Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

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    Determination of phomopsin-A in lupin seeds and lupin-derived products : results of an interlaboratory validation study
    Top, H.J. van den; Mol, J.G.J. - \ 2017
    Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen University & Research (RIKILT report 2017.004) - 45
    lupins - food products - determination - food analysis - phomopsins - phomopsis - ascomycota - mycotoxins - lupinen - voedselproducten - bepaling - voedselanalyse - phomopsinen - phomopsis - ascomycota - mycotoxinen
    An interlaboratory study was performed for the determination of phomopsin A in lupin seeds and lupin derived products. This was done in the frame of the 2nd Standardization Mandate (M/520) in the field of methods of analysis for mycotoxins in food, which had been issued by the European Commission in the framework of the Regulation EC 882/2004. The study was organized and carried out in accordance with collaborative study guidelines of AOAC. Test materials (seeds, flour, bakery product) were prepared by addition of naturally contaminated lupin seeds.
    IAG ring test visual detection of ergot sclerotia in rye 2015
    Raamsdonk, L.W.D. van; Rhee, N. van de; Vliege, J.J.M. ; Pinckaers, V.G.Z. - \ 2016
    Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen UR (RIKILT report 2016.013) - 23
    ergot alkaloids - claviceps purpurea - ergot - mycotoxins - ring test - ergotalkaloïden - claviceps purpurea - moederkoren - mycotoxinen - ringtest
    Ergot alkaloids are recognised as seriously toxic compounds, which caused a series of outbreaks in the past. In the EU, enforcement is implemented by visual detection and quantification of ergot sclerotia produced by moulds of the genus Claviceps. On behalf of the IAG section Feedstuff Microscopy, RIKILT organised a ring test for the visual detection of ergot sclerotia in two unground rye samples in September 2015. In this report the results from the ring test for ergot in rye 2015 are presented. The ring test ergot sclerotia in rye was designed to test the capability to visually detect sclerotia or parts thereof at relatively high levels. One sample was based on a level of approx. 400 ppm, and the second sample contained an amount of approx. 1000 ppm (EU legal limit for feeds and ingredients: 1000 ppm = 1 gram/kg = 0.1%). An amount of approx. 250 grams of rye grains was chosen as sample size. All samples were individually spiked. Thirty participants enrolled for the ring test. Participants were requested to report the number of recovered (fragments of) sclerotia and the total weight per sample. The percentage of recovery for every sample was calculated. A dedicated IAG method as well as other (lab internal) methods were allowed for application. Principally, methods are based on sieving (preferably with a mesh size of 0.5 mm), examination of every particle (grain) in the fraction with full grains or particles larger than 0.5 mm, selection of sclerotia fragments supported by documentation, and weighing the final selection of bodies. The average recovery for both samples was approx. 97%. All results except one were between the expected recovery limits (80 – 110 % w/w). Supporting data from an intralaboratory validation study of the IAG method showed trueness at different low spike levels between 98 and 105% w/w. Limit of detection was established at 7 ppm. It can be concluded that examination by visual detection of sclerotia is a valuable indicator of the expected presence of ergot alkaloids. The results of this study provides the data for a partial validation of the method of IAG for the examination of whole kernel cereal samples.
    Survey on sterigmatocystin in food
    Mol, J.G.J. ; Pietri, A. ; MacDonald, S.J. ; Anagnostopoulos, C. ; Spanjer, M. - \ 2015
    Parma, Italy : EFSA (EFSA supporting publiation 2015 EN-774) - 56
    sterigmatocystine - mycotoxinen - graansoorten - bieren - noten - voedselveiligheid - voedselanalyse - sterigmatocystin - mycotoxins - cereals - beers - nuts - food safety - food analysis
    A total of 1 259 samples of cereal grains, cereal products, beer and nuts were analysed for the presence of the mycotoxin sterigmatocystin. Samples were mainly collected at processing plants, storage facilities, wholesale and retail between August 2013 and November 2014, in nine European countries (mostly Greece, Italy, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom (UK), additionally in Cyprus, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland). The products originated from 27 European countries and 18 other countries (mostly rice and nuts). The samples comprised cereal grains (221 wheat, 35 rye, 33 maize, 59 barley, 51 oats, 2 spelt, 117 rice), grain milling products (125), pasta (115), bread/rolls (143), breakfast cereals/muesli (97), fine bakery ware (90), cereal-based infant food (54), beer (53), peanuts (28) and hazelnuts (36). All samples were analysed by methods based on liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).
    Beheersmaatregelen maïskopbrand in snijmaïs : maïskopbrand - heat smut (Sphacelotheca reiliana)
    Groten, J.A.M. - \ 2014
    Lelystad : Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving, Business Unit Akkerbouw, Groene Ruimte en Volegrondsgroenten - 26
    akkerbouw - maïs - gewasbescherming - plantenziekteverwekkende schimmels - sphacelotheca reiliana - rassenkeuze (gewassen) - chemische bestrijding - fungiciden - zaaitijd - ziektebestrijdende teeltmaatregelen - wisselbouw - mycotoxinen - arable farming - maize - plant protection - plant pathogenic fungi - sphacelotheca reiliana - choice of varieties - chemical control - fungicides - sowing date - cultural control - ley farming - mycotoxins
    Maïskopbrand kan veel schade veroorzaken. Na constatering van de ziekte in Nederland is de vraag hoe de ziekte te bestrijden of beheerst kan worden. Op een zwaar besmet perceel in Megen is in 2012 een indicatief onderzoek gestart. De resultaten zijn aangevuld met informatie verkregen uit literatuuronderzoek.
    Occurrence of mycotoxins in a total diet study (TDS) for adults and childeren in The Netherlands
    Lopez Sanchez, P. ; Rijk, T.C. de; Alewijn, M. ; Sprong, C. ; Castenmiller, J. - \ 2014
    mycotoxinen - voedselveiligheid - monsters - voedselproducten - voedselanalyse - mycotoxins - food safety - samples - food products - food analysis
    A total diet study (TDS) may be a valuable approach to assess the exposure of consumers to mycotoxins. A TDS study was performed on the risk associated with mycotoxin intake in cooperation with the Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) and the Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority (NVWA).
    Occurence of mycotoxins and pesticides in straw and hay used as animal feed
    Mol, J.G.J. ; Rijk, T.C. de; Egmond, H.J. van; Jong, J. de - \ 2014
    Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen UR (RIKILT report 2014.006)
    mycotoxinen - pesticiden - stro - hooi - diervoedering - veehouderij - voederveiligheid - dierenwelzijn - mycotoxins - pesticides - straw - hay - animal feeding - livestock farming - feed safety - animal welfare
    The aim of this survey was to provide data on the occurrence of mycotoxins and pesticide residues in straw and hay used as animal feed in the Netherlands.
    Fate of the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol and enniatins when cooking pasta
    Nijs, W.C.M. de; Top, H.J. van den; Mol, J.G.J. ; López Sánchez, P. - \ 2014
    mycotoxinen - vomitoxine - eten koken - pasta's - voedselveiligheid - mycotoxins - vomitoxin - cooking - pastes - food safety
    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of cooking of pasta on the occurrence of the mycotoxins: deoxynivalenol (DON), enniatin A (ENNA), enniatin A1 (ENNA1), enniatin B (ENNB) and enniatin B1 (ENNB1) in naturally contaminated pasta’s available from retail stores.
    Occurrence of Alternaria mycotoxins in food products in the The Netherlands
    Lopez Sanchez, P. ; Venema, D.P. ; Rijk, T.C. de; Kok, A. de; Scholten, J. ; Mol, J.G.J. ; Nijs, W.C.M. de - \ 2013
    alternaria - voedselveiligheid - voedselanalyse - mycotoxinen - analytische methoden - alternaria - food safety - food analysis - mycotoxins - analytical methods
    The objective of this research was: 1) adaptation of an existing LC-MS/MS method to determine 5 Alternaria toxins in various food commodities and 2) perform a survey (95 samples) to gain insight in the levels of Alternaria toxins in fresh apples, tomatoes, citrus, figs, olives, sunflower seeds, cereals, apple juices and tomato sauces, purchased in the Netherlands.
    Feed additives : annual report 2012 of the National Reference Laboratory
    Driessen, J.J.M. ; Beek, W.M.J. ; Zuidema, T. ; Jong, J. de - \ 2013
    Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen UR (Report / RIKILT Wageningen UR 2013.008) - 15
    voedertoevoegingen - toevoegingen - conserveermiddelen - versterkers (enhancers) - voer - mycotoxinen - feed additives - additives - preservatives - enhancers - feeds - mycotoxins
    This report of the Dutch National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for feed additives (RIKILT Wageningen UR) descreibes the activities employed in 2012. The main tasks of the NRL are: providing assistance to the European Union Reference Laboratory (EURL) on their request, as well as providing advice and support to the competent authority, which is the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs - Department 'Plantaardige Agroketens en Voedselkwaliteit'.
    Seed quality in informal seed systems
    Biemond, P.C. - \ 2013
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Paul Struik, co-promotor(en): Tjeerd-Jan Stomph. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461736420 - 120
    zaadkwaliteit - zaadfysiologie - vigna unguiculata - vignabonen - zaadkieming - zaadpathologie - mycotoxinen - zea mays - nigeria - seed quality - seed physiology - vigna unguiculata - cowpeas - seed germination - seed pathology - mycotoxins - zea mays - nigeria

    Keywords: informal seed systems, seed recycling, seed quality, germination, seed pathology, seed health, seed-borne diseases, mycotoxigenic fungi, Fusarium verticillioides, mycotoxins, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays, Nigeria.

    Seed is a crucial input for agricultural production. Approximately 80% of the smallholder farmers in Africa depend for their seed on the informal seed system, consisting of farmers involved in selection, production and dissemination of seed. The lack of overhead, distribution and seed testing costs enables seed-producing farmers to offer seed for low prices, but seed quality is not always good. Seed-producing farmers multiply their seed on-farm without frequent seed renewal, referred to as seed recycling, which may lead to low seed quality. This research analysed the effect of seed recycling on physiological quality and seed health of cowpea and maize, and compared seed quality of the formal and informal seed system.

    We tested the physical and physiological quality of cowpea seeds produced by the formal and informal seed system. Five out of six foundation seed samples, 79 out of 81 samples of farmers’ seed, and six out of six seed company samples failed to meet standards for foundation and certified seeds of the National Agriculture Seed Council (NASC), the seed industry regulatory agency in Nigeria. No evidence was found for a negative effect of seed recycling on physiological quality of cowpea seeds. We analysed 45,500 cowpea seeds for seed-borne bacteria and fungi to compare the performance of formal and informal seed systems. All samples were heavily infected with seed-borne pathogens, including Fusarium oxysporum (69% of the samples) and Macrophomina phaseolina (76%). No evidence was found that seed recycling in the informal seed system did lead to increased levels of seed-borne pathogens. We also analysed seed quality of farmer-produced maize seed to compare it with the formal seed system. The seed company samples had significantly higher germination (99.3%) than farmer-produced seed (97.7%), but not a single sample passed the requirements for certified seed of the NASC. Twelve seed-borne pathogens were identified including Bipolaris maydis (found in 45% of the farmer-produced samples), Botryodiplodia theobromae (97%) and Fusarium verticillioides (100%). Seed recycling had no negative effect on the physiological quality or seed health of maize seed. We analysed formal and informal seed systems to assess the opportunities to prevent mycotoxigenic fungi infection in maize seeds. A range of control methods to avoid fungal infection and mycotoxin production is discussed in relation to three criteria for sustainable implementation in developing countries. An integrated approach is recommended, with special attention towards the local seed system. As an overall conclusion of the work it can be stated that the informal seed system did not underperform compared to the formal seed system for cowpea, but did underperform in relation to seed company samples of maize. There was no evidence that seed recycling reduces seed quality of cowpea and maize seed samples, so frequent seed renewal will not improve seed quality of the informal seed system. We recommend a new quality assurance system for the informal seed system based on seed quality testing by farmers themselves, without interference by government or external laboratories. Farmers publish their seed testing results on the bag, while buyers can retest the seed to verify the quality. Further research is required to develop and implement this system in different countries, agro-ecologies and crops, and to develop methods that enable farmers to test seed health quality themselves.

    Phomopsin A in lupin flour and lupin-containing food in the Netherlands
    Nijs, W.C.M. de; Pereboom-de Fauw, D.P.K.H. ; Rijk, T.C. de; Mol, J.G.J. - \ 2012
    - p. 1819 - 1826.
    phomopsinen - mycotoxinen - lupinen - voedselveiligheid - lc-ms - phomopsins - mycotoxins - lupins - food safety - liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry
    Survey on the occurrence of phomopsin A in lupin flour and lupin containing foods using an LC-MS/MS method.
    Dutch survey ergot alkaloids and sclerotia in animal feeds
    Mulder, P.P.J. ; Raamsdonk, L.W.D. van; Voogt, H.J. ; Brakel, M.W. van; Horst, G.M. van der; Jong, J. de - \ 2012
    Wageningen : Rikilt - Institute of Food Safety (Report / RIKILT, Institute of Food Safety 2012.005) - 45
    diervoedering - voer - ergotalkaloïden - claviceps purpurea - graansoorten - toxinen - mycotoxinen - animal feeding - feeds - ergot alkaloids - claviceps purpurea - cereals - toxins - mycotoxins
    Ergot alkaloids are toxins produced by members of the fungal family of Clavicipitaceae represented among others by Claviceps purpurea, C. paspali, and C. fusiformis, occurring predominantly on rye, wheat and barley, but also on rice, maize and sorghum, oats and millet.
    Trend analysis of mycotoxins in animal feed
    Adamse, P. ; Egmond, H.J. van; Driessen, J.J.M. ; Rijk, T.C. de; Jong, J. de; Nijs, W.C.M. de - \ 2012
    Wageningen : Rikilt-Institute for Food Safety (Rikilt report 2011.017)
    mycotoxinen - voer - voedselbesmetting - mycotoxins - feeds - food contamination
    Feed materials were analysed for the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol, ochratoxin A, zearalenone, aflatoxin B1, fumonisin B1 and B2, and HT-2- and T-2-toxins. In this report trends in the average content during the period 2001-2009 are reported for these mycotoxins. Monitoring data from the National Feed monitoring program and from the Commodity Board Animal Feed are used for this study.
    Phomopsin A in food samples in The Netherlands
    Nijs, W.C.M. de; Pereboom-de Fauw, D.P.K.H. ; Rijk, T.C. de; Egmond, H.J. van; Mol, J.G.J. - \ 2011
    mycotoxinen - phomopsinen - lupinen - lc-ms - voedselveiligheid - mycotoxins - phomopsins - lupins - liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry - food safety
    Phomopsin A (PHA) is a mycotoxin, mainly occurring in lupin. A straightforward LC/MS-MS method has been developed to investigate several lupin-containing food products available in the Netherlands.
    Fax met DON-advies meestal juist
    Schepers, H.T.A.M. ; Spits, H.G. - \ 2011
    Boerderij/Akkerbouw 96 (2011)35. - ISSN 0169-0116 - p. E12 - E13.
    graansoorten - fusarium - timing - beslissingsondersteunende systemen - mycotoxinen - gewasbescherming - spuiten - opslag - cereals - fusarium - timing - decision support systems - mycotoxins - plant protection - spraying - storage
    Bestrijding van Fusarium in granen kan alleen als tijdens de bloei wordt gespoten, blijkt keer op keer uit PPO-onderzoek. 100 procent bestrijding kan niet.
    Homogeniteit als uitgangspunt voor monsternamestrategie : monsternamestrategie van partijen diervoedergrondstoffen in relatie tot de heterogeniteit voor controle op mycotoxines en dioxinen
    Berendsen, B.J.A. ; Jong, J. de - \ 2010
    Wageningen : RIKILT, Instituut voor Voedselveiligheid (Rapport / RIKILT 2010.014) - 46
    voer - ingrediënten - voedselanalyse - monsters - representatieve monstername - mycotoxinen - dioxinen - voedselveiligheid - feeds - ingredients - food analysis - samples - representative sampling - mycotoxins - dioxins - food safety
    In dit rapport wordt de monsternameproblematiek toegespitst op de analyse van mycotoxines en dioxinen in diervoedergrondstoffen. Eerst wordt in hoofdstuk 2 de Europese regelgeving betreffende monstername van diervoeders uiteengezet. In hoofdstuk 3 wordt de homogeniteit gedefinieerd en in hoofdstuk 4 wordt ingegaan op de onzekerheid in het eindresultaat. In hoofdstuk 5 worden relevante parameters voor beperking van de monsternameonzekerheid geïdentificeerd en worden methodes ter bepaling van de monsternameonzekerheid bediscussieerd. Op basis hiervan worden in hoofdstuk 6 conclusies getrokken en aanbevelingen gedaan voor vervolgonderzoek en een praktisch toepasbare strategie voor de controle van diervoedergrondstoffen op mycotoxines en dioxinen die moet leiden tot een betere interpretatie van analyseresultaten.
    Beheersing van fusarium in zomertarwe
    Scholten, O.E. - \ 2010
    Biokennis
    fusarium - schimmel - schimmelbestrijding - zomer - tarwe - plantenziekteverwekkende schimmels - voedselveiligheid - mycotoxinen - diergezondheid - biologische landbouw - akkerbouw - fusarium - moulds - fungus control - summer - wheat - plant pathogenic fungi - food safety - mycotoxins - animal health - organic farming - arable farming
    Fusariumschimmels veroorzaken in zomertarwe een slechte opkomst van zaaizaad en verlies aan opbrengst. Ook produceren ze mycotoxinen in de korrels. Vooral de mycotoxinen zijn met het oog op voedselveiligheid en diergezondheid een toenemende bron van zorg. Het is dus echt een ketenprobleem. Alle reden om de ziekte beheersbaar te maken. Er zijn diverse aanknopingspunten en ontwikkelingen.
    Variation in sequence and location of the fumonisin mycotoxin niosynthetic gene cluster in Fusarium
    Proctor, R.H. ; Hove, F. van; Susca, A. ; Stea, A. ; Busman, M. ; Lee, T.A.J. van der; Waalwijk, C. ; Moretti, A. - \ 2010
    Gewasbescherming 41 (2010)6. - ISSN 0166-6495 - p. 296 - 296.
    plantenvirussen - fusarium - genetische variatie - mycotoxinen - fumonisinen - genetische analyse - plant viruses - fusarium - genetic variation - mycotoxins - fumonisins - genetic analysis
    In Fusarium, the ability to produce fumonisins is governed by a 17-gene fumonisin biosynthetic gene (FUM) cluster. Here, we examined the cluster in F. oxysporum strain O-1890 and nine other species selected to represent a wide range of the genetic diversity within the GFSC.
    Evaluation of agronomic practices for mitigation of natural toxins
    Speijers, G. ; Alink, G.M. ; Saeger, S. de; Hardy, A. ; Magan, N. ; Pilegaard, K. ; Battilani, P. ; Riemens, M.M. - \ 2010
    Brussel : ILSI Europe, International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI Europe report series ) - ISBN 9789078637226 - 48
    agronomie - natuurlijke toxinen - mitigatie - mycotoxinen - risicoschatting - agronomy - natural toxins - mitigation - mycotoxins - risk assessment
    Fusarium in wintertarwe (2007 en 2008). Inventarisatie, identificatie en kwantificering van nieuwe soorten
    Waalwijk, C. ; Köhl, J. ; Vries, P.M. de; Lee, T. van der - \ 2009
    Wageningen : Plant Research International (Rapport / Plant Research International 272)
    triticum aestivum - tarwe - schimmelziekten - fusarium - identificatie - mycotoxinen - eu regelingen - gezondheid - diergezondheid - nederland - duitsland - frankrijk - triticum aestivum - wheat - fungal diseases - fusarium - identification - mycotoxins - eu regulations - health - animal health - netherlands - germany - france
    Fusarium-aarziekte of kalfjesrood is vanwege de opbrengstderving een probleem in granen. Feitelijk wordt Fusarium-aarziekte veroorzaakt door een complex van schimmels dat in steeds andere samenstelling het gewas belaagt. Van recenter datum is de zorg over het vermogen van verschillende Fusariumsoorten om mycotoxinen te produceren. Deze secundaire metabolieten vormen reeds in geringe hoeveelheden een bedreiging voor de gezondheid van mens en dier. De Europese Commissie heeft daarom actielimieten vastgesteld voor een aantal mycotoxinen, terwij; voor enkele andere deze regels aanstaande zijn (Verordening (EG) nr. 1881/2006; Verordening (EG) nr. 1126/2007). Vanwege de steeds strengere normen voor diverse mycotoxinen in voedsel en voer zijn bji ongunstige teeltcondities partijen niet vermarktbaar en kan een tekort aan het te verwerken graanproduct ontstaan
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