Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Recyclingopties voor PET schalen
    Thoden van Velzen, Ulphard - \ 2017
    Wageningen : Wageningen Food & Biobased Research (Wageningen Food & Biobased Research rapport 1761) - 19
    recycling - verpakkingsmaterialen - kunststoffen - afvalverwijdering - platte bakken - huisvuilverwijdering - recycling - packaging materials - plastics - waste disposal - trays - municipal refuse disposal
    Samenstelling van gescheiden ingezamelde kunststof-verpakkingen
    Thoden Van Velzen, E.U. ; Brouwer, M.T. - \ 2014
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research 1487) - ISBN 9789462570559 - 18
    verpakkingsmaterialen - kunststoffen - afvalverwerking - afvalverwijdering - afvalhergebruik - gemeenten - huisvuilverwijdering - nederland - packaging materials - plastics - waste treatment - waste disposal - waste utilization - municipalities - municipal refuse disposal - netherlands
    The composition of Dutch separately collected post-consumer plastic packaging waste has been determined for 23 different municipalities during the time period of 2010-2013. In this report weighted averages are presented based on the previously analysed samples. The most important packaging types present are in order of relevance: PE film, PET rigid packages (mostly trays and thermoformed trays), PP rigid packages (mostly butter tubs, yoghurt pots), PE flasks and PET bottles. The variance in the presented data is, however, large due to regional variance and seasonal influences. The reported weight-average compositional values should therefore only be used as indicate values.
    Modernising solid waste management at municipal level : institutional arrangements in urban centres of East Africa
    Majale, C. - \ 2011
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Gert Spaargaren, co-promotor(en): Peter Oosterveer. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461730060 - 178
    afvalbeheer - vaste afvalstoffen - gemeenten - milieubeleid - huisvuilverwijdering - oost-afrika - waste management - solid wastes - municipalities - environmental policy - municipal refuse disposal - east africa

    The task of municipal problem solving has become a team sport that has spilled beyond the borders of government agencies and now engages a far more extensive network of social actors - public as well as private, non-profit and profit. Solid waste management is one of the key tasks associated with municipal authorities. It is of particular interest because of its flexibility compared to other services at the municipal level. This means the number of options for addressing solid waste management at municipal level are considered many.

    The Lake Victoria Basin allows a comparison of institutions and practices in the different urban centres that are found in the basin. The ultimate aim has been to advance plausible options for institutional arrangement to improve solid waste management at the benefit of the urban poor in the Lake Basin in East Africa.

    This dissertation is the result of five years of research work done under the PROVIDE project (working on sustainable urban infrastructures in cities of the Lake Victoria Basin, East Africa) with funding from INREF.

    Modernising solid waste management at municipal level : institutional arrangemnets in urban centres of East Africa
    Majale, C. - \ 2011
    Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers (Environmental policy series vol. 3) - ISBN 9789086867455 - 173
    afvalverwerking - huisvuilverwijdering - vuilnis - oost-afrika - waste treatment - municipal refuse disposal - refuse - east africa
    The role of households in solid waste management in East African capital cities
    Solomon, A.O. - \ 2011
    Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers (Environmental policy series vol. 4) - ISBN 9789086867479 - 209
    afvalverwerking - huisvuilverwijdering - vuilnis - oost-afrika - waste treatment - municipal refuse disposal - refuse - east africa
    International manure and refuse sample exchange program
    Eijgenraam, A. - \ 2009
    Wageningen : Wageningen Evaluating Programmes for Analytical Laboratories (WEPAL) (Quarterly report / MARSEP 2009.1) - 38
    afvalstortplaatsen - huisvuilverwijdering - mest - compost - mestverwerking - waste disposal sites - municipal refuse disposal - manures - composts - manure treatment
    Enhanced stabilisation of municipal solid waste in bioreactor landfills
    Valencia Vázquez, R. - \ 2008
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): H.J. Gijzen, co-promotor(en): H.J. Lubberding. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085049180 - 141
    bioreactoren - vaste afvalstoffen - huisvuilverwijdering - stortterreinen - septic tankafvalwater - bioreactors - solid wastes - municipal refuse disposal - landfills - septic tank effluent
    The increasing development and urbanization of the society has led to an increase per-capita production of municipal solid waste (MSW) materials. These MSW materials are of organic and inorganic nature that can be of rapidly, moderately and slowly biodegradable or inert characteristics. With regard to these waste streams a wide variety of treatments exist: reuse and recycling, composting, anaerobic digestion, incineration, and land disposal are the most common ones, pyrolysis and gasification are in use to a lesser extent or on a smaller scale. Regardless of the method chosen for treatment all these methods produce residues, which will be eventually disposed at open dumps or sanitary landfills. Sanitary landfills are engineered facilities that make use of barriers to isolate the waste from the biosphere in order to protect human health and the environment. However, these barriers will fail in the long-term allowing the intrusion of moisture into the waste mass, which will trigger restrained physical, chemical and biological processes causing pollution in the form of leachate and landfill gas. In order to minimise the negative impacts of landfilling of waste, researchers conducted experiments, which resulted today in the so-called bioreactor landfill approach. The bioreactor landfill is a system that is operationally influenced to promote synergy between the inherent microbial consortia, and is controlled to accelerate the sequential phases of waste stabilisation through the addition of liquids and/or air. These past investigations have allowed the determination of optimal ranges for the key process parameters and the implementation of alternative operational conditions, the so-called enhancement techniques. Two main perspectives can be identified: 1) the American perspective, which attempts to apply enhancement techniques in order to maximise landfill gas production; 2) the European perspective that focus on the achievement of the Final Storage Quality (FSQ) status of residues within a generation timeframe (30 years). The term FSQ suggests that the potential of a waste material to produce pollution is reduced to nearly zero in the long-term perspective, similar to the characteristics for inert waste laid in the Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) of the European Landfill Directive. Until now, the main technical problem faced by landfill operators is homogenous liquid addition and distribution (key enhancement technique) within the waste mass. The main objective of this thesis was to achieve a FSQ status of waste, through laboratory and pilot-scale experiments, that complies with the WAC of the Landfill Directive for Inert waste, which had been considered as the worstcase scenario due to the stringent criteria established. Therefore, this thesis focused on the interaction and modification of the factors controlling the waste stabilisation process in order to have a better understanding of the physical, chemical and biological processes occurring in a bioreactor landfill.

    Bench (1 L), laboratory (50 L) and pilot-scale (800 L) simulators were used to apply different combinations of enhancement techniques (shredding. buffer addition, septage addition, and forced air intrusion) in order to achieve FSQ of residues. In addition, coarse materials (as layers or homogenous mixtures) were used in order to improve the hydraulic conditions of the simulators. The results of these experiments revealed that it was possible to achieve biological stabilisation within 1 year, but not FSQ status. Achievement of FSQ status depends strongly on the initial solid waste composition. Nevertheless, the residues were close to comply with the WAC of the Landfill Directive for inert waste. Buffer and septage addition proved to have a positive impact on the waste stabilisation process, reducing the biogas production lag-phase. Additionally, the risks associated with septage disposal were practically eliminated as no faecal coliforms were detected after 1 year of operation. Also the use of coarse materials had a positive impact on the waste stabilisation process, especially as homogenous mixtures and layers to a lesser extent since they were prone to clogging. Nitrogen compounds, especially ammonium, have been identified as a main parameter that will jeopardise the achievement of FSQ status, hence the safe closure of landfill sites. Therefore, evolution and fate of nitrogen compounds were also investigated in this thesis. The experiments showed that about 40% of the total ammonium was released by physical processes within 24 hours; the other 60% was produced by biological degradation of proteins contained in the MSW. Anammox bacteria were found for the first time in bioreactor landfills and it was suspected to have an important contribution to the total removal of nitrogen from the system, beside other nitrogen removal processes. Nevertheless, it was not clear how or where the intermediate products (i.e. nitrite) necessary for Anammox metabolism were produced.

    The Landfill Degradation and Transport (LDAT) model was used to simulate the evolution of carbon and nitrogen compounds. The LDAT model was not suitable to represent accurately the processes occurring in the simulators mainly because the model operated at a fixed (20ºC) process temperature and the waste chemistry equations need to be improved. Other models found in literature could be more appropriate to describe these processes; however, it was noticed that these models lack a complete ionic balance which has great influence on the pH of the system. The experimental research emphasised the importance of increasing pH values to neutral pH values, which “triggered” most of the processes in the simulators. This thesis highlighted the need to focus future modelling efforts on the integration of this complete ionic balance and its influence on the development of neutral (even alkaline) pH levels.

    In conclusion, this research reduced our current gaps-in-knowledge and offered feasible technical alternatives to control and steer the processes occurring in a bioreactor landfill aiming to achieve FSQ status of residues
    Towards the Reuse of Municipal Biowastes in Vietnam: a case study about Ho Chi Minh City
    Buuren, J.C.L. van; Thi, K.O. Le - \ 2006
    Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam : CENTEMA - 159
    huisvuilverwijdering - recycling - vuilnis - vietnam - municipal refuse disposal - refuse
    Table of contents: 1. Solid waste segragation at source in Ho Chi Minh City. 2. Survey of technical efficiency and economic viability of existing composting ventures and survey of the institutional and regulatory framework regarding composting in Vietnam. 3. Demand analysis of urban waste compost. 4. Stakeholder dialogue. 5. Urban biowaste treatment and reuse in Vietnam with emphasis on Ho Chi Minh City. 6. Identifying mechanisms to achieve a viable and manageable biowaste reuse chain in Ho Chi Minh City.
    Household demand for energy, water and the collection of waste : a microeconometric analysis
    Linderhof, V.G.M. - \ 2001
    [S.l.] : S.n. (SOM ) - ISBN 9789072591906 - 161
    energiegebruik - huishoudelijke consumptie - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - overheidsbeleid - subsidies - belastingen - milieubeleid - vraag - huisvuilverwijdering - nederland - energy consumption - household consumption - sustainability - government policy - subsidies - taxes - environmental policy - demand - municipal refuse disposal - netherlands
    Physical-chemical pretreatment as an option for increased sustainability of municipal wastewater treatment plants
    Mels, A. - \ 2001
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): W.H. Rulkens; J.H.J.M. van der Graaf; A. Klapwijk. - S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789058084774 - 168
    afvalwaterbehandeling - huisvuilverwijdering - rioolwater - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - voorbehandeling - waste water treatment - municipal refuse disposal - sewage - sustainability - pretreatment

    Keywords : municipal wastewater treatment, physical-chemical pretreatment, chemically enhanced primary treatment, organic polymers, environmental sustainability

    Most of the currently applied municipal wastewater treatment plants in The Netherlands are based on the activated sludge process and include nitrogen and phosphorus removal. Physical-chemical pretreatment might be an option to improve the environmental sustainability of these wastewater treatment facilities. Physical-chemical pretreatment is meant to separate suspended and colloidal particles in the first step of treatment. The organic concentrate of separated particles is considered a product that can be digested to produce biogas. Since a large part of the organic pollutants in wastewater is present as not-dissolved material (65-70% of COD), the pollutant load to pursuing treatment steps is consequently reduced.

    In the first part of the thesis the concept of physical-chemical pretreatment was evaluated for its potential to design more sustainable treatment systems. Based on a review of unit operations, ten different scenarios for wastewater treatment were designed and evaluated along environmental and financial criteria. The evaluation showed that these scenarios could be designed more energy efficient (savings of 60-75% of energy) and smaller compared to currently applied treatment systems. The total cost of treatment scenarios, which combine pretreatment with secondary biological treatment appeared to be in the same range as that of a reference scenario. The scenario evaluation also revealed two important bottlenecks, namely (i) the use of metal-based flocculating agents results in the production of a considerable amount of extra inorganic sludge and in an increased salinity of the effluent and (ii) the removal of particles is partially accompanied by the removal of biodegradable COD which may affect the denitrification capacity of a biological post treatment step.

    The second part of the thesis describes experimental work into the identified bottlenecks. As alternatives to metal-based flocculating agents the potential application of organic polymers was investigated. Jar tests and experiments with continuous reactors showed that particle removal efficiencies of 70-90% could be achieved by applying these polymers in combination with eighter settling or dissolved air flotation. Especially cationic, high molecular weight polyelectrolytes showed interesting characteristics for practical application as they appeared effective at relatively low doses. A polymer dosing control strategy based on continuous measurement of the influent-turbidity proved effective to create different levels of particle removal, despite large concentration fluctuations in the influent. The effect of particle removal on the elimination of nitrogen was investigated by Nitrogen Uptake Rate (NUR) tests and experiments with a pilot scale activated sludge plant. It was found that with the removal of particulate COD, the biodegradable COD of the investigated wastewater was reduced by 50%. Calculations based on the values obtained in the experiments however indicated that well-designed plants that receive wastewater with an average COD/N ratio still contain sufficient denitrification capacity to comply with the nitrogen effluent constraint at particle removal efficiencies as high as 80-90%.

    Determination of mineral oil in compost
    Harmsen, J. ; Dijk-Hooyer, O.M. van; Pankow, J. ; Zweers, A.J. - \ 1999
    Wageningen : DLO Winand Staring Centre - 25
    compost - huisvuilverwijdering - mineraaloliën - bepaling - composts - municipal refuse disposal - mineral oils - determination
    Biomonitoringsprogramma rondom Huisvuilcentrale Noord-Holland
    Dijk, C.J. van; Alfen, A.J. van; Eerden, L.J.M. van der - \ 1998
    Wageningen : AB-DLO [etc.] (Nota / Dienst Landbouwkundig Onderzoek, Instituut voor Agrobiologisch en Bodemvruchtbaarheidsonderzoek 118) - 23
    milieu - verontreiniging - monitoring - afvalverwijdering - huisvuilverwijdering - verbranden - nadelige gevolgen - milieueffect - menselijke activiteit - landbouw - landbouwproductie - nederland - noord-holland - environment - pollution - waste disposal - municipal refuse disposal - burning - adverse effects - environmental impact - human activity - agriculture - agricultural production - netherlands
    Biomonitoringsprogramma rondom de afvalverbrandingsinstallatie Twente : maart 1997 t/m februari 1998
    Dijk, C.J. van; Alfen, A.J. van; Eerden, L.J.M. van der - \ 1998
    Wageningen : AB-DLO [etc.] (Nota / Dienst Landbouwkundig Onderzoek, Instituut voor Agrobiologisch en Bodemvruchtbaarheidsonderzoek 125) - 18
    milieu - verontreiniging - monitoring - afvalverwijdering - huisvuilverwijdering - verbranden - nadelige gevolgen - milieueffect - menselijke activiteit - landbouw - landbouwproductie - nederland - overijssel - twente - environment - pollution - waste disposal - municipal refuse disposal - burning - adverse effects - environmental impact - human activity - agriculture - agricultural production - netherlands
    Gewasmonitoringprogramma rondom de geintegreerde afvalverwerkingsinstallatie Wijster : januari t/m december 1997
    Dijk, C.J. van; Alfen, A.J. van; Eerden, L.J.M. van der - \ 1998
    Wageningen : AB-DLO (Nota / Dienst Landbouwkundig Onderzoek, Instituut voor Agrobiologisch en Bodemvruchtbaarheidsonderzoek 120) - 21
    veldgewassen - monitoring - kwaliteit - prestatieniveau - huisvuilverwijdering - sorteren - afvalverwijdering - chemische samenstelling - planten - nederland - drenthe - field crops - quality - performance - municipal refuse disposal - sorting - waste disposal - chemical composition - plants - netherlands
    Evaluatie van de herkomst van fluoriden in de omgeving van de Huisvuilcentrale N-H te Alkmaar
    Dijk, C.J. van; Alfen, A.J. van; Eerden, L.J.M. van der; Kok, M.T. de - \ 1998
    Wageningen : AB-DLO [etc.] - 7
    milieu - verontreiniging - fluoriden - monitoring - afvalverwijdering - huisvuilverwijdering - voer - nederland - voedergrassen - noord-holland - environment - pollution - fluorides - waste disposal - municipal refuse disposal - feeds - netherlands - fodder grasses
    Behandeling van lucht uit een composteringsbak voor voorgedroogde leghennenmest door een fysisch-chemische wasser
    Hol, J.M.G. ; Satter, I.H.G. - \ 1997
    Wageningen : IMAG-DLO (Praktijkonderzoek naar de ammoniakemissie van stallen 33) - 15
    luchtverontreiniging - ammoniak - rundveedrijfmest - compostering - compost - emissie - vloeibare meststoffen - mest - huisvuilverwijdering - pluimveehokken - afvalcompost - vervluchtiging - afvalverwijdering - afvalwaterbehandeling - waterzuivering - luchtkwaliteit - mestoverschotten - mestverwerking - ammoniakemissie - pluimveehouderij - pluimveemest - luchtreinigers - air pollution - ammonia - cattle slurry - composting - composts - emission - liquid manures - manures - municipal refuse disposal - poultry housing - refuse compost - volatilization - waste disposal - waste water treatment - water treatment - air quality - manure surpluses - manure treatment - ammonia emission - poultry farming - poultry manure - air cleaners
    In dit onderzoek werd de ammoniakemissie en de NH3-reductie gemeten van 2 fysisch-chemische wassers die de lucht uit een composteringsbak behandelden.
    Biomonitoringprogramma rondom huisvuilcentrale Noord-Holland : januari t/m december 1996
    Dijk, C.J. van; Alfen, A.J. van; Eerden, L.J.M. van der - \ 1997
    Wageningen etc. : AB-DLO (Rapport / AB-DLO no. 78) - 24
    milieu - verontreiniging - monitoring - afvalverwijdering - huisvuilverwijdering - verbranden - nadelige gevolgen - milieueffect - menselijke activiteit - landbouw - landbouwproductie - nederland - noord-holland - environment - pollution - monitoring - waste disposal - municipal refuse disposal - burning - adverse effects - environmental impact - human activity - agriculture - agricultural production - netherlands - noord-holland
    Kennis voor een beter afvalsysteem in Kimberley, Zuid-Afrika : bestaande kennis aan de Landbouwuniversiteit en benodigde kennis voor onderzoek
    Reeze, B. ; Wiel, R. van de; Litjens, M. - \ 1997
    Wageningen : Wetenschapswinkel (Adviesbrief / Landbouwuniversiteit, Wetenschapswinkel 142)
    afvalverwijdering - huisvuilverwijdering - vuilnis - sorteren - afval - vaste afvalstoffen - huishoudens - gezondheidstechniek - stedelijke gebieden - hygiëne - verzamelen - verspreiding van onderzoek - informatieverspreiding - adviserende ambtenaren - consulenten - deskundigen - zuid-afrika - waste disposal - municipal refuse disposal - refuse - sorting - wastes - solid wastes - households - public health engineering - urban areas - hygiene - collection - diffusion of research - diffusion of information - advisory officers - consultants - experts - south africa
    Afdichtende functie van met waterglas geimmobiliseerde afvalstoffen
    Boels, D. ; Beuving, J. - \ 1996
    Wageningen : DLO-Staring Centrum (Rapport / DLO-Staring Centrum 482)
    afvalverwijdering - huisvuilverwijdering - afvalstortplaatsen - stortterreinen - vuilnisbelten - bodembescherming - verzegelen - aanwendingen - toepassingen - Nederland - bekledingen - overijssel - waste disposal - municipal refuse disposal - waste disposal sites - landfills - refuse tips - soil conservation - sealing - uses - applications - Netherlands - linings - overijssel
    Zuiveringsslib, zeefzand en vliegas mengsels verstevigd met waterglas zijn onderzocht als afdichtingsmateriaal voor stortplaatsen
    Doorlatendheid van TRISOPLAST voor verschillende vloeistoffen
    Boels, D. ; Veerman, G.J. - \ 1996
    Wageningen : DLO-Staring Centrum (Rapport / DLO-Staring Centrum 487) - 23
    hydraulisch geleidingsvermogen - infiltratie - stortterreinen - huisvuilverwijdering - vuilnisbelten - verzegelen - kwel - bodembescherming - afvalverwijdering - afvalstortplaatsen - bekledingen - hydraulic conductivity - infiltration - landfills - municipal refuse disposal - refuse tips - sealing - seepage - soil conservation - waste disposal - waste disposal sites - linings
    TRISOPLAST is een mengsel van zand, bentoniet en een polymeer en wordt wegens zijn zeer lage doorlatendheid toegepast voor afdichtingen in bodembeschermende constructies. TRISOPLAST is ongevoelig voor aceton, ruwe olie, fenol en enigszins gevoelig voor diesel en zeewater na een blootstellingsduur van 21 maanden. Als het in contact komt met mierenzuur, kan kooldioxide worden gevormd. De korrelgrootteverdeling van het gebruikte zand heeft geen invloed op de doorlatendheid. Toevoeging van 2% TRISOPLAST aan vormzand verlaagt de doorlatendheid met 85%. In bepaald zand komt van nature een stof voor die het zwelvermogen van bentoniet volledig tot nul reduceert. TRISOPLAST is hiervoor ongevoelig.
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