Testing the Various Pathways Linking Forest Cover to Dietary Diversity in Tropical Landscapes
Baudron, Frédéric ; Tomscha, Stephanie A. ; Powell, Bronwen ; Groot, Jeroen C.J. ; Gergel, Sarah E. ; Sunderland, Terry - \ 2019
Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems 3 (2019). - ISSN 2571-581X
ecosystem services - hidden hunger - multifunctional landscapes - nutrition - structural equation modeling
A diverse diet is important to address micronutrient deficiencies and other forms of malnutrition, one of the greatest challenges of today's food systems. In tropical countries, several studies have found a positive association between forest cover and dietary diversity, although the actual mechanisms of this has yet to be identified and quantified. Three complementary pathways may link forests to diets: a direct pathway (e.g., consumption of forest food), an income pathway (income from forest products used to purchase food from markets), and an agroecological pathway (forests and trees sustaining farm production). We used piece-wise structural equation modeling to test and quantify the relative contribution of these three pathways for households in seven tropical landscapes in Bangladesh, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Ethiopia, Indonesia, Nicaragua, and Zambia. We used survey data from 1,783 households and determined forest cover within a 2-km radius of each household. The quality of household diets was assessed through four indicators: household dietary diversity and consumption of fruits, vegetables, and meat, based on a 24-h recall. We found evidence of a direct pathway in four landscapes (Bangladesh, Cameroon, Ethiopia, and Zambia), an income pathway in none of the landscapes considered, and an agroecological pathway in three landscapes (Bangladesh, Ethiopia, and Indonesia). We also found evidence of improved crop and livestock production with greater forest cover in five landscapes (Bangladesh, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Ethiopia, and Indonesia). Conversely, we found negative associations between forest cover and crop and livestock production in three landscapes (Cameroon, Indonesia, and Zambia). In addition, we found evidence of forest cover being negatively related to at least one indicator of diet quality in three landscapes (Indonesia, Nicaragua, and Zambia) and to integration to the cash economy in three landscapes (Cameroon, Ethiopia, and Nicaragua). This is one of the first studies to quantify the different mechanisms linking forest cover and diet. Our work illuminates the fact that these mechanisms can vary significantly from one site to another, calling for site-specific interventions. Our results also suggest that the positive contributions of forests to rural livelihoods cannot be generalized and should not be idealized.
Reducing emissions from land use in Indonesia: motivation, policy instruments and expected funding streams
Noordwijk, M. van; Agus, F. ; Dewi, S. ; Purnomo, H. - \ 2014
Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 19 (2014)6. - ISSN 1381-2386 - p. 677 - 692.
redd plus - forest degradation - multifunctional landscapes - southeast-asia - carbon stocks - co2 emissions - fallow model - deforestation - opportunities - incentives
Land-based emissions of carbon dioxide derive from the interface of forest and agriculture. Emission estimates require harmonization across forest and non-forest data sources. Furthermore, emission reduction requires understanding of the linked causes and policy levers between agriculture and forestry. The institutional forestry traditions dominated the emergence of the discourse on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+) whilemore holistic perspectives on land-based emissions, including agriculture, found a home in international recognition for Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs). We tested the hypothesis that, at least for Indonesia, the NAMA framework provides opportunities to resolve issues that REDD+ alone cannot address.We reviewed progress on five major challenges identified in 2007 by the Indonesian Forest Climate Alliance: 1) scope and ‘forest’ definition; 2) ownership and tenurial rights; 3) multiplicity and interconnectedness of drivers; 4) peatland issues across forest and non-forest land categories; and 5) fairness and efficiency of benefitdistribution mechanisms across conservation, degradation and restoration phases of tree-cover transition. Results indicate that the two policy instruments developed in parallel with competition rather than synergy. Three of the REDD+ challenges can be resolved by treating REDD+ as a subset of the NAMA and national emission reduction plans for Indonesia.We conclude that two issues, rights and benefit distribution, remain a major challenge, and require progress on a motivational pyramid of policy and polycentric governance. National interest in retaining global palm oil exports gained priority over expectations of REDD forest rents. Genuine concerns over climate change motivate a small but influential part of the ongoing debate.
Minimizing the ecological footprint of food: closing yield and efficiency gaps simultaneously?
Noordwijk, M. van; Brussaard, L. - \ 2014
Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 8 (2014). - ISSN 1877-3435 - p. 62 - 70.
multifunctional landscapes - environmental services - ecosystem services - crop production - soil fertility - arable crops - systems - agriculture - management - intensification
Agriculture as a source of food has a substantial spillover that affects the Earth's ecosystems. This results in an ‘ecological footprint’ of food: negative environmental impacts per capita. The footprint depends on the dietary choice of types and amounts of food, on the non-consumed part of product flows and its fate (‘waste’ or ‘reused’), on transport and processing along the value chain, on the environmental impacts of production per unit area, and on the area needed per unit product. Yield gaps indicate inefficiency in this last aspect: resource-use efficiency gaps for water and nutrients indicate that environmental impacts per unit area are higher than desirable. Ecological intensification aimed at simultaneously closing these two gaps requires process-level understanding and system-level quantification of current efficiency of the use of land and other production factors at multiple scales (field, farm, landscape, regional and global economy). Contrary to common opinion, yield and efficiency gaps are partially independent in the empirical evidence. Synergy in gap closure is possible in many contexts where efforts are made but are not automatic. With Good Agricultural Practice (GAP), enforceable in world trade to control hidden subsidies, there is scope for incremental improvement towards food systems that are efficient at global, yet sustainable at local, scales.
Landscape services as a bridge between landscape ecology and sustainable development
Termorshuizen, J.W. ; Opdam, P.F.M. - \ 2009
Landscape Ecology 24 (2009)8. - ISSN 0921-2973 - p. 1037 - 1052.
valuing ecosystem services - multifunctional landscapes - pest-control - biodiversity - conservation - management - valuation - science - indicators - model
Landscape ecology is in a position to become the scientific basis for sustainable landscape development. When spatial planning policy is decentralised, local actors need to collaborate to decide on the changes that have to be made in the landscape to better accommodate their perceptions of value. This paper addresses two prerequisites that landscape ecological science has to meet for it to be effective in producing appropriate knowledge for such bottom-up landscape-development processes-it must include a valuation component, and it must be suitable for use in collaborative decision-making on a local scale. We argue that landscape ecological research needs to focus more on these issues and propose the concept of landscape services as a unifying common ground where scientists from various disciplines are encouraged to cooperate in producing a common knowledge base that can be integrated into multifunctional, actor-led landscape development. We elaborate this concept into a knowledge framework, the structure-function-value chain, and expand the current pattern-process paradigm in landscape ecology with value in this way. Subsequently, we analyse how the framework could be applied and facilitate interdisciplinary research that is applicable in transdisciplinary landscape-development processes.
From land cover change to land function dynamics: A major challenge to improve land characterization
Verburg, P.H. ; Steeg, J. van de; Veldkamp, A. ; Willemen, L. - \ 2009
Journal of Environmental Management 90 (2009)3. - ISSN 0301-4797 - p. 1327 - 1335.
ecosystem services - multifunctional landscapes - agricultural abandonment - methodological issues - environmental-change - mountain landscapes - dependent errors - spatial-pattern - future - deforestation
Land cover change has always had a central role in land change science. This central role is largely the result of the possibilities to map and characterize land cover based on observations and remote sensing. This paper argues that more attention should be given to land use and land functions and linkages between these. Consideration of land functions that provide a wide range of goods and services makes more integrated assessments of land change possible. The increasing attention to multifunctional land use is another incentive to develop methods to assess changes in land functions. A number of methods to quantify and map the spatial extent of land use and land functions are discussed and the implications for modeling are identified based on recent model approaches in land change science. The mixed use of land cover, land use and land function in maps and models leads to inconsistencies in land change assessments. Explicit attention to the non-linear relations between land cover, land use and land function is essential to consistently address land change. New methods to map and quantify land function dynamics will enhance our ability to understand and model land system change and adequately inform policies and planning. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Clarifying integrative research concepts in landscape ecology
Tress, G. ; Tress, B. ; Fry, G. - \ 2005
Landscape Ecology 20 (2005)4. - ISSN 0921-2973 - p. 479 - 493.
multifunctional landscapes - agricultural landscapes - cultural landscape - interdisciplinarity - challenges - framework - barriers - land - disciplinary - management
Integrative research approaches are intensely discussed in landscape ecology, in academia and in research policy. However, confusion over the terminology hampers communication. Many current landscape ecological research projects have difficulties to agree on a common understanding of the core concepts associated with different forms of integrative research. This is also evidenced by the lack of discussion of integrative research concepts in published papers. This hinders integration in research projects and makes the comparison and evaluation of the outcomes of different research concepts impossible. This paper discusses and defines the meanings of interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary ( integrative) research approaches to ease discourse on their application in landscape ecological research. It reviews definitions of the concepts found in the research literature and develops definitions of integrative and associated research concepts (disciplinarity, multidisciplinarity, interdisciplinarity and transdisciplinarity) based on their degree of disciplinary integration and involvement of non-academics. Integrative concepts are viewed as a continuum rather than as fixed categories. The paper discusses the need to develop integrative theory and methods and argues that we should be more explicit when using integrative research concepts in project proposals, project work and publications. Finally, the paper reflects on the ongoing discussion in landscape ecology concerning whether it is developing from an integrative research field towards a discipline in its own right.