Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Waardenmakerij: cahier gebiedsontwikkeling
    Luin, A. van; Termeer, C.J.A.M. ; Mommaas, H. ; Breeman, G.E. ; Hinssen, J. - \ 2012
    Gouda : Innovatieprogramma NederLandBovenWater - ISBN 9789081710022 - 52
    overheidsbeleid - gebiedsontwikkeling - duurzame ontwikkeling - nederland - morele waarden - sociale waarden - government policy - area development - sustainable development - netherlands - moral values - social values
    Dit cahier gaat over het maken van waarde en waarden. Daarmee staat het met één been in de wereld van moderniteit waarin maakbaarheid steeds is verondersteld. Of dit vandaag de dag dwaze overmoed is, dan wel een nobel en realistisch streven, hangt in sterke mate af van de aard van de waarden waarover we het hebben. Ons economisch stelsel rust op de veronderstelling dat waarde te vermeerderen is door intelligente productie. Maar projecteren we het waardebegrip op ethiek en esthetiek, op het goede, het schone en het waarachtige, dan is het maken van waarden veel problematischer. In het cahier komen beide soorten van waarden aan de orde. Wij leven ook aan het begin van een tijdperk waarin het holistische begrip van het goede leven opnieuw is vormgegeven in het streven naar duurzame ontwikkeling. Dit omvat steeds zowel de ecologische en de sociale als de economische dimensie van het bestaan. Wij hadden eerder in de illusie van de specialisatie vergeten dat ieder maatschappelijk ontwerp aan die meerdimensionale toets moet voldoen. Het cahier draagt bij aan hoopvolle bewustwording. Ik prijs het graag bij u aan.
    Practice and profile. Christian formation for vocation
    Hegeman, J.J. ; Edgell, M. ; Jochemsen, H. - \ 2011
    Eugene OR, USA : Wipf and Stock Publishers - ISBN 9781610970914 - 338
    beroepsopleiding - hoger onderwijs - christendom - religie - beroepsopleiding (hoger) - moraal - morele waarden - ethiek - filosofie - vocational training - higher education - christianity - religion - professional education - moral - moral values - ethics - philosophy
    Too many students are disappointed. They want to make a difference in their chosen professions. They are inspired by successful visionaries, but they have little idea how to follow in their oversized footsteps. Their colleges and universities promise more professional development than they can possibly deliver, especially in terms of moral development for the professions. Experts coming from a range of perspectives in higher education agree that moral formation for the professions must increasingly take place in higher education. Tragically, the recent evolution of teaching has stripped educators of much of the rationale for moral formation. The recent record of moral lapses by managers testifies to this crisis of moral education. The authors call for a revival of moral formation in higher education for the professions. They supply the needed resources to redesign classic as well as cutting-edge teaching and learning toward practical moral education in the professions. This book is carefully designed to apply traditional Christian principles appropriately to evolving professional practices. The authors' strategies address the problems surrounding calling, vocation, and the growing need for virtue training in the professions. In particular, the authors provide clear direction for how to meet the need for professional profiles that meet the standards of the marketplace. Practice and Profile provides the reader with a tested and proven model of faith formation appropriate to the professions. It also goes into specific, useful detail as to how the model mobilizes learning in classroom and professional settings. It aids institutions of higher learning in their struggle with demands for new learning environments and new moral competencies. Foremost, it gives students a grasp of how to become dedicated professionals who make a difference
    Recht en politiek in een tijd van globalisering
    Pijnenburg, L.F.P. - \ 2011
    Zoetermeer : Klement - ISBN 9789086870615 - 222
    internationaal recht - recht - politiek - globalisering - filosofie - nationaal bewustzijn - naties (landen) - psychologie - cultuur - identiteit - culturele psychologie - mensenrechten - morele waarden - moraal - ethiek - europese unie - integratie - besluitvorming - wereld - international law - law - politics - globalization - philosophy - national consciousness - nations - psychology - culture - identity - cultural psychology - human rights - moral values - moral - ethics - european union - integration - decision making - world
    Wat betekenen de sterk toegenomen migratie in de wereld en de gestage totstandkoming van een wereldmaatschappij voor de manier waarop we onszelf en de ander zien? Wat zijn de gevolgen van deze globalisering voor ons begrip van politiek en voor de vorming van nationale en culturele identiteiten? Op welke manier kunnen we onze idealen van vrede, vrijheid en rechtvaardigheid op een duurzame manier realiseren in een wereld waarin we steeds meer afhankelijk van elkaar worden? In de hier bijeengebrachte rechts- en politiek-filosofische opstellen verkent Habermas de mogelijkheden van de democratie voorbij de grenzen van de natiestaat, de politieke en morele uitdagingen waarvoor de Europese Unie zich gesteld ziet en de status van de mondiale mensenrechten. Hij ontwikkelt een gedetailleerd, veeldimensionaal model van transnationaal en supranationaal bestuur op basis van het kantiaanse kosmopolitisme en plaatst dit in de context van de negentiende- en twintigste-eeuwse ontwikkelingen op het gebied van het internationaal recht. Wat Europa betreft, bepleit Habermas een politiek van geleidelijke integratie waarbij de belangrijke beslissingen over de toekomst van Europa worden gelegd in de handen van de volken die er deel van uitmaken. Alleen door zich meer en meer te verenigen zal Europa, in nauwe samenwerking met de Verenigde Staten, mede gestalte kunnen geven aan een stabielere en evenwichtiger wereldorde.
    Doing business with animals : moral entrepreneurship and ethical room for manoeuvre in livestock related sector
    Pompe, V.M.M. - \ 2011
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Michiel Korthals, co-promotor(en): Hans Hopster. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085859949 - 170
    veehouderij - ondernemerschap - innovaties - moraal - morele waarden - ethiek - dierethiek - dierenwelzijn - maatschappelijk verantwoord ondernemen - filosofie - livestock farming - entrepreneurship - innovations - moral - moral values - ethics - animal ethics - animal welfare - corporate social responsibility - philosophy
    The overall objective of this dissertation is to study moral entrepreneurship within animal and business ethics in relation to moral change. In particular the current capability in bringing about moral change and its potential to do so.
    Kloof agrarische sector en groot publiek: feit of fictie?
    Meerburg, B.G. ; Neuteboom, M. - \ 2010
    In: Over zorgvuldige veehouderij. Veel instrumenten, één concert / Eijsackers, H., Scholten, M., Wageningen : Wageningen UR (Essaybundel 2010 ) - ISBN 9789085858959 - p. 40 - 51.
    veehouderij - landbouwsector - dierenwelzijn - landbouwbedrijven - duurzame veehouderij - morele waarden - dierlijke productie - livestock farming - agricultural sector - animal welfare - farms - sustainable animal husbandry - moral values - animal production
    Onze maatschappij is de afgelopen eeuw sterk veranderd. Waren vroeger boeren meer regel dan uitzondering, tegenwoordig is dat anders. Daardoor komen burgers steeds minder in contact met boeren en hebben zij niet of nauwelijks meer weet van wat op het boerenbedrijf precies speelt. Deze kloof van onwetendheid leidt tot een discrepantie tussen wat burgers denken dat zich afspeelt op het boerenbedrijf en wat daadwerkelijk daar gebeurt. Het debat over de veehouderij wordt nu dan ook grotendeels op basis van emotie gevoerd, en niet op basis van onderliggende feiten of waarden. In dit essay pleiten wij ervoor om deze kloof te dichten, zodat de kwaliteit van de discussie over de toekomst van de veehouderij kan verbeteren.
    Sympathie over en weer.Waaruit bestaat de biologische basis van moraal?
    Weele, C.N. van der - \ 2010
    Utrecht : Nederlandse Vereniging voor Bioethiek - ISBN 9789036742221 - 57
    bio-ethiek - morele waarden - sociale psychologie - moraal - instinct - bioethics - moral values - social psychology - moral - instinct
    Moraal werd vooral door filosofen bestudeerd. De laatste jaren houden ook steeds meer biologen zich hier mee bezig. Het idee dat moraal een biologische basis heeft ontmoet steeds meer sympathie. Het werk van Frans de Waal draagt ook bij aan het idee dat moraal diep in de evolutionaire geschiedenis wortelt. In dit essay wordt de toenadering tussen filosofie, biologie en psychologie besproken.
    Plants, genes and justice : an inquiry into fair and equitable benefit-sharing
    Jonge, B. de - \ 2009
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Michiel Korthals, co-promotor(en): Niels Louwaars. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085854722 - 251
    biotechnologie - voedselbiotechnologie - genetische bronnen van plantensoorten - intellectuele eigendomsrechten - nuttig gebruik - efficiëntie - morele waarden - ethiek - plantenbiotechnologie - benefit sharing - justitie - moraal - sociale ethiek - biotechnology - food biotechnology - plant genetic resources - intellectual property rights - utilization - efficiency - moral values - ethics - plant biotechnology - benefit sharing - justice - moral - social ethics
    Since the advent of biotechnology, plant genetic resources have become more valuable as possible sources for new products and inventions. With knowledge about the genetic make-up and functioning of a plant, biotechnologists can identify and isolate genes with interesting traits which, after long research trajectories, may result in new medicines, improved crops or other products. The initial leads towards such new products are sometimes provided by the traditional knowledge that local and indigenous communities have acquired about their natural environment over centuries. At the other site of the spectrum, Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) play an important role in stimulating the research and development process of new biotechnologies and products, by providing innovators with time-limited exclusive rights to exploit their inventions. Altogether, the biotechnology industry has grown rapidly over the last decades. The question, however, is whether also we have all benefited from it.

    Unfortunately, we have to conclude that, as with most other new industries and technologies, biotechnology has not provided many benefits to the poor up to now. Notwithstanding the repeated promises that biotechnology can – and will – improve global health and food security, almost all research to date has focused on the development of medicinal and food products for commercial markets, mostly in the developed world, with very few serious investments having been made in order to tackle the major diseases and improve crops in the poorer parts of the world. This is despite the fact that many of the genetic traits that are used in new products and biotechnologies find their origin in the enormous biodiversity of developing countries, and/or the rich knowledge of this diversity of local communities in these countries. For this reason, developing countries and indigenous communities have become increasingly vocal in demanding compensation for the use of their plant resources in the new biotechnology industry.

    This demand became backed by international law in 1992, as the UN Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) declared that access to genetic resources is subject to “sharing in a fair and equitable way the results of research and development and the benefits arising from the commercial and other utilization of genetic resources with the Contracting Party providing such resources.” (Article 15.7). With respect to the knowledge, innovations and practices of traditional communities, the CBD also proclaims that each country, subject to its national legislation, shall “encourage the equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the utilization of such knowledge, innovations and practices” (Article 8j). Since then, a total of 191 countries have become signatories to the Convention and committed themselves to these objectives. Few of these, however, have implemented this legislation effectively in such a way as to actually enable and facilitate the sharing of substantial benefits. Furthermore, the negotiations on an International Regime on Access and Benefit-Sharing, which was called for by the Parties to the CBD in 2002, are progressing very slowly.

    What are the reasons for this lack of progress in the national implementation and international negotiations on Access and Benefit-Sharing (ABS)? This question has been subject of discussion in a growing number of studies that aim to analyze the legal, practical, or socio-political difficulties involved in current ABS regulations and agreements. Very few studies, however, have focused on the ethical problems and challenges. Even though questions about who decides which benefits are to be shared with whom and in what way are obviously ethical concerns, the current problems with ABS have rarely been approached from an ethical perspective. This research project aims to improve this situation by investigating and initiating debate on some of the ethical dimensions of benefit-sharing in the field of plant genetic resources, related knowledge and IPRs, with special attention given to the agricultural and public research sector.

    Taking a pragmatist ethics point of view, this research project focuses primarily on analyzing the normative positions and argumentations within the current debates on benefit-sharing, and reflecting on the meaning of, and possibilities for, fair and equitable benefit-sharing. Direction and guidance for the project are facilitated through research questions focusing attention on: the origination of the concept and purpose of benefit-sharing; the major difficulties complicating the present situation in respect of benefit-sharing policies; the normative positions and objectives incorporated in international legislation, organizational policies and stakeholders’ perceptions of benefit-sharing; the relationship between benefit-sharing and intellectual property rights; and the question of fair and equitable benefit-sharing itself.

    The research is based on extensive literature studies, complemented with over 75 semi-structured interviews in Kenya, Peru and the Netherlands, and visits to meetings of the CBD, the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), and international workshops on ABS in Germany and India. Furthermore, an international conference was organized in the Netherlands to examine and discuss with relevant stakeholders the impact of IPRs on the possibilities for public research institutes sited in developed countries to share their knowledge and technologies with partners in poorer countries. Altogether, this has resulted in five articles that have been either published in or submitted to peer-reviewed journals, and two conference documents, which together with an introductory and concluding chapter are presented in this thesis.

    Vicissitudes of benefit-sharing of crop genetic resources: Downstream and upstream
    Following an introductory first chapter, Chapter 2 sets out with a historic overview of the origin and development of the concept of benefit-sharing in international law. We see that benefit-sharing was initially included in international treaties on the moon (1979) and the sea (1982), in which it was linked to the notion of a common heritage of humankind and referred to equitable distribution – i.e. distributive justice. Because the resources of the moon and deep seabed were considered not to be the property of any State or individual, it was decided that the benefits that are derived from those resources should be shared with humankind as a whole. With its introduction in the CBD, however, benefit-sharing has mainly become an instrument of compensation and refers to the idea of commutative justice – i.e. justice in exchange. Based on the principle that countries have sovereign rights over their own biological resources, States can regulate access to their resources and negotiate the accompanying benefit-sharing conditions. It is shown, however, that this model does not suit most plant genetic resources – and certainly not crop genetic resources. On the contrary, it has had harmful effects on the agricultural sector insofar as it has functioned to obstruct the international transfer of genetic resources on which the agricultural sector historically depends.

    In order to better meet the needs of the agricultural sector, the FAO developed a Multilateral System of Access and Benefit-Sharing, which was introduced in the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (ITPGR) in 2001. In line with the general objectives of the ITPGR, but also of the CBD, we argue that benefit-sharing should not be based merely on the idea of justice in exchange, but rather on a broader model, one that is grounded also in the concept of distributive justice. This has repercussions for the application of benefit-sharing. By distinguishing between ‘downstream’ models of benefit-sharing, in which benefits are shared at the end of the research and development pipeline, and models where ‘upstream’ in the research process stakeholders try to balance their interests with respect to the benefits that will be shared later on, we show that benefit-sharing may well be a tool to contribute to world food security and global justice.

    A diversity of approaches to benefit-sharing
    Chapter 3 provides an overview of, in total, seven fundamentally different approaches to the issue of benefit-sharing in the field of plant genetic resources. The approaches portray the different ideas that exist about benefit-sharing, about its underlying principles, its goals and the preferred mechanisms to reach these goals. These different approaches are based on the following perceptions, or motivations:
    - The South-North imbalance in resource allocation and exploitation
    - The need to conserve biodiversity
    - Biopiracy and the imbalance in intellectual property rights
    - A shared interest in food security
    - An imbalance between IP protection and the public interest
    - Protecting the cultural identity of traditional communities
    - Protecting the interests of the biotechnology industry in ABS negotiations.
    By comparing the different approaches in the second part of this chapter, the major stumbling blocks in the current ABS negotiations (at both national and international levels) become apparent. This comparative analysis shows that the variety of motivations leads to widely differing mechanisms for benefit-sharing and significantly different expectations of the nature and value of the benefits to be shared. A further complicating factor in this is that the different approaches cannot be simply translated one-to-one into stakeholder positions. Stakeholders often assume to employ a combination of two or more different approaches. However, by explicating the different approaches, the article aims to increase insight into the different viewpoints that people and institutions adopt, in order to contribute to a better informed and more balanced debate in which policy-makers and other stakeholders have a raised awareness of the various interests involved and issues at stake.

    What is fair and equitable benefit-sharing?
    Chapter 4 builds upon these different approaches insofar as it aims to investigate what exactly is understood by “fair” and “equitable” benefit-sharing, and how a fair and equitable benefit-sharing mechanism might best be realized. The different approaches to benefit-sharing outlined form the basis of a philosophical reflection and are discussed in parallel with the main principles of justice involved. These include the principle of commutative justice and, under the domain of distributive justice, the principles of entitlement, desert, need and equity. In addition to these criteria that may guide the allocation of benefits, the principles of procedural and cognitive justice also are discussed, as essential to the promotion of fair and equitable benefit-sharing.

    An important conclusion resulting from this reflection is that the bilateral exchange model of ABS in the CBD is in need of fundamental change. At present, it is practically impossible for countries and communities to secure a fair exchange for the plant genetic resources found within their territories, or for the traditional knowledge present in their culture. As an alternative, a model is proposed in which benefit-sharing obligations are not based on the specific exchange of these resources, but on their utilization. An advantage of such model is that it emphasizes the responsibilities for benefit-sharing at the user side. This is further supported by the principle of equity, elemental to benefit-sharing, which holds that the strongest parties have the biggest responsibilities to make a fair and equitable benefit-sharing mechanism work.

    Between sharing and protecting: Public research on genetic resources in the year of the potato
    Chapter 5 analyses the policies and environment of two public research institutes working with potato genetic resources, the International Potato Centre (CIP) in Peru and Wageningen University and Research Centre (Wageningen UR) in the Netherlands. The two institutes are situated in totally different environments, but both are increasingly confronted with an array of (inter)national regulations, interests and perspectives that surround the genetic material, (traditional) knowledge and technologies with which they work. While CIP, as member of the Consultative Group for International Agricultural Research (CGIAR), aims to promote the sharing of potato genetic resources throughout the world for the sake of food security, it is situated in a country that is deeply ambivalent about the sharing goal and where concerns about biopiracy proliferate. Wageningen UR, on the other hand, is concerned with supporting the Dutch potato sector but it has to make sure that its IP and valorization strategies do not impede its research for development goals.

    Both institutes are continuously weighing up their own interests and those of the various stakeholders they work with in order to strike a balance between policies geared towards sharing and those aimed at protection. However, in the present context where poor but gene-rich countries and communities, as well as industrialized countries and biotechnology companies are all mainly concerned with protecting their resources in order to reap the benefits and preclude misappropriation, it is incumbent on public research institutes to dare to share. For that purpose, they have to develop new ways of sharing and protecting in order to adhere to their mission and best serve the public interest.

    Reconsidering intellectual property policies in public research: A symposium
    Chapter 6 contains the start document and report of the international conference on “Reconsidering Intellectual Property Policies in Public Research: Sharing the benefits of biotechnology with developing countries” organized at Wageningen UR in April 2008. The start document describes the increasing role of IPRs in biotechnology research and the difficult process that public research institutes face in seeking to obtain access to IP protected materials while working on biotechnologies destined for the poor. The problems involved range from analyzing complex IPR landscapes to negotiating free or affordable access licenses with parties that have little to gain from such deals. At the same time, however, public researchers are also increasingly stimulated to protect their own knowledge and inventions – so an important question for public research institutes is how they can (and should) go about preventing their IP policy from hampering innovation in poor countries.

    These issues were discussed at the international conference, which brought stakeholders together from fields as diverse as plant sciences, social and development studies, intellectual property offices, research funding organizations, the private seed industry, and civil society. The report describes the various discussions, presentations and main findings of the conference, which also focused on possible strategies to help public research institutes to secure their freedom to operate in the field of research for development, such as patent pools, humanitarian licenses and open-source biotechnology.

    Valorizing science: Whose values?
    Chapter 7 is a viewpoint article that reflects further upon the current trend towards valorization, i.e. the creation of economic value, in public research. It asks, more specifically, whether the focus on economic indicators is the optimal policy for science to contribute to society, or for the advancement of science itself. Hereby, it looks back on the Wageningen conference and its central subject matter, but now with special attention given to the organization process and the difficulties of bringing different stakeholders together to discuss complex problems and their possible solutions.

    The issue of valorization in public research involves a wide variety of easily conflicting views and interests, which requires continued input and dialogue between the different stakeholders in order to come to workable solutions. It is shown that this is not always easy to accomplish, for example because stakeholders may already disagree about the problem definition itself: a problem for one group may be a triviality or even benefit for another, and this even within the same institute. But as the current valorization trend influences and impresses upon the role of public research itself, the research institutes as well as individual researchers will have to invest the necessary time and effort to reflect on their impact and (long term) implications.

    Towards Justice in Benefit-Sharing
    Chapter 8 is the concluding chapter that brings the major findings of this research project together. Without repeating all the conclusions of the separate chapters, it aims to give an overview by reflecting on the research questions set out at the beginning in Chapter 1 and the general conclusions that have come out of this. Given the many practical (and ethical) complexities involved, and the easily diverging interests and perspectives when it comes to the sharing and/or protection of plant genetic resources, (traditional) knowledge and intellectual property rights, we can predict that benefit-sharing will continue to arouse much discussion and debate in the years to come. In this thesis, some fundamental changes to the current exchange model in the CBD are proposed in order to move away from the current deadlock in the international ABS negotiations, and to work towards a fair and equitable outcome. It must be clear that benefit-sharing entails burden-sharing, and that a successful implementation of fair and equitable benefit-sharing requires the continued commitment of all stakeholders involved on the international, national and local levels. But with such commitment, benefit-sharing can set a new standard of justice in how countries, companies, public research institutes and indigenous communities interact with each other.
    Fed up with the right to food? : The Netherlands' policies and practices regarding the human right to adequate food
    Hospes, O. ; Meulen, B.M.J. van der - \ 2009
    Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers (European Institute for Food Law series no. 3) - ISBN 9789086861071 - 192
    voedselvoorziening - voedsel - voedselconsumptie - mensenrechten - morele waarden - ethiek - overheidsbeleid - beleid inzake voedsel - nederland - justitie - moraal - sociale ethiek - food supply - food - food consumption - human rights - moral values - ethics - government policy - food policy - netherlands - justice - moral - social ethics
    There is no one in this world who would deny the importance of access to adequate food for every human being. In fact, access to food has been declared a human right in 1948 with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. In spite of the right to food to be more than half a century old, many are not aware, misunderstand or even marginalize this human right. This book serves two purposes and many audiences. First, it is meant for those who want to get a better understanding of the right to food and how this right has been developed in international law. Second, it also explains why this human right has been marginalized by one of the richest countries in the world: the Netherlands. As such this unique collection of articles provides an exciting view on the making of law and policy, with contributions from lawyers, sociologists and human rights defenders
    Consumptie verplicht : een kleine sociologie van consumeren tussen vreten en geweten
    Dagevos, H. ; Bakker, H.C.M. de - \ 2008
    Den Haag : LEI (Rapport / LEI : Werkveld 3, Consumenten en ketens ) - 40
    voedselconsumptie - sociologie - morele waarden - consumptie - consumentengedrag - consumenten - moraal - food consumption - sociology - moral values - consumption - consumer behaviour - consumers - moral
    Consumptie verplicht biedt een beknopt overzicht van hedendaags sociologisch denken over consumptie, met de nadruk op voedselconsumptie. ‘Consumptie verplicht’ krijgt een drievoudige interpretatie. Ten eerste als een verplicht onderdeel van de sociologie van vandaag. Ten tweede in termen van de karakterisering van steeds méér consumeren als plicht. Ten derde in de betekenis van de samenhang van consumptie met normatieve verplichtingen.
    Food for talk: discursive identities, food choice and eating practices
    Sneijder, P.W.J. - \ 2006
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Cees van Woerkum; Hedwig te Molder. - [S.l. ] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085044024 - 220
    voedingsgewoonten - ethiek - morele waarden - psychologie - consumptiepatronen - internet - communicatie - analyse - sociale interactie - eetstoornissen - moraal - verantwoordelijkheid - identiteit - feeding habits - consumption patterns - appetite disorders - ethics - moral values - psychology - social interaction - internet - communication - analysis - moral - responsibility - identity
    This thesis focuses on the construction and use of identities in food interaction. Insights from discursive psychology and conversation analysis are drawn upon to examine the interactional functions of identities in online food talk.

    Discursive psychology (DP) explores how psychological themes, such as identity, are handled and managed in discourse, by participants themselves. The main principle of this approach is that talk is action-oriented. Rather than assuming a cognitive basis for identity, a discursive study focuses on identity as a means of achieving particular interactional goals, such as accounting for food choice.In this respect, the DP perspective marks a shift away from current approaches in anthropology, sociology and social psychology, which largely ignore the notion that identities are part of social actions performed in talk, and thus designed and deployed for different interactional purposes.

    The project is spread across three research settings, namely online interaction on veganism, food pleasure and obesity. The main criterion for selecting these cases was their relationship to recent dominant trends in current food choice, namely ethical considerations, hedonism and weight concerns. These 'motives' are also likely resources for identity-related activities.

    Chapter 2

    In this chapter we draw on a corpus of online discussions on veganism in order to explore the relationship between food choice, eating practices and identity work. A discursive psychological analysis focuses on action, rhetoric and construction. The analyst studies how speakers react to one other and show interpretations of previous turns. The analyst also considers potential alternative versions of descriptions, in order to demonstrate which version of reality is being undermined or countered. The analysis in this chapter demonstrates that participants draw on specific discursive devices to (1) define vegan meals as ordinary and easy to prepare and (2) construct methods of preventing vitamin deficiency, such as taking supplements, as routine procedures. In 'doing being ordinary', participants systematically resist the notion that being a vegan is complicated - in other words, that it is both difficult to compose a meal and to protect your health. In this way, participants protect veganism as an ideology. More generally, it is argued that identities and their category-bound features are part and parcel of participants' highly flexible negotiation packages rather than cognitive predictors of their behaviour.

    Chapter 3

    In this chapter we apply methods developed by conversation analysis and discursive psychology in order to examine how participants manage rules, facts and accountability in a specific ideological area. In particular, we focus on how participants in online discussions on veganism manage the problem posed by alleged health risks such as vitamin deficiency. We show how speakers systematically attribute responsibility for possible deficiencies to individual recipients rather than to veganism.The analysis focuses on a conditional formulation that participants use in response to the recurrent question about supposed health problems in a vegan diet (for example, if you eat a varied diet, there shouldn't be any problems). By using this formulation, participants blur whether they attribute responsibility or predict the absence of health problems. The blurring of logic and morality is used to implicitly ascribe responsibility for potential, assumed shortcomings in the lifestyle (such as calcium deficiency) to the individual. This implicit attribution allows participants to protect veganism as an ideology.                                    

    Chapter 4

    Chapter 4 draws on insights from discursive psychology to demonstrate how members of an online forum on food pleasure handle the hedonic appreciation of food in everyday interaction. The analysis focuses on how participants work up and establish their identities as 'gourmets'. A dominant tool in performing this identity work is the discursive construction of independent access to knowledge of and experience with food items, in order to compete with or resist the epistemic superiority of a preceding evaluation. Participants formulate their judgments in such a way that they are independent of or even superior to evaluations of the same dish in previous turns. The construction of independent access to and knowledge of culinary items is important in the interactional achievement of an identity as a gourmet who not only likes good food, but who knows what good food is .   

    Contrary to sensory approaches to food choice, this study portrays the enjoyment of food as an achievement that comes into being through interaction. We discuss the wider implications of this study for the relationship between food, identity and taste.

    Chapter 5

    Weight management is a problematic activity, involving issues of accountability and control.  In this chapter, we focus on how people discursively manage these issues in an online support group.  A discursive psychological approach is used to highlight some of the practices employed by participants to handle their dieting failures, like overeating or binging, in terms of blame and accountability. We focus on the way in which participants describe lapses in dieting while at the same time heading off 'mind explanations' such as a lack of control of one's eating practices, which would raise delicate issues regarding the narrator's personal identity. It is shown how participants work up a disinterested account of their lapse by presenting a detailed factual account of what happened and how they feel, while not spelling out what these 'facts' mean. Furthermore, their accounts display the lapse as a one-off incident or choice in an ongoing process. The one-off event itself is scripted up as recognizable and logical in a chain of events, thereby inviting the recipient to dismiss a possible explanation in terms of the speaker's psychological make-up.

    Rather than treating attribution as a cognitive process, the study shows how attributions can be studied as situated productions that perform identity-implicative work through managing accountability and blame.

    Chapter 6

    In chapter 6, we provide an overview of the main observations in this study and formulate recommendations for future research. The study as a whole shows that identity construction is active and ongoing. This thesis has shown how identities were constructed to manage inferential implications of food choice. Such implications, for example 'complicatedness' in the case of veganism, 'abnormality' for obesity and 'subjectivity' for food pleasure, are managed by formulating rhetorical alternatives - ordinariness, normality and objectivity respectively. The relevance of rhetorical alternatives in everyday talk shows that identities are not fixed, but are flexible and negotiable. This implies that groups of consumers cannot be addressed as if they have only one identity, imposed from the outside. In this chapter, we discuss the importance of knowledge claims and accountability in identity work. We also discuss findings relating to the specifics of using online data compared to conversational data. Future research may draw attention to identity construction in face-to-face food conversations and in food interaction in other domains than the three examined in this study.
    Werken aan de grens. Een pragmatische visie op natuur en milieu
    Keulartz, F.W.J. - \ 2005
    Budel : Damon - ISBN 9789055736508 - 173
    natuurbescherming - milieubescherming - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - morele waarden - ethiek - filosofie - wereld - moraal - sociale ethiek - nature conservation - natural resources - sustainability - environmental protection - moral values - ethics - philosophy - world - moral - social ethics
    Medeverantwoordelijkheid voor natuur
    Overbeek, M.M.M. ; Lijmbach, S.E.E.M. - \ 2004
    Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers (Rapport ) - ISBN 9789076998107 - 191
    natuurbescherming - gedrag - attitudes - milieubeheer - morele waarden - samenleving - regering - particuliere organisaties - consumenten - beleid - nederland - verantwoordelijkheid - omgevingspsychologie - nature conservation - behaviour - environmental management - moral values - society - government - private organizations - consumers - policy - netherlands - responsibility - environmental psychology
    New public responsibilities for life scientists
    Korthals, M.J.J.A.A. - \ 2004
    In: Ethics for Life Scientists Dordrecht : Springer / Wageningen Universiteit Frontis series (Wageningen UR Frontis series 5) - ISBN 9781402031793 - p. 163 - 171.
    ethiek - morele waarden - biologie - onderzoek - wetenschappers - samenleving - wetenschappelijk onderzoek - ethics - moral values - biology - research - scientists - society - scientific research
    First the main developments in the life sciences during the last decade are outlined, and then some aspects of the traditional concept of responsibility, which stresses the causal connections between agent and outcome, are discussed. The author argues that, from a pragmatic point of view, the concept of different practices can help in delineating new grey zones between conducting research, rendering advice, screening consumers and patients, consulting the public, and prescribing and selling food stuffs and drugs. Moreover, it is made clear that professional scientists have a public responsibility; they must build new Chinese Walls to raise the level of trust between themselves and the general public
    Comments on Bernard Gert. Gert's Common Morality: Old-fashioned or Untimely?
    Keulartz, F.W.J. - \ 2004
    In: Ethics for Life Scientists Dordrecht : Kluwer (Wageningen UR Frontis series 5) - ISBN 9781402031786 - p. 141 - 145.
    ethiek - morele waarden - onderzoek - wetenschappelijk onderzoek - ethics - moral values - research - scientific research
    The problem with Gert’s account of morality is that all acts of redistribution as well as all acts of redress, due to their ‘idealistic’ character, appear as supererogatory actions, that is, as actions that no one can expect anyone to perform. This is, I believe, what makes his account too minimalist to function as a reliable public guide for the behaviour of all moral agents, business and professionals included
    WAVE (Waarden in Vergelijking)
    Weele, C.N. van der; Beekman, V. ; Overbeek, M.M.M. ; Koole, S.L. ; Giesen, C.W.M. - \ 2003
    Den Haag : LEI (Rapport / LEI : Domein 7, Gamma, instituties, mens en beleving ) - ISBN 9789052428178 - 133
    morele waarden - filosofie - sociologie - psychologie - voeding - natuurbescherming - landbouwontwikkeling - moral values - philosophy - sociology - psychology - nutrition - nature conservation - agricultural development
    Aan de basis van deze studie ligt de behoefte aan meer inzicht in veranderende waarden in de samenleving. Waarden worden in dit rapport vanuit drie disciplines belicht: filosofie, sociologie en psychologie. Dit gebeurt in drie stappen. Om te beginnen schetst elke discipline een of meer theoretische invalshoeken voor het begrijpen van waarden. Vanuit elk van de drie disciplines zijn vervolgens een aantal waardenconflicten op het gebied van voedsel en groen geanalyseerd, met als doel de disciplinaire benaderingen te concretiseren en vergelijkbaar te maken. Ten slotte zijn de bevindingen vergeleken met het oog op overkoepelende patronen, spanningen, raakvlakken en aanbevelingen.
    Comments on Düwell: Research as a challenge for ethical reflection
    Zijpp, A.J. van der - \ 2003
    In: Ethics for Life Scientists - p. 157 - 159.
    ethiek - morele waarden - onderzoek - wetenschappers - wetenschappelijk onderzoek - ethics - moral values - research - scientists - scientific research
    To resolve complex problems in our society the liberal approach based on autonomy and self-determination rights is not sufficient. We have to define our position regarding our fellow human beings and animals, nature and the environment. See also the outcomes of the ‘Waardenvolle Landbouw’ Workshop (Values in Agriculture, inVan Eck and Oosting 2001) and our research programme for sustainable animal-production systems. They appeal to a holistic approach in science, which requires social interaction for decisions about trade-offs between unequal issues regarding planet, profit and people
    Het stakeholder-model: over economie, bedrijfsethiek en landbouw
    Jongeneel, R.A. - \ 2003
    Tijdschrift voor sociaalwetenschappelijk onderzoek van de landbouw 18 (2003)4. - ISSN 0921-481X - p. 197 - 207.
    landbouwondernemingen - agrarische economie - bedrijfsontwikkeling in de landbouw - ethiek - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - morele waarden - waarden - verantwoordelijkheid - bedrijfseconomie - farm enterprises - agricultural economics - farm development - ethics - farm management - moral values - values - business management - responsibility
    Oktober 2002 kwam LTO met de basisnotitie "Agrarisch ondernemen op maatschappelijke gronden" naar buiten. De notitie is bedoeld als basis voor discussie over maatschappelijk verantwoord ondernemen. Binnen het brede kader van economie en ethiek wordt in dit artikel ingegaan op het pleidooi voor integrale economische ethiek van Peter Ulrich, gevolgd door een analyse van het stakeholder-model. Tenslotte wordt de betekenis van het stake-holder model voor maatschappelijk ondernemen in de landbouw bekeken
    The future of environmental education in a postmodern world?
    Jarnett, A. ; Jickling, B. ; Sauve, L. ; Wals, A.E.J. ; Clarkin, P. - \ 1998
    Yukon : Yukon College - ISBN 9780969415022 - 244
    milieueducatie - morele waarden - ethiek - gedrag - milieu - ontwikkeling - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - klimaatverandering - opwarming van de aarde - broeikaseffect - wereld - verantwoordelijkheid - toekomst - environmental education - environment - development - sustainability - moral values - ethics - behaviour - climatic change - global warming - greenhouse effect - world - responsibility - future
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