurred in other areas into account and will, in turn, have consequences for adjacent domains. For these reasons a choice was made for modernization as theoretical concept. Chapter one contains a historiographical discussion of this concept and an elaboration of how this concept has been applied to this research. In line with Schuyt and Taverne, I have chosen not to provide modernization in advance with a specific interpretation by adding ‘controlled’, ‘contested’ or ‘reflexive’. For the research, four policy areas have been selected for further investigation: spatial planning, education, guest workers/migrants and leisure facilities. As an introduction to the chapters on the developments in Ede, chapter two contains a broad outline of the national developments in which the local developments took place. Subsequently, in chapter three I discuss the way in which the modernization process was made visible in the composition of the municipal executive, including its chairpersons over a period of fifty years. Politicians not only partly determine which choices are made in the modernization process, but are also subject to this process themselves both at party and individual level. In this sense, through its decisions the political establishment in no small way contributes to determining its own future and, in turn, the composition of the municipal council and executive. The choices for more or

less growth, for public-authority or private-authority schools , for providing public amenities or not, et cetera influence who will choose Ede as a place of residence and work. In this way, secularization manifests itself in changes in the population composition and the demand for specific amenities, as well as at the level of the political composition of the municipal council and the individual councillors. As a result of the population growth, by 1966 the newcomers held the majority of the seats on the council. However, the original population of Ede managed to control the executive positions for much longer. Democratization, individualization and secularization led to an increase in the number of political parties represented on the council and enhanced pluralism. Compared to politics at national level, both women’s emancipation and the professionalization of councillors clearly had a delayed start. As was the case at national level the larger parties lost ground, although the SGP (Reformed Political Party) formed an exception in Ede.

The main theme of chapter four is spatial planning. Ede has profited considerably from the migration of residents and employment opportunities from the Randstad. Ede’s central location put it in a strategic position to benefit from national developments on spatial planning. The size of the municipality ̶ Ede being one of the largest in the Netherlands ̶ , the good infrastructure and the presence of the Veluwe National Park made Ede a popular place of residence and business. This remained the case even after, from the start of the 1960s, the provincial and national governments tried to curb the drift to Ede. As a result of its many qualities, Ede was able to achieve its growth ambitions and disregard the limiting measures imposed by higher government levels. In relation to nature conservation, Ede stayed more in line because the municipal executive regarded the Veluwe National Park as one of the attractive aspects of living in Ede. In respect to agriculture, the municipal executive chose for, on the one hand, an uncompromising policy to develop housing and business premises at the expense of farmland, while, on the other hand, applying a non-interference policy for the agricultural sector and business operations. Both small farmers and the strong growth in intensive animal husbandry could count on an accommodating local government. It was the national government which, as a result of the high levels of environmental pollution, designated the Gelderland Valley as a Spatial Planning and Environment area (ensuring spatial planning was combined with the environmental aspects). This, in turn, forced the municipal authority to impose regulatory measures on the agricultural sector in its spatial planning policies.

The policy choices in relation to the educational facilities are discussed in chapter five. What is conspicuous here is the clear commitment on the part of the Christian political parties to maintain the Christian character of the education. In the 1950s, this commitment could also count on the support of the Christian councillors representing the PvdA (Labour Party). It was not until the early 1960s that all the PvdA councillors supported the VVD (People’s Party for Freedom and Democracy) in its struggle

to increase the number of public-authority schools. In the meantime, Protestant Ede had managed, under the leadership of the ARP (Anti-Revolutionary Party) aldermen, to establish broad, and partly above municipality level, private-authority denominational schools. In achieving this, the ARP (Anti- Revolutionary Party) politicians were able to make use of their extensive network, which included national politicians. It was only in the early 1980s that secular Ede achieved a long-cherished goal with the opening of a public-authority neutral secondary school. The presence of a broad range of Protestant-Christian educational facilities is one of the explanations why Ede’s expansion did not lead to a drop, in percentage terms, of the Orthodox-Christian share of the vote. These parties were, however, practically always kept outside the coalition. Nevertheless, they managed to profit from the educational policies implemented by the coalition parties CHU (Christian Historical Union) and ARP (Anti-Revolutionary Party), and later by the CDA (Christian Democratic Appeal). These parties were not, however, rewarded for this policy as they were confronted with continuous and steady losses at the polls. Illustrative of this development was also the establishment in the 1970s of a number of Protestant Reformed primary schools and the establishment of a Protestant-Christian School Advisory Service in 1984. The long-term opposition to a more secular organization of society was also expressed in the opposition until the start of the 1970s to abolishing the dismissal of married teachers.

Ede’s growth did not only bring an influx of new residents from the rest of the Netherlands to the Veluwe. The shortage of unskilled workers, which continued to increase during the 1960s in the Netherlands, also resulted in the arrival of guest workers in Ede. Chapter six discusses the attitude of the political establishment towards this population group, whose stay was initially expected to be only temporary. It quickly became apparent that their unfamiliarity with our country, language, customs and laws in combination with their low wages and, for the most part, low level of education gave rise to a need for social assistance and specific facilities. The municipal executive did not, however, make use of the possibility to participate in the Migrant Workers’ Assistance Foundation that was established in Gelderland in the 1960s and in which the municipal executives of Apeldoorn and Arnhem participated. The Ede municipal executive maintained the view, as did other places in the Netherlands, that the

reception of this population group and the facilitating or provision of specific facilities was not the task of government —and most certainly not in the area of religion. In relation to this last point, the constitutional separation of church and state was invariably used as argumentation. Although, in practice in the Netherlands, and this includes Ede, up to that point had not been so strictly adhered to as was preached in Ede. It was only at the end of the 1970s that the first careful steps were taken to arrange for the required facilities. The municipal executive disregarded an official report in 1977 by Ede’s own Sociographical Department, in which migrant workers were considered one of the minority groups in the Netherlands and in which specific mention was made of the role of government in the origination of the problems confronting this population group. The decision of the national government in 1984 to transfer policy on minorities to local government forced the municipal executive to set down its own policy. When social unrest occurred surrounding the desire of and initiatives by the Moroccan and Turkish communities for their own place of prayer, the municipal executive slowly changed its attitude from a wait-and-see approach into an active approach in which a reasonably acceptable solution was sought in consultation with all the parties involved. The strong position of the SGP (Reformed Political Party) in local politics could present an explanation for the fact that in this period the extreme right in Ede, in contrast to national level, never achieved the electoral threshold.

Growth also places demands on leisure facilities. In the previous topics, especially in relation to the educational facilities and the facilities for migrant workers, there was an ongoing discussion in the background about how big the role of government should be in society. In confessional circles, but also within the VVD (People’s Party for Freedom and Democracy), an ideological preference prevailed for small government, meaning, where possible, the initiative should be left to the community or the individual respectively. Government spending on leisure activities was particularly sensitive in the Protestant-Christian parties. The SGP (Reformed Political Party), on principal, held the opinion that the government should not spend public money on these types of activities. The development of sport fields/sport halls and the accommodation of sports clubs could, however, count on the support of the majority of the council and certainly also of the municipal executive. In the 1950s and 1960s the aldermen of the PvdA (Labour Party), VVD (People’s Party for Freedom and Democracy) and ARP (Anti-Revolutionary Party) were great sport enthusiasts. Subsidies for cultural activities were more sensitive as theatre and opera had been a taboo for a long time within segments of the Protestant- Christian parties and, particularly, within the SGP (Reformed Political Party). If it was, nevertheless, decided to provide funding to support organizations or initiatives, then it was chosen for a strong involvement by the municipality, for example through ownership and tenures. This was an attempt by the municipal executive to exercise more control over the operations and the use of subsidies. At the same time, the municipal executive had a preference for the commercial use of, for example, a swimming pool or a theatre because this presented the possibility of keeping the public funding to a minimum. Particularly this involvement in a commercial organization gave rise, once again, to criticism within the council and within the community because commercialism with the help of public money was considered inappropriate for government and unfair competition. Ultimately, in the middle of the 1980s, the municipal executive distanced itself from the commercial operations by awarding a fixed subsidy amount based on agreements relating to the services provided to the community.

Reflecting on the fifty year period researched, two cut-off points can be established in the modernization process in Ede. The first period runs from 1945 to 1966 and is characterized by growth and tradition. The prevailing philosophy was that despite the choice for growth the Protestant-Christian character of the municipality should and could be maintained. This is illustrated in the development of a broad and above municipal level provision of private-authority Protestant-Christian educational facilities, in the commitment to non-interference in the agricultural sector including keeping the peasants, and in the conservative policy on developing cultural activities for the leisure sector.

However, the growth did strengthened aspects such as secularization, professionalization, geographical and social mobility, individualization and democratization: the modernization process continually resulted in changes in society and in the population composition and was not solely restricted to what was desirable or planned.

The second period runs to 1978 and can be characterized with the terms: change and debate.

The municipal policy was examined more critically. For example, the city-forming plans were considered undesirable both by the original population and the newcomers. Maintaining the smallness and a more rural character proved to be attractive aspects for Ede. At the same time, the demand for a more pluralistic and broader provision of social and cultural activities increased. In this second period, the non-interference policy in relation to agricultural developments except in the case that agricultural lands were required for housing and business premises, encountered opposition when the negative effects of the continuous expansion in the intensive animal husbandry for the ecology and

environment became more apparent. In addition, the arrival of migrant workers and with them Islam

into this predominantly Protestant-Christian community became more problematic during this period. As a consequence of unemployment and family reunification, more pressure was put on the municipal authorities for assistance and the need for a place of prayer for the Muslim community strengthened.

The societal and economic changes led to a more pluralistic political landscape. The six parties were confronted with increasing competition from new political parties, including the Boerenpartij (Farmers’ Party) which was the first to profit from the discontent. Only the SGP

(Reformed Political Party) managed to hold onto its share of the vote. The third period is characterized by the development of a new political situation and the search for a new political balance. The municipal executive was forced by the national government to curb the intensive animal husbandry.

The ARP (Anti-Revolutionary Party) had to part with the education portfolio and, finally, Ede got a public-authority neutral secondary school, the Pallas Athene. It was a long journey, but the Muslim community also received its own place of prayer. At a time when societal opposition to the building of a mosque appeared to favour the national extreme-right political parties and movements, the municipal executive opted to work with the Muslim groups to find a solution acceptable to all parties. The municipality distanced itself from the business operations in how it financed organizations such as swimming pools, the theatre and events such as the Week of the Heather.

What are the answers to my questions I posed in the beginning: is modernization at the local level more of less an exogenous process, can it be planned, or have local politicians enough opportunities to make a difference? When compared to the national developments it holds true for Ede that the 1950s was certainly a dynamic period, but it is also true to say that a Protestant-Christian community such as Ede required more time to shape its growth ambition so that old and new, conservative and progressive, and religious and secular could achieve a new balance and compromise. The changes were neither imposed from outside nor according to plan. The paradoxical outcome of the modernization process is that it has led to the further convergence of the local with the national developments, but it has at the same time ensured the survival of local characteristics.

Partially, these are characteristics that have consciously been or were able to be preserved by politicians, such as the predominantly Protestant-Christian education facilities and a conservative policy towards the socio-cultural domain. This policy has not, per definition, turned out favourably for the supporting political parties. It was the SGP (Reformed Political Party) and not the governing parties CHU (Christian Historical Union) and ARP (Anti-Revolutionary Party) (and later the CDA (Christian Democratic Appeal) that managed to hold onto its voters, even though the Protestant-Christian character of the municipality was the reason why a segment of the newcomers chose for Ede. Their votes did not strengthen the confessional parties at the centre of the political spectrum; it was precisely the orthodox element that benefitted, which was illustrated by the arrival of the RPF (Reformed Political Federation/GPV (Reformed Political Union). Other characteristic elements are independent of the local political policy and have ensured that Ede has become and remains a desirable place of residence and business. Its central location on the Veluwe, the good infrastructure, and the size of the municipality stimulated and made growth possible. Ede was a municipality with adequate facilities and the amenities it lacked could be found in the nearby Randstad and Arnhem.

The Veluwe National Park also forms a large, green and tranquil back garden.

Modernization was not imposed upon Ede, contrary to what Van Deursen notes in the case of Katwijk. Even so no controlled modernization for Ede, as Van Vegchel describes for Emmen. Like Zwemer states for Zeeland, local politics in Ede has been able to make a difference within the national developments and governmental guidelines. The national government only intervened and imposed their policy at the moment local political choices led to negative effects beyond the municipal boundaries. In accordance with the findings of Schuyt and Taverne the development in Ede was not the result of a ‘grand design’, not even of local politicians. Ede shows quite nice the paradox of modernization. Despite the creation of uniformity in the ongoing process of national integration and globalization, the paradox is that contradictory movements are possible that contribute to ensuring that the unique character of the area can be preserved, even if this characterization is also subject to change.

Bioeconomy – an emerging meta-discourse affecting forest discourses?
Pülzl, H. ; Kleinschmit, D. ; Arts, B.J.M. - \ 2014
Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research 29 (2014)4. - ISSN 0282-7581 - p. 386 - 393.
sustainable development - governance - modernization - neoliberalism - opportunities - perspective - movement - policy - trees
The term bioeconomy and closely related notions like bio-based economy or knowledge-based bioeconomy (KBBE) are increasingly used by scientists and politicians in the last years. It does therefore have the potential of becoming an influential global discourse. Its role is however so far unclear. The general assumption that guides this paper is that discourses, resulting ideas and arguments are generally said to have performative power. They shape actors' views, influence their behaviour, impact on their beliefs and interests and can cause institutional change in a given society. Thus, the aim of this paper is twofold: first, it aims to analyse whether the ideas used in a bioeconomy discourse differs from those in other global meta-discourses of the last decades affecting forest discourses, such as the ecological modernization discourse or the sustainable development discourse. Second, this paper aims to analyse whether and how the bioeconomy discourse has started (or not) to reshape or overshadow the “classical” forest discourses, such as sustainable forest management, forest biodiversity or forest and climate change.
Social capital in water user organizations of the Ecuadorian Highlands
Hoogesteger van Dijk, J.D. - \ 2013
Human Organization 72 (2013)4. - ISSN 0018-7259 - p. 347 - 357.
irrigation systems - collective action - governance - management - mexico - rights - india - modernization - cooperation - chimborazo
In this article, I explore how new water user organizations have developed in formerly state managed irrigation systems in the Ecuadorian highlands since the 1990s. The article is based on an in-depth case study of the Pillaro irrigation system and illustrations of other cases. These water user organizations have become responsible for irrigation system management and maintenance, which has been carried out based on the mobilization of collective action. I argue that the support of external agents was important in their formation by facilitating internal looking social capital through the development of a shared normative framework and by fostering outward-looking social capital through the creation of networks and networking skills for the defense of collective rights and interests.
Shaping multiple Ajijics and development : a Mexican town in the context of the international retirement migration
Diaz Copado, F.V. - \ 2013
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Leontine Visser, co-promotor(en): Alberto Arce. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461736772 - 221
migratie - gepensioneerden - buitenland - regionale ontwikkeling - sociale verandering - stedelijke samenleving - modernisering - steden - woonwijken - infrastructuur - economische ontwikkeling - plaatselijk bestuur - ontwikkeling - mexico - migration - retired people - foreign countries - regional development - social change - urban society - modernization - towns - residential areas - infrastructure - economic development - local government - development - mexico
Ajijic is a Mexican town that during the 1990s experienced its biggest social, economic, and physical transformation of the last 50 years. This transformation was mainly triggered by two factors: 1) a significant increase in the number of foreign retirees moving into Ajijic (effect of a global phenomenon identified as international retirement migration); and 2) the consequent increase in the construction of residential developments and infrastructure (mainly retiree-oriented). In this thesis the author argues that the international retirement migration phenomenon in Ajijic provoked the emergence of different projects of shaping the physical characteristics of this town. Through these projects, social actors shape Ajijic according to their different interpretations of what the town of Ajijic is, and what local development and modernisation mean to them. The transformation of the physical characteristics of Ajijic, through these projects, has also transformed the social life of this town.
Egalitarian norms, economic development, and ethnic polarization
Haagsma, R. ; Mouche, P.H.M. van - \ 2013
Journal of Comparative Economics 41 (2013)3. - ISSN 0147-5967 - p. 719 - 744.
cognitive-dissonance - civil-wars - conflict - identity - africa - societies - modernization - competition - inequality - diversity
Economic development generally implies that traditional egalitarian norms and beliefs are replaced by modern individualistic values. Particularly when opportunities for advancement are unequally presented to people, this transformation may be accompanied by polarization and violent conflict. We illustrate this point by describing the processes of land privatization in Sub-Saharan Africa and then present two models that capture some salient aspects of this transformation in rural communities, including the possibility of polarization. We find that the support of egalitarian norms is notably strong when new opportunities are available for only a few people or when the community is socially unstable. Moreover, in unstable communities, polarization is strongest when the group with the most lucrative opportunities comprises half the population.
Mallas y flujos : acción colectiva, cambio social, quinua y desarrollo regional indígena en los Andes Bolivianos
Laguna, P. - \ 2011
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Leontine Visser, co-promotor(en): Alberto Arce. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085859604 - 522
chenopodium quinoa - inheemse volkeren - producentengroepen - antropologie - sociale verandering - modernisering - economische ontwikkeling - sociale ontwikkeling - coöperatieve verenigingen - bolivia - andes - ontwikkeling - zuid-amerika - chenopodium quinoa - indigenous people - producer groups - anthropology - social change - modernization - economic development - social development - cooperative societies - bolivia - andes - development - south america

This thesis studies collective action and social change in indigenous rural organisations (IRO) in the Bolivian Andes. I focus on the effects and importance that these organisations have in the historical process of regional development as social spaces that encapsulate different projects of social, political and economic modernity. I reconstruct the practices and situations that turn rural indigenous organisations into significant spaces in which individuals and groups of people put into practice their life projects and their aspirations of modernity. The main question of this thesis is: what are indigenous rural organisations in the Bolivian Andes and what are their contributions to regional development?

To answer this question, I argue that we need to leave aside social constructivism and rational action present in current studies of indigenous rural organisations in the Andes that use the concept social capital. These organisations are not essences, totalities, nor are they are stable. Also, they are a more complex process than mere rational and technocratic action. IRO are contextual and situational spaces of social life that contain significant elements or objects, which are material and immaterial. These spaces are heterogeneities of humans and objects united by shared significant objects that are emergent, original and intensive. In this sense this organisations represent meshworks that interweave the changeable relationships between entities (humans and objects) and practices, and encompass the possibility of social change. These meshworks have different dimensions (economical, social, cultural, political). In each one of those, the flow of practices, interactions and experiences of individuals and groups of individuals simultaneously unify and break meaning, identity, affect, materiality and also regulation.

I study three kindsof indigenous rural organisations fromthe Perisalar (the Bolivian Southern highlands): communities which are based on kinship relationships, ayllus which are ethnic groups and quinoa producer organisations. Communities are social spaces that contain significant elements of modernity, such as the desire for access to State education and to enjoy citizens’ rights, the wish for agricultural machinery and to produce for the global market, the diversity of livelihoods and the affirmation of racial and class identity. Ayllus are made by community assemblages and many comunarios belong to quinoa Producer Organisations. In this sense ayllus and producer organisations are important social spaces as they contain significant elements present in the communities. I present the social life of IRO starting from the intersection of local development practices and experiences with other social spaces: the market, migratory destinations, education, social movements and institutional intervention. In order to better understand the effects of social change and IRO, I chose a long-term historical vision, considering the emerging effects of the intersection of local and external practices and experiences, before and during the quinoa commoditisation process.

The study concludes that IRO in the Bolivian Andes, are meshworks made by vibrant humans and objects with social vitality and intensity. They have the capacity to actualise significant elements of an economic, social, cultural and political character, in interaction with the Nation-State and the global market. These organisations increase through global market the vibrant character of significant elements such as quinoa, and by their recognition by the State they provide semi-autonomy to their members, and a space to make recognised their citizenship and their trade union, racial and class identities, and to locally redesign the State. Memory, identity and affect reveal the potential of IRO in repositioning past reminiscences and ancestral properties, and at the same time claim for a future that does not contain the same substance of that which is “the Andean”, “the Aymara” or “the Quechua”, rather incorporates new elements that lead to multiple “(neo)Andeans”, “(neo)Aymaras” and “(neo)Quechuas” forms, present in each and every one of the partial connections.

These organisations contain a variety of symbols, discourses and practices that correspond to heterogeneous knowledge and forms of socialisation and thinking of modernity that sometimes result in tension, fissure and conflict without however being fragmented. That is why structuralism, institutionalism and rationalism partially explain the agency in ambiguous and eclectic social spacessuch areIRO, whose limitsare constantly redefined by the flow of experience of its members. Development through these organisations is a social process, experiential and unpredictable, reflexive and corporeal, cognitive and performative, that contains both cohesion and tear. For understanding IRO contribution to rural development we must describe the relational and the imaginative in the wishes and processes of social change and regional developmentand grasp the relevance of its individual members’ experiences and practices in the creation of social ties. Methodologically this leads us to dissolve analytical categories and to follow and observe individuals past and present practices and their intersections with other individuals, groups, structures and significant objects. Our study underlines the significance of human-object relation as a starting point for generating new analytical frameworks in indigenous Andean organizations.

Verkenning high tech diermanagement in de varkens en pluimveehouderij
Lokhorst, C. ; Fels, J.B. van der; Riel, J.W. van; Hogewerf, P.H. ; Holster, H.C. ; Lourens, A. - \ 2011
Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 508)
varkenshouderij - pluimveehouderij - dierenwelzijn - diergezondheid - agrarische productiesystemen - technische vooruitgang - modernisering - technologie - landbouwtechniek - varkens - pluimvee - dierlijke productie - pig farming - poultry farming - animal welfare - animal health - agricultural production systems - technical progress - modernization - technology - agricultural engineering - pigs - poultry - animal production
This report describes the results of interviews in the Dutch pig and poultry sector. The potential role of Precision Livestock Farming and realtime animal observations to support daily management were discussed.
Trust relationships between fishers and government: New challenges for the co-management arrangements in the Dutch flatfish industry
Vos, B.I. de; Tatenhove, J.P.M. van - \ 2011
Marine Policy 35 (2011)2. - ISSN 0308-597X - p. 218 - 225.
environment - organizations - modernization - participation - management - top
Until the 1990s fisheries were largely managed by the state. Since then, Dutch government and the sector increasingly recognized that a fishing industry cannot be managed effectively without the cooperation and participation of fishers to formulate policy and to implement and enforce laws and regulations. As a result, in the nineties, the existing neo-corporatist arrangement was replaced by a co-management system in the Dutch flatfish fishery. Co-management is often seen as leading to greater procedural legitimacy and subsequently compliance. However, constructing an effective co-management arrangement is not only a matter of building institutions but also a matter of building trust relations between the government and industry. Institutional arrangements such as co-management can contribute to these trust building processes; however, a too strong reliance on institutional arrangements can lead to distrust when new challenges are being faced and institutional arrangements fail to adapt to these changes.
Genetic erosion in crops: concept, research results and challenges
Wouw, M.J. van de; Kik, C. ; Hintum, T.J.L. van; Treuren, R. van; Visser, L. - \ 2010
Plant genetic resources: characterization and utilization 8 (2010)1. - ISSN 1479-2621 - p. 1 - 15.
genetische diversiteit - plantenveredeling - veredelde rassen - landrassen - genetische erosie - modernisering - genetic diversity - plant breeding - improved varieties - landraces - genetic erosion - modernization - spring bread wheat - oryza-sativa l. - allelic diversity changes - farmers seed selection - triticum-aestivum l. - microsatellite markers - molecular diversity - green-revolution - temporal trends - durum desf.
The loss of variation in crops clue to the modernization of agriculture has been described as genetic erosion The current paper discusses the different views that exist on the concept of genetic erosion in crops Genetic erosion of cultivated diversity is reflected in a modernization bottleneck in the diversity levels that occurred during the history of the crop Two stages in this bottleneck are recognized the initial replacement of landraces by modern cultivars, and further trends in diversity as a consequence of modern breeding practices Genetic erosion may occur at three levels of integration crop, variety and allele The different approaches in the recent literature to measure genetic erosion in crops are reviewed. Genetic erosion as reflected in a reduction of allelic evenness and richness appears to be the most useful definition, but has to be viewed in conjunction with events at variety level According to the reviewed literature, the most likely scenario of diversity trends during modernization is the following a reduction in diversity clue to the replacement of landraces by modern cultivars, but no further reduction after this replacement has been completed
Met burgers de boer op : Input voor een maatschappelijk debat over een gewaardeerde en duurzame veehouderij
Boogaard, B.K. - \ 2010
Wageningen : Wageningen University - 32
melkveehouderij - duurzame veehouderij - dierlijke productie - samenleving - tradities - modernisering - attitudes - maatschappelijk draagvlak - nederland - noorwegen - dairy farming - sustainable animal husbandry - animal production - society - traditions - modernization - public support - netherlands - norway
Dit boekje behandelt de opmerkelijkste resultaten van het kwalitatieve deel van het promotieonderzoek over de beelden, wensen en zorgen van burgers over de melkveehouderij. Deze uitgave is gebaseerd op promotieonderzoek van Birgit K. Boogaard, getiteld "Sociaal-culturele duurzaamheid van de veehouderij", uitgevoerd bij de leerstoelgroepen Dierlijke Productiesystemen en Rurale Sociologie van Wageningen University.
A demonstration greenhouse for Malaysian Horticulture : trip report October 2010
Elings, A. ; Stijger, I. - \ 2010
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Greenhouse Horticulture - 10
glastuinbouw - tuinbouw - modernisering - productiekosten - gewasopbrengst - maleisië - greenhouse horticulture - horticulture - modernization - production costs - crop yield - malaysia
This report results from the project “Tropical Horticulture in Malaysia”. Modernization of the greenhouse horticulture sector in Malaysiar is required in order to realize better quality of the product, higher yields and less production costs.
Impacts, adaptation and vulnerability to global environmental change: challenges and pathways for an action-oriented research agenda for middle-income and low-income countries
Lahsen, M. ; Sanchez-Rodriguez, R. ; Lankao, P.R. ; Dube, P. ; Leemans, R. ; Gaffney, O. ; Mirza, M. ; Pinho, P. ; Osman-Elasha, B. ; Smith, M.S. - \ 2010
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 2 (2010). - ISSN 1877-3435 - p. 364 - 374.
climate-change - latin-america - poverty alleviation - reducing poverty - civil-society - globalization - policy - management - modernization - experiences
The socio-economic impacts of environmental stresses associated with global environmental change depend to a large extent on how societies organize themselves. Research on climate-related societal impacts, vulnerability and adaptation is currently underdeveloped, prompting international global environmental change research institutions to hold a series of meetings in 2009–2010. One of these aimed at identifying needs in middle-income and low-income countries (MLICs), and found that effective responses to the challenge of reducing vulnerability and enhancing adaptation will drive research and policy into challenging and innovative areas of research. Producing impacts, vulnerability and adaptation knowledge requires greater inclusion of MLIC researchers and a rethinking of the research structures, institutions and paradigms that have dominated global change research to date. Scientific literature discussed in this article suggests that governance issues need to become central objects of empirically based, detailed, multiscalar and action-oriented research, and that this needs to address the politically sensitive and seemingly intractable issue of reducing global inequities in power and resource distribution. The scientific literature suggests that without effective action in those directions, current trends toward greater inequality will continue to both reflect and intensify global environmental threats and their impacts
Peasants, potatoes and pesticides : heterogentiy in the context of agricultural modernization in the Highland Andes of Ecuador
Paredes Chauca, M.C. - \ 2010
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Jandouwe van der Ploeg, co-promotor(en): Paul Hebinck; D. Cole. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789085858102 - 344
ontwikkeling - sociologie - akkerbouw - bedrijfssystemen - modernisering - aardappelen - stijlen (plant) - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - pesticiden - ecuador - zuid-amerika - plattelandsontwikkeling - andes - development - sociology - arable farming - farming systems - modernization - potatoes - styles - farm management - pesticides - ecuador - south america - rural development - andes
Based on community-level research carried out between 2002 and 2009, this dissertation examines agricultural modernization in Ecuador as a combination of agrarian reform accompanied by fundamental policy shift towards intensification through large-scale promotion of agro-industrial technologies tied with commercial production and market integration. In particular, the study explores how different actors struggle to modify, counteract and maintain modernization policies in order to advance local interests, thereby leading to distinct modes of production or “farming styles”. Concentrating on pesticide use and risks associated with peasant farming patterns, the dissertation employs qualitative and quantitative methods in describing and explaining heterogeneity, leading to the identification of four prominent styles: Tradicionales, Seguros, Arriesgados and Experimentadores. In terms of productivity, human health and the environment, the production patterns of the Tradicionales and Seguros out perform production modes based largely on externally based knowledge and technology, thereby representing a promising positive-sum scenario for policy reform.
Sporen van moderniteit : de sociaal-economische analyse van de regio Liemers (1815-1940)
Smit, J.B. - \ 2010
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Pim Kooij. - Hilversum : Verloren - ISBN 9789087041618 - 541
economische ontwikkeling - modernisering - geografie - regionale ontwikkeling - sociale ontwikkeling - inkomensverdeling - beroepen - nederland - agrarische geschiedenis - liemers - gelderland - economic development - modernization - geography - regional development - social development - income distribution - occupations - netherlands - agricultural history - liemers - gelderland
Dit boek geeft de weerslag van een onderzoek naar de economische ontwikkeling van de Liemers. Het onderzoek start aan het begin van de negentiende eeuw toen een deel van de Liemers van Pruisisch tot Nederlands gebied werd. In feite speelde er zich dus een tweedimensionaal integratieproces af, een proces van regiovorming, terwijl die regio op haar beurt zich moest voegen in de eenwording van Nederland. Als eindpunt van deze studie is 1940 genomen, omdat in de oorlog maar ook de periode erna een sterkere economische sturing van overheidswege optrad, die er in de wederopbouwperiode ook op gericht was de achterstanden van regio’s weg te werken.
Down to earth : a historical-sociological analysis of the rise and fall of 'industrial' agriculture and of the prospects for the re-rooting of agriculture from the factory to the local farmer and ecology
Visser, J. - \ 2010
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Jandouwe van der Ploeg; B. Goudzwaard. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085856498 - 597
rurale sociologie - landbouwbeleid - industrialisatie - landbouw - plattelandssamenleving - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - voedselproductie - landbouwontwikkeling - modernisering - agrarische geschiedenis - beleidsevaluatie - duurzame landbouw - rural sociology - agricultural policy - industrialization - agriculture - rural society - sustainability - food production - agricultural development - modernization - agricultural history - policy evaluation - sustainable agriculture
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