Records 1 - 20 / 1810
Konijnen in de duinen van Meijendel : vier verschillende telmethoden om de konijnendichtheid te schatten
Bankert, D. ; Groen, K.C.G. in 't - \ 2020
Holland's Duinen (2020)42. - ISSN 1389-7373 - p. 5 - 11.
rabbits - monitoring - zoogeography - duneland - zuid-holland
De transectmethode is een methode die gebruikt wordt om konijnenpopulaties te monitoren. De methode wordt uitgevoerd door beheerders van alle duingebieden aan de Nederlandse vastelandskust. Onderstaand onderzoek is uitgevoerd om meer duidelijkheid te krijgen over de betekenis van de aantallen konijnen die geteld worden met deze methode. In hoeverre komen de getelde aantallen overeen met de aantallen konijnen aanwezig in delen waar niet geteld wordt?
How to measure, report and verify soil carbon change to realize the potential of soil carbon sequestration for atmospheric greenhouse gas removal
Smith, Pete ; Soussana, Jean Francois ; Angers, Denis ; Schipper, Louis ; Chenu, Claire ; Rasse, Daniel P. ; Batjes, Niels H. ; Egmond, Fenny van; McNeill, Stephen ; Kuhnert, Matthias ; Arias-Navarro, Cristina ; Olesen, Jorgen E. ; Chirinda, Ngonidzashe ; Fornara, Dario ; Wollenberg, Eva ; Álvaro-Fuentes, Jorge ; Sanz-Cobena, Alberto ; Klumpp, Katja - \ 2020
Global Change Biology 26 (2020)1. - ISSN 1354-1013 - p. 219 - 241.
measurement - monitoring - MRV - reporting - soil organic carbon - soil organic matter - verification
There is growing international interest in better managing soils to increase soil organic carbon (SOC) content to contribute to climate change mitigation, to enhance resilience to climate change and to underpin food security, through initiatives such as international ‘4p1000’ initiative and the FAO's Global assessment of SOC sequestration potential (GSOCseq) programme. Since SOC content of soils cannot be easily measured, a key barrier to implementing programmes to increase SOC at large scale, is the need for credible and reliable measurement/monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) platforms, both for national reporting and for emissions trading. Without such platforms, investments could be considered risky. In this paper, we review methods and challenges of measuring SOC change directly in soils, before examining some recent novel developments that show promise for quantifying SOC. We describe how repeat soil surveys are used to estimate changes in SOC over time, and how long-term experiments and space-for-time substitution sites can serve as sources of knowledge and can be used to test models, and as potential benchmark sites in global frameworks to estimate SOC change. We briefly consider models that can be used to simulate and project change in SOC and examine the MRV platforms for SOC change already in use in various countries/regions. In the final section, we bring together the various components described in this review, to describe a new vision for a global framework for MRV of SOC change, to support national and international initiatives seeking to effect change in the way we manage our soils.
Monitoring antimicrobial resistance trends in commensal Escherichia coli from livestock, the Netherlands, 1998 to 2016
Hesp, Ayla ; Veldman, Kees ; Goot, Jeanet van der; Mevius, Dik ; Schaik, G. van - \ 2019
Eurosurveillance 24 (2019)25. - ISSN 1025-496X
AMR - antimicrobial resistance - Escherichia coli - monitoring - quantitative - surveillance - trend analysis
BackgroundMonitoring of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in animals is essential for public health surveillance. To enhance interpretation of monitoring data, evaluation and optimisation of AMR trend analysis is needed.AimsTo quantify and evaluate trends in AMR in commensal Escherichia coli, using data from the Dutch national AMR monitoring programme in livestock (1998-2016).MethodsFaecal samples were collected at slaughter from broilers, pigs and veal calves. Minimum inhibitory concentration values were obtained by broth microdilution for E. coli for 15 antimicrobials of eight antimicrobial classes. A Poisson regression model was applied to resistant isolate counts, with explanatory variables representing time before and after 2009 (reference year); for veal calves, sampling changed from 2012 represented by an extra explanatory variable.ResultsResistant counts increased significantly from 1998-2009 in broilers and pigs, except for tetracyclines and sulfamethoxazole in broilers and chloramphenicol and aminoglycosides in pigs. Since 2009, resistant counts decreased for all antimicrobials in broilers and for all but the phenicols in pigs. In veal calves, for most antimicrobials no significant decrease in resistant counts could be determined for 2009-16, except for sulfamethoxazole and nalidixic acid. Within animal species, antimicrobial-specific trends were similar.ConclusionsUsing Dutch monitoring data from 1998-2016, this study quantified AMR trends in broilers and slaughter pigs and showed significant trend changes in the reference year 2009. We showed that monitoring in commensal E. coli is useful to quantify trends and detect trend changes in AMR. This model is applicable to similar data from other European countries.
Loss rates of honey bee colonies during winter 2017/18 in 36 countries participating in the COLOSS survey, including effects of forage sources
Gray, Alison ; Brodschneider, Robert ; Adjlane, Noureddine ; Ballis, Alexis ; Brusbardis, Valters ; Charrière, Jean Daniel ; Chlebo, Robert ; F. Coffey, Mary ; Cornelissen, Bram ; Amaro da Costa, Cristina ; Csáki, Tamás ; Dahle, Bjørn ; Danihlík, Jiří ; Dražić, Marica Maja ; Evans, Garth ; Fedoriak, Mariia ; Forsythe, Ivan ; Graaf, Dirk de; Gregorc, Aleš ; Johannesen, Jes ; Kauko, Lassi ; Kristiansen, Preben ; Martikkala, Maritta ; Martín-Hernández, Raquel ; Medina-Flores, Carlos Aurelio ; Mutinelli, Franco ; Patalano, Solenn ; Petrov, Plamen ; Raudmets, Aivar ; Ryzhikov, Vladimir A. ; Simon-Delso, Noa ; Stevanovic, Jevrosima ; Topolska, Grazyna ; Uzunov, Aleksandar ; Vejsnaes, Flemming ; Williams, Anthony ; Zammit-Mangion, Marion ; Soroker, Victoria - \ 2019
Journal of Apicultural Research 58 (2019)4. - ISSN 0021-8839 - p. 479 - 485.
Apis mellifera - beekeeping - citizen science - colony winter losses - forage sources - monitoring - mortality - survey
This short article presents loss rates of honey bee colonies over winter 2017/18 from 36 countries, including 33 in Europe, from data collected using the standardized COLOSS questionnaire. The 25,363 beekeepers supplying data passing consistency checks in total wintered 544,879 colonies, and reported 26,379 (4.8%, 95% CI 4.7–5.0%) colonies with unsolvable queen problems, 54,525 (10.0%, 95% CI 9.8–10.2%) dead colonies after winter and another 8,220 colonies (1.5%, 95% CI 1.4–1.6%) lost through natural disaster. This gave an overall loss rate of 16.4% (95% CI 16.1–16.6%) of honey bee colonies during winter 2017/18, but this varied greatly from 2.0 to 32.8% between countries. The included map shows relative risks of winter loss at regional level. The analysis using the total data-set confirmed findings from earlier surveys that smaller beekeeping operations with at most 50 colonies suffer significantly higher losses than larger operations (p <.001). Beekeepers migrating their colonies had significantly lower losses than those not migrating (p <.001), a different finding from previous research. Evaluation of six different forage sources as potential risk factors for colony loss indicated that intensive foraging on any of five of these plant sources (Orchards, Oilseed Rape, Maize, Heather and Autumn Forage Crops) was associated with significantly higher winter losses. This finding requires further study and explanation. A table is included giving detailed results of loss rates and the impact of the tested forage sources for each country and overall.
Quantifying calf mortality on dairy farms: Challenges and solutions
Santman-Berends, I.M.G.A. ; Schukken, Y.H. ; Schaik, G. van - \ 2019
Journal of Dairy Science 102 (2019)7. - ISSN 0022-0302 - p. 6404 - 6417.
census data - dairy calves - monitoring - mortality
In the Netherlands, the mortality rate of ear-tagged calves <1 yr is one of the indicators that is continuously monitored in census data and is defined as the number of deceased calves relative to the number of calf-days-at-risk. In 2017, yearly calf mortality rates were published in the lay press and resulted in discussions about the calculation of this parameter among stakeholders because the same parameter appeared to be calculated in many different ways by different organizations. These diverse definitions of calf mortality answered different aims such as early detection of deviations, monitoring trends, or providing insight into herd-specific results, but were difficult to understand by stakeholders. The aim of this study was to evaluate several definitions of calf mortality for scientific validity, usefulness for policymakers, and comprehensibility by farmers. Based on expert consultations, 10 definitions for calf mortality were evaluated that assessed different age categories, time periods, and denominators. Differences in definitions appeared to have a large effect on the magnitude of mortality. For example, with the original mortality parameter, the mortality rate was 16.5% per year. When the first year of life was subdivided into 3 age categories, the mortality rate was 3.3, 4.5, and 3.1% for postnatal calves (≤14 d), preweaned calves (15–55 d), and weaned calves (56 d–1 yr), respectively. Although it was logical that these mortality rates were lower than the original, the sum of the 3 separate mortality rates was also lower than the original mortality rate. The reason was that the number of calves present in a herd and the risk of mortality are not randomly distributed over a calf's first year of life and the conditional nature of mortality rates when calculated for different age categories. Ultimately, 4 parameters to monitor calf mortality in Dutch dairy herds were chosen based on scientific value, usefulness for monitoring of trends, and comprehensibility by farmers: perinatal calf mortality risk (i.e., mortality before, during, or shortly after the moment of birth up to the moment of ear-tagging), postnatal calf mortality risk (≤14 d), preweaned calf mortality rate (15–55 d), and weaned calf mortality rate (56 d–1 yr). Slight differences in definitions of parameters can have a major effect on results, and many factors have to be taken into account when defining an important health indicator such as mortality. Our evaluation resulted in a more thorough understanding of the definitions of the selected parameters and agreement by the stakeholders to use these key indicators to monitor calf mortality.
Dutch forest reserves database and network
Bijlsma, R.J. ; Clerkx, A.P.P.M. - \ 2019
forest reserve - monitoring - database - nin-intervention dynamics - ecology
The Dutch forest reserves network encompasses about 60 forest reserves representing all major forest types in the Netherlands. The reserves were designated between 1983 and 2000. The present Access-database presents all measurements (mostly between 1982 and 2005) on trees and regeneration in circular sample plots throughout the reserves and in a one ha rectangular core area in each reserve. The data set also includes map data at the reserve level (such as reserve boundaries, samples plots and core areas) and of GIS files derived from tree measurements in the core area.
Detecting tropical wildlife declines through camera-trap monitoring : An evaluation of the Tropical Ecology Assessment and Monitoring protocol
Beaudrot, Lydia ; Ahumada, Jorge ; O'Brien, Timothy G. ; Jansen, Patrick A. - \ 2019
Oryx 53 (2019)1. - ISSN 0030-6053 - p. 126 - 129.
Camera trap - conservation - monitoring - power analysis - sampling design - Tropical Ecology Assessment and Monitoring - wildlife management
Identifying optimal sampling designs for detecting population-level declines is critical for optimizing expenditures by research and monitoring programmes. The Tropical Ecology Assessment and Monitoring (TEAM) network is the most extensive tropical camera-trap monitoring programme, but the effectiveness of its sampling protocol has not been rigorously assessed. Here, we assess the power and sensitivity of the programme's camera-trap monitoring protocol for detecting occupancy changes in unmarked populations using the freely available application PowerSensor!. We found that the protocol is well suited to detect moderate (≥ 5%) population changes within 3-4 years for relatively common species that have medium to high detection probabilities (i.e. p > 0.2). The TEAM protocol cannot, however, detect typical changes in rare and evasive species, a category into which many tropical species and many species of conservation concern fall. Additional research is needed to build occupancy models for detecting change in rare and elusive species when individuals are unmarked.
Broad-scale distribution of the winter protozooplankton community in the North Sea
Bils, Franziska ; Moyano, Marta ; Aberle, Nicole ; Damme, Cindy J.G. Van; Nash, Richard D.M. ; Kloppmann, Matthias ; Loots, Christophe ; Peck, Myron A. - \ 2019
Journal of Sea Research 144 (2019). - ISSN 1385-1101 - p. 112 - 121.
microzooplankton - time-series - monitoring - International bottom trawl survey - ecological indicators - ecosystem-based management
Protozooplankton (PZP) (here size range: 12–200 μm) are rarely sampled over a broad scale, especially in ecosystem monitoring programs, despite their trophodynamic importance as grazers in the microbial loop and as prey for larger zooplankton and early life stages of fish. In this study we sampled PZP from Dutch, French, German and Norwegian research vessels taking part in the annual ICES coordinated International Bottom Trawl Survey (IBTS) which provides data on fish stock abundances and status for the entire North Sea. The abundance, biomass, composition and distribution of PZP were examined at 39 stations across the North Sea (from 3.2°W to 7.6°E and 50.5 to 59.8°N) in mid-winter (January–February 2014), a period of the year which is under-investigated so far. Twenty four taxa of dinoflagellates and ciliates were identified. Two groups comprised 89% of the total abundance of PZP: Gymnodinium spp. and other athecate dinoflagellates (68%) and Strombidium spp. and other naked ciliates (21%). The biomass of PZP at each station ranged between 0.08 and 2.4 μg C L−1, which is much lower than that reported for spring or summer (≥100 μg C L−1) in the North Sea. Relatively small-sized (< 40 μm) PZP contributed 46% of the total biomass. No significant spatial pattern in the composition of the PZP community was found, although the total abundance of tintinnids was highest in the southern North Sea, an important over-wintering area for marine fish larvae. Using this fish survey (IBTS) as a sampling platform allowed us to obtain a synoptic view of the PZP community over a large area. The present collaborative effort provides an example of how existing monitoring platforms can be augmented in the future to collect relevant data and potential ecological indicators needed to advance the ecosystem-based approach to managing marine systems.
FEM growth and yield data monocultures - Norway spruce (revised version)
Jansen, J.J. ; Oosterbaan, A. ; Goudzwaard, L. ; Oldenburger, J.F. ; Boosten, M. ; Mohren, G.M.J. ; Ouden, J. den - \ 2018
Wageningen University & Research
growth and yield - even-aged monoculture forest - tree diameter - tree height - crown class - coordinates stem positions - age - top height - dominant height - monitoring - Norway spruce - Picea abies - dominant diameter
In this revised edition, 28 test plots were added from the former Stichting Industriehout. This database is part of the FEM growth and yield database, a collection of growth and yield data from even-aged monocultures.
FEM growth and yield data Monocultures - Black alder
Boosten, M. ; Jansen, J.J. ; Oosterbaan, A. ; Copini, P. ; Oldenburger, J.F. ; Mohren, G.M.J. ; Ouden, J. den - \ 2018
Wageningen University & Research
growth and yield - even-aged monoculture forest - tree diameter - tree height - crown class - coordinates stem positions - age - top height - dominant height - dominant diameter - monitoring - Black Alder - Alnus glutinosa
This database is part of the FEM growth and yield database, a collection of growth and yield data from even-aged monocultures. In the first edition of the database, the data of Black Elder were part of the dataset “FEM growth and yield data Monocultures – Other species”.
FEM growth and yield data Monocultures - Poplar (2nd revised version)
Mohren, G.M.J. ; Goudzwaard, L. ; Jansen, J.J. ; Schmidt, P. ; Oosterbaan, A. ; Oldenburger, J.F. ; Ouden, J. den; Copini, P. - \ 2018
Wageningen University & Research
growth and yield - even-aged monoculture forest - tree diameter - tree height - crown class - coordinates stem positions - age - mean height - spacing - without thinning - systematic thinning - monitoring - Poplar - Aspen - Populus species - Populus x canadensis - Populus x interamericana - Populus alba - Populus tremula
In this new version, the data of 227 test plots of the former Stichting Industriehout were added. Also the location information of the test plots of the Dorschkamp/IBN were added. This database is part of the FEM growth and yield database, a collection of growth and yield data from even-aged monocultures.
Roles and drivers of agribusiness shaping Climate-Smart Landscapes : A review
Salvini, Giulia ; Dentoni, Domenico ; Ligtenberg, Arend ; Herold, Martin ; Bregt, Arnold K. - \ 2018
Sustainable Development 26 (2018)6. - ISSN 0968-0802 - p. 533 - 543.
agribusiness - Climate-Smart Landscapes - landscape approach - monitoring - stakeholder involvement
The Climate-Smart Landscape (CSL) approach has recently emerged as an integrated management strategy to address the increasing pressures on agricultural production, ecosystem conservation, rural livelihoods, and climate change mitigation/adaptation. Agribusiness companies play a controversial role in achieving CSL goals. On one hand, their operations cause land and natural resource degradation. On the other hand, they have technical, managerial, and financial resources to invest in more sustainable landscapes. Despite the controversy, empirical evidence on which practices agribusiness companies plan to undertake for sustainable landscape management and their intentions to contribute achieving CSL objectives is scarce and fragmented in the academic literature. To fill in this knowledge gap, this paper describes and reviews agribusiness companies' planned practices for integrated landscape management worldwide. Additionally, this paper evaluates to what extent companies plan to engage in two crucial factors to achieving CSL: stakeholder involvement and activities' monitoring. Results show that despite many agribusiness-led initiatives have potential in contributing to more sustainable practices, major steps should still be taken to involve stakeholders and monitoring their process and outcomes to actually achieve CSL goals.
Monitoring cod catches of the Dutch demersal fleet in 2016
Hal, R. van; Machiels, M.A.M. - \ 2017
IJmuiden : Wageningen Marine Research (Wageningen Marine Research Report C056/17) - 29
monitoring - cod - beam trawling - pulse trawling - demersal fisheries - marine fisheries - fish catches - north sea - gadus morhua - monitoring - kabeljauw - boomkorvisserij - pulsvisserij - demersale visserij - zeevisserij - visvangsten - noordzee - gadus morhua
This report presents the results of the cod monitoring program 2016. The research was commissioned by the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs within the EZ-program Beleidsondersteunend Onderzoek. Cod catches of the vessels in the fleet segments BT2 (beam trawl and pulse trawl) and TR (otter trawls and seines) need to be monitored yearly, due to the Dutch implementation of the European cod recovery plan. The European cod recovery plan restricts the fishing effort of European fleets catching cod. Fishing effort, based on historical track records, is allocated to different gear groups. Fishing effort can be transferred between gear groups by use of conversion factors. In the Netherlands fishing effort is transferred yearly from the BT2 gear group to the TR group, based on a national conversion factor of 1:3 (BT:TR) kWdays instead of the European conversion factor of 1:16. This is because the cod catches in the Dutch TR fleet are not as high as the European conversion factor implies. In order to substantiate for the national conversion factor, the Dutch government is obliged to report cod catches per unit of effort (CpUE) of the vessels in these gear groups to the European Commission. An overview is provided of the fishing activity, the cod landings and the cod landings per unit of effort of the various gear categories in the BT2 and the TR fleet segments during the year 2016. First the cod Catch per Unit of Effort (CpUE) transition ratio between the BT2 on the one hand and the TR1C plus TR2 fleet segments on the other hand was calculated. And secondly the percentage of cod avoidance trips – trips during which 5% or less cod was caught – in the TR-fleet were calculated. The TR fleet has a higher cod CpUE on average than the BT fleet. When the cod targeted fisheries (TR1AB) are not taken into account, the CpUE effort transition ratio (TR1C+TR2): BT2 of 2016 lies between 4.2:1 and 5.7:1, depending on whether the ratio is calculated on the basis of minimum or maximum cod discards estimation by the Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries (STECF) respectively whereby in the minimum calculation the vessels participating in the CCTV program are excluded. Based on average discards estimations including all vessels, the ratio is 5.1:1. The percentage of cod avoidance trips, fishing trips with 5% cod or less in the total catches, in the TR1C and the TR2 fleets were 94% and 96% in 2016 respectively. These percentages are based on average STECF cod discards estimations. When minimum or maximum discards estimations are used, the calculated percentages of cod avoidance trips does not vary more than 2 or 3% from the percentage based on average estimations.
New feed ingredients : the insect opportunity
Raamsdonk, L.W.D. van; Fels-Klerx, H.J. van der; Jong, J. de - \ 2017
Food Additives & Contaminants. Pt. A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment 34 (2017)8. - ISSN 1944-0049 - p. 1384 - 1397.
energy balance - energy conversion - environment - feed safety - fraud - Insect - label control - legislation - monitoring - novel protein source - traceability - WISE
In the framework of sustainability and a circular economy, new ingredients for feed are desired and, to this end, initiatives for implementing such novel ingredients have been started. The initiatives include a range of different sources, of which insects are of particular interest. Within the European Union, generally, a new feed ingredient should comply with legal constraints in terms of ‘yes, provided that’ its safety commits to a range of legal limits for heavy metals, mycotoxins, pesticides, contaminants, pathogens etc. In the case of animal proteins, however, a second legal framework applies which is based on the principle ‘no, unless’. This legislation for eradicating transmissible spongiform encephalopathy consists of prohibitions with a set of derogations applying to specific situations. Insects are currently considered animal proteins. The use of insect proteins is a good case to illustrate this difference between a positive, although restricted, modus and a negative modus for allowing animal proteins. This overview presents aspects in the areas of legislation, feed safety, environmental issues, efficiency and detection of the identity of insects. Use of insects as an extra step in the feed production chain costs extra energy and this results in a higher footprint. A measure for energy conversion should be used to facilitate the comparison between production systems based on cold- versus warm-blooded animals. Added value can be found by applying new commodities for rearing, including but not limited to category 2 animal by-products, catering and household waste including meat, and manure. Furthermore, monitoring of a correct use of insects is one possible approach for label control, traceability and prevention of fraud. The link between legislation and enforcement is strong. A principle called WISE (Witful, Indicative, Societal demands, Enforceable) is launched for governing the relationship between the above-mentioned aspects.
Space-time monitoring of tropical forest changes using observations from multiple satellites
Hamunyela, Eliakim - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): M. Herold, co-promotor(en): J.P. Verbesselt. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436403 - 188
tropical forests - monitoring - satellites - deforestation - ecological disturbance - tropische bossen - monitoring - satellieten - ontbossing - ecologische verstoring
Forests provide essential goods and services to humanity, but human-induced forest disturbances have been on ongoing at alarming rates, undermining the capacity for forests to continue providing essential goods and services. In recent years, the understanding of the short-term and long-term impacts of deforesting and degrading forest ecosystems has improved, and global efforts to reduce forest loss are ongoing. However, in many parts of the globe, significant forest areas continue to be lost. To fully protect forest ecosystems efficiently, timely, reliable and location-specific information on new forest disturbances is needed. Frequent and large-area forest mapping and monitoring using satellite observations can provide timely and cost-effective information about new forest disturbances. However, there are still key weaknesses associated with existing forest monitoring systems. For example, the capacity for forest monitoring systems to detect new disturbances accurately and timely is often limited by persistent cloud cover and strong seasonal dynamics. Persistent cloud can be addressed by using observations from multiple satellite sensors, but satellite sensors often have inter-sensor differences which make integration of observations from multiple sensors challenging. Seasonality can be accounted for using a seasonal model, but image time series are often acquired at irregular intervals, making it difficult to properly account for seasonality. Furthermore, with existing forest monitoring systems, detecting subtle, low-magnitude disturbances remains challenging, and timely detection of forest disturbances is often accompanied by many false detections. The overall objective of this thesis is to improve forest change monitoring by addressing the key challenges which hinders accurate and timely detection of forest disturbances from satellite data. In the next paragraphs, I summarise how this thesis tackled some of the key challenges which hamper effective monitoring of forest disturbances using satellite observations.
Chapter 2 addresses the challenge of seasonality by developing a spatial normalisation approach that allows us to account for seasonality in irregular image time series when monitoring forest disturbances. In this chapter, I showed that reducing seasonality in image time series using spatial normalisation leads to timely detection of forest disturbances when compared to a seasonal model approach. With spatial normalisation, near real-time forest monitoring in dry forests, which has been challenging for many years, is now possible. Applying spatial normalisation in areas where evergreen and deciduous forests co-exist is however challenging. Therefore, further research is needed to improve the spatial normalisation approach to ensure that it is applicable to areas with a combination of different forest types. In particular, a spatial normalisation approach which is forest type-specifics is desirable. In this chapter, forest disturbances were detected by analysing single pixel-time series. Spatial information was only used to reduce seasonality.
Taking in account the fact that forest disturbances are spatio-temporal events, I investigated whether there is an added-value of combining both spatial and temporal information when monitoring forest disturbances from satellite image time series. To do this, I first developed a space-time change detection method that detects forest disturbances as extreme events in satellite data cubes (Chapter 3). I showed that, by combining spatial and temporal information, forest disturbances can still be detected reliably even with limited historical observations. Therefore, unlike approaches which detect forest disturbances by analysing single pixel- time series, the space-time approach does not require huge amount of historical images to be pre-processed when monitoring forest disturbances. I then evaluated the added-value of using space-time features when confirming forest disturbances (Chapter 4). I showed that using a set of space-time features to confirm forest disturbances enhance forest monitoring significantly by reducing false detections without compromising temporal accuracy. With space-time features, the discrimination of forest disturbances from false detections is no longer based on temporal information only, hence providing opportunity to also detect low-magnitude disturbances with high confidence. Based on the analysis for conditional variable importance, I showed that features which are computed using both spatial and temporal information were the most important predictors of forest disturbances, thus enforcing the view that forest disturbances should be treated as spatio-temporal in order to improve forest change monitoring.
In Chapter 2 – 4, forest disturbances where detected from medium resolution Landsat time series. Yet, recent studies showed that small-scale forest disturbances are often omitted when using Landsat time series. In Chapter 5, I investigated whether detection of small-scale forest disturbances can be improved by using the 10m resolution time series from recently launched Sentinel-2 sensor. I also investigated whether the spatial normalisation approach developed in Chapter 2 can be used to reduce inter-sensor differences in multi-sensor optical time series. I showed that the 10m resolution Sentinel-2 time series improves the detection of small-scale forest disturbances when compared to 30m resolution. However, the 10m resolution does not supersede the importance of frequent satellite observations when monitoring forest disturbances. I also showed that spatial normalisation approach developed in Chapter 2 can reduce inter-sensor differences in multi-sensor optical time series significantly to generate temporally consistent time series suitable for forest change detection. Spatial normalisation does not completely remove inter-sensor differences, but the differences are significantly reduced.
Monitoring of forest disturbances is increasingly done using a combination of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and optical time series. Therefore, Chapter 6 investigated whether the spatial normalisation approach developed in Chapter 2 can also reduce seasonal variations in SAR time series to facilitate the integration of SAR-optical time series for forest monitoring in dry tropical forests. This Chapter demonstrated that seasonal variations in SAR time series can also be reduced through spatial normalisation. As a result, observations from SAR and optical time series were combined to improve near real-time forest change detection in dry tropical forest. In Chapter 7, it is demonstrated that spatial normalisation has potential to also reduce inter-sensor differences in SAR-optical time series, resulting into temporally consistent SAR-optical time series.
In conclusion, this thesis developed a space-time forest monitoring framework that addresses some key challenges affecting satellite-based forest monitoring. In particular, new methods that allow for timely and accurate detection of forest disturbances using observations from multiple satellites were developed. Overall, the methods developed in this research contribute to our capacity to accurately and timely detect forest disturbances in both dry and humid forests.
FEM growth and yield data monocultures - Common beech, revised version
Goudzwaard, L. ; Jansen, J. ; Oosterbaan, A. ; Oldenburger, J.F. ; Lu, H. ; Mohren, G.M.J. - \ 2017
Wageningen University & Research
Growth and yield, even-aged monoculture forest - understorey - tree diameter - tree height - crown class - coordinates stem positions - age - top height - dominant height - dominant diameter - monitoring - Common beech - Fagus sylvatica
The current database is part of the FEM growth and yield database, a collection of growth and yield data from even-aged monocultures (douglas fir, common oak, poplar, Japanese Larch, Norway spruce, Scots pine, Corsican pine, Austrian pine, red oak and several other species with only a few plots, even-aged mixed species forest plots, uneven-aged natural forest, uneven-aged selection forest and roadside plantations of poplar. The FEM growth and yield data base is currently supervised by Jan den Ouden and Frits Mohren.
Monitoring integraal duurzame stallen : peildatum 1 januari 2017
Peet, G.F.V. van der; Meer, R.W. van der; Docters van Leeuwen, H. - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Wageningen Livestock Research rapport 1027) - 19
huisvesting, dieren - stallen - monitoring - dierlijke productie - dierenwelzijn - rundvee - melkvee - pluimvee - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - animal housing - stalls - monitoring - animal production - animal welfare - cattle - dairy cattle - poultry - sustainability
De overheid ambieert een integraal duurzame veehouderij in 2023. Daarom wordt jaarlijks een nieuw doel gesteld. Voor eind 2016 (peildatum 1 januari 2017) noemt het ministerie als ambitie dat minimaal 14% van de rundvee-, varkens- en pluimveestallen integraal duurzaam is. Deze studie laat zien dat op 1 januari 2017 in Nederland 13,6 % van alle stallen integraal duurzaam is.
Provinciale informatie uit landelijke natuurrapportages : provinciale informatie uit landelijke natuurrapportages voor de Europese Commissie (Habitatrichtlijn, Vogelrichtlijn, Standaard Data Formulieren) over de periode 2007-2012
Bink, R.J. ; Griffioen, A.J. ; Kleunen, A. van - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2818) - 65
habitatrichtlijn - vogelrichtlijn - habitats - evaluatie - monitoring - natura 2000 - habitats directive - birds directive - habitats - evaluation - monitoring - natura 2000
Groundwater Atlas for pesticides in The Netherlands : user manual
Kruijne, R. ; Linden, A.M.A. van der; Roller, J.A. te; Kraalingen, D. van - \ 2017
Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research report 2786) - 65
groundwater quality - groundwater - pesticides - monitoring - ecotoxicology - netherlands - grondwaterkwaliteit - grondwater - pesticiden - monitoring - ecotoxicologie - nederland
The Groundwater Atlas contains monitoring data on the presence of active substances and related metabolites of plant protection products.
FEM growth and yield data monoculures - Scots pine (revised edition)
Lu, Huicui ; Jansen, J.J. ; Oosterbaan, A. ; Goudzwaard, L. ; Oldenburger, J.F. ; Mohren, G.M.J. ; Ouden, J. den - \ 2017
Wageningen University & Research
growth and yield - even-aged monoculture forest - tree diameter - tree height - crown class - coordinates stem positions - age - top height - dominant height - monitoring - Scots pine - Pinus sylvestris
The current database is part of the FEM growth and yield database, a collection of growth and yield data from even-aged monocultures (douglas fir, common oak, poplar, Japanese Larch, Norway spruce, Scots pine, Corsican pine, Austrian pine, red oak and several other species, with only a few plots, even-aged mixed species forest plots, uneven-aged natural forest, uneven-aged selection forest and roadside plantattions of poplar. The FEM growth and yield data base is currently supervised by Jan den Ouden and Frits Mohren.