Evaluation of Mycotoxin Screening Tests in a Verification Study Involving First Time Users
Lattanzio, Veronica M.T. ; Holst, Christoph von; Lippolis, Vincenzo ; Girolamo, Annalisa De; Logrieco, Antonio F. ; Mol, Hans G.J. ; Pascale, Michelangelo - \ 2019
Toxins 11 (2019)2. - ISSN 2072-6651 - 18 p.
cereals - immunoassay - mass spectrometry - mycotoxins - screening - validation
(AFB₁) in maize and wheat using LFD and LC-HRMS, respectively. The results of analyses were used to calculate intermediate precision (RSDip, covering the inter-analyst variability in preparing the analytical samples and the precision under repeatability conditions) cut-off values and false suspect rates. RSDip ranged from 6.5% to 30% for DON, and from 16% to 33% for AFB₁. The highest obtained variances were associated with the AFB₁ analyses due to working with much lower mass fractions. The rate of false suspect results were lower than 0.1% for all tested methods. All methods showed a fit-for-purpose method performance profile, which allowed a clear distinction of samples containing the analytes at the screening target concentration (STC) from negative control samples. Moreover, the first time users obtained method performances similar to those obtained for validation studies previously performed on the screening methods included in the training course.
Cost-Effective Sampling and Analysis for Mycotoxins in a Cereal Batch
Focker, M. ; Fels-Klerx, H.J. van der; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M. - \ 2019
Risk Analysis 39 (2019)4. - ISSN 0272-4332 - p. 926 - 939.
Modeling - mycotoxins - sampling
The presence of hazards (e.g., contaminants, pathogens) in food/feed, water, plants, or animals can lead to major economic losses related to human and animal health or the rejection of batches of food or feed. Monitoring these hazards is important but can lead to high costs. This study aimed to find the most cost-effective sampling and analysis (S&A) plan in the cases of the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) in a wheat batch and aflatoxins (AFB1) in a maize batch. An optimization model was constructed, maximizing the number of correct decisions for accepting/rejecting a batch of cereals, with a budget as major constraint. The decision variables were the choice of the analytical method: instrumental method (e.g., liquid chromatography combined with mass-spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)), enzyme-linked-immuno-assay (ELISA), or lateral flow devices (LFD), the number of incremental samples collected from the batch, and the number of aliquots analyzed. S&A plans using ELISA showed to be slightly more cost effective than S&A plans using the other two analytical methods. However, for DON in wheat, the difference between the optimal S&A plans using the three different analytical methods was minimal. For AFB1 in maize, the cost effectiveness of the S&A plan using instrumental methods or ELISA were comparable whereas the S&A plan considering onsite detection with LFDs was least cost effective. In case of nonofficial controls, which do not have to follow official regulations for sampling and analysis, onsite detection with ELISA for both AFB1 in maize and DON in wheat, or with LFDs for DON in wheat, could provide cost-effective alternatives.
Determination of phomopsin-A in lupin seeds and lupin-derived products : results of an interlaboratory validation study
Top, H.J. van den; Mol, J.G.J. - \ 2017
Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen University & Research (RIKILT report 2017.004) - 45
lupins - food products - determination - food analysis - phomopsins - phomopsis - ascomycota - mycotoxins - lupinen - voedselproducten - bepaling - voedselanalyse - phomopsinen - phomopsis - ascomycota - mycotoxinen
An interlaboratory study was performed for the determination of phomopsin A in lupin seeds and lupin derived products. This was done in the frame of the 2nd Standardization Mandate (M/520) in the field of methods of analysis for mycotoxins in food, which had been issued by the European Commission in the framework of the Regulation EC 882/2004. The study was organized and carried out in accordance with collaborative study guidelines of AOAC. Test materials (seeds, flour, bakery product) were prepared by addition of naturally contaminated lupin seeds.
Analysis of Mycotoxins in Beer Using a Portable Nanostructured Imaging Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor
Joshi, Sweccha ; Annida, Rumaisha M. ; Zuilhof, Han ; Beek, Teris A. van; Nielen, Michel W.F. - \ 2016
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 64 (2016)43. - ISSN 0021-8561 - p. 8263 - 8271.
beer - deoxynivalenol - imaging SPR - mycotoxins - nanoplasmonics - ochratoxin A
A competitive inhibition immunoassay is described for the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in beer using a portable nanostructured imaging surface plasmon resonance (iSPR) biosensor, also referred to as imaging nanoplasmonics. The toxins were directly and covalently immobilized on a 3-dimensional carboxymethylated dextran (CMD) layer on a nanostructured iSPR chip. The assay is based on competition between the immobilized mycotoxins and free mycotoxins in the solution for binding to specific antibodies. The chip surface was regenerated after each cycle, and the combination of CMD and direct immobilization of toxins allowed the chips to be used for more than 450 cycles. The limits of detection (LODs) in beer were 17 ng/mL for DON and 7 ng/mL for OTA (or 0.09 ng/mL after 75 times enrichment). These LODs allowed detection of even less than 10% depletion of the tolerable daily intake of DON and OTA by beer. Significant cross-reactivity of anti-DON was observed toward DON-3-glucoside and 3-acetyl-DON, while no cross-reactivity was seen for 15-acetyl-DON. A preliminary in-house validation with 20 different batches of beer showed that both toxins can be detected at the considered theoretical safe level for beer. The assay can be used for in-field or at-line detection of DON in beer and also in barley without preconcentration, while OTA in beer requires an additional enrichment step, thus making the latter in its present form less suitable for field applications.
IAG ring test visual detection of ergot sclerotia in rye 2015
Raamsdonk, L.W.D. van; Rhee, N. van de; Vliege, J.J.M. ; Pinckaers, V.G.Z. - \ 2016
Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen UR (RIKILT report 2016.013) - 23
ergot alkaloids - claviceps purpurea - ergot - mycotoxins - ring test - ergotalkaloïden - claviceps purpurea - moederkoren - mycotoxinen - ringtest
Ergot alkaloids are recognised as seriously toxic compounds, which caused a series of outbreaks in the past. In the EU, enforcement is implemented by visual detection and quantification of ergot sclerotia produced by moulds of the genus Claviceps. On behalf of the IAG section Feedstuff Microscopy, RIKILT organised a ring test for the visual detection of ergot sclerotia in two unground rye samples in September 2015. In this report the results from the ring test for ergot in rye 2015 are presented. The ring test ergot sclerotia in rye was designed to test the capability to visually detect sclerotia or parts thereof at relatively high levels. One sample was based on a level of approx. 400 ppm, and the second sample contained an amount of approx. 1000 ppm (EU legal limit for feeds and ingredients: 1000 ppm = 1 gram/kg = 0.1%). An amount of approx. 250 grams of rye grains was chosen as sample size. All samples were individually spiked. Thirty participants enrolled for the ring test. Participants were requested to report the number of recovered (fragments of) sclerotia and the total weight per sample. The percentage of recovery for every sample was calculated. A dedicated IAG method as well as other (lab internal) methods were allowed for application. Principally, methods are based on sieving (preferably with a mesh size of 0.5 mm), examination of every particle (grain) in the fraction with full grains or particles larger than 0.5 mm, selection of sclerotia fragments supported by documentation, and weighing the final selection of bodies. The average recovery for both samples was approx. 97%. All results except one were between the expected recovery limits (80 – 110 % w/w). Supporting data from an intralaboratory validation study of the IAG method showed trueness at different low spike levels between 98 and 105% w/w. Limit of detection was established at 7 ppm. It can be concluded that examination by visual detection of sclerotia is a valuable indicator of the expected presence of ergot alkaloids. The results of this study provides the data for a partial validation of the method of IAG for the examination of whole kernel cereal samples.
Survey on sterigmatocystin in food
Mol, J.G.J. ; Pietri, A. ; MacDonald, S.J. ; Anagnostopoulos, C. ; Spanjer, M. - \ 2015
Parma, Italy : EFSA (EFSA supporting publiation 2015 EN-774) - 56
sterigmatocystine - mycotoxinen - graansoorten - bieren - noten - voedselveiligheid - voedselanalyse - sterigmatocystin - mycotoxins - cereals - beers - nuts - food safety - food analysis
A total of 1 259 samples of cereal grains, cereal products, beer and nuts were analysed for the presence of the mycotoxin sterigmatocystin. Samples were mainly collected at processing plants, storage facilities, wholesale and retail between August 2013 and November 2014, in nine European countries (mostly Greece, Italy, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom (UK), additionally in Cyprus, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland). The products originated from 27 European countries and 18 other countries (mostly rice and nuts). The samples comprised cereal grains (221 wheat, 35 rye, 33 maize, 59 barley, 51 oats, 2 spelt, 117 rice), grain milling products (125), pasta (115), bread/rolls (143), breakfast cereals/muesli (97), fine bakery ware (90), cereal-based infant food (54), beer (53), peanuts (28) and hazelnuts (36). All samples were analysed by methods based on liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).
Beheersmaatregelen maïskopbrand in snijmaïs : maïskopbrand - heat smut (Sphacelotheca reiliana)
Groten, J.A.M. - \ 2014
Lelystad : Praktijkonderzoek Plant & Omgeving, Business Unit Akkerbouw, Groene Ruimte en Volegrondsgroenten - 26
akkerbouw - maïs - gewasbescherming - plantenziekteverwekkende schimmels - sphacelotheca reiliana - rassenkeuze (gewassen) - chemische bestrijding - fungiciden - zaaitijd - ziektebestrijdende teeltmaatregelen - wisselbouw - mycotoxinen - arable farming - maize - plant protection - plant pathogenic fungi - sphacelotheca reiliana - choice of varieties - chemical control - fungicides - sowing date - cultural control - ley farming - mycotoxins
Maïskopbrand kan veel schade veroorzaken. Na constatering van de ziekte in Nederland is de vraag hoe de ziekte te bestrijden of beheerst kan worden. Op een zwaar besmet perceel in Megen is in 2012 een indicatief onderzoek gestart. De resultaten zijn aangevuld met informatie verkregen uit literatuuronderzoek.
Occurrence of mycotoxins in a total diet study (TDS) for adults and childeren in The Netherlands
Lopez Sanchez, P. ; Rijk, T.C. de; Alewijn, M. ; Sprong, C. ; Castenmiller, J. - \ 2014
mycotoxinen - voedselveiligheid - monsters - voedselproducten - voedselanalyse - mycotoxins - food safety - samples - food products - food analysis
A total diet study (TDS) may be a valuable approach to assess the exposure of consumers to mycotoxins. A TDS study was performed on the risk associated with mycotoxin intake in cooperation with the Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) and the Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority (NVWA).
Occurence of mycotoxins and pesticides in straw and hay used as animal feed
Mol, J.G.J. ; Rijk, T.C. de; Egmond, H.J. van; Jong, J. de - \ 2014
Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen UR (RIKILT report 2014.006)
mycotoxinen - pesticiden - stro - hooi - diervoedering - veehouderij - voederveiligheid - dierenwelzijn - mycotoxins - pesticides - straw - hay - animal feeding - livestock farming - feed safety - animal welfare
The aim of this survey was to provide data on the occurrence of mycotoxins and pesticide residues in straw and hay used as animal feed in the Netherlands.
Fate of the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol and enniatins when cooking pasta
Nijs, W.C.M. de; Top, H.J. van den; Mol, J.G.J. ; López Sánchez, P. - \ 2014
mycotoxinen - vomitoxine - eten koken - pasta's - voedselveiligheid - mycotoxins - vomitoxin - cooking - pastes - food safety
The aim of this study was to assess the influence of cooking of pasta on the occurrence of the mycotoxins: deoxynivalenol (DON), enniatin A (ENNA), enniatin A1 (ENNA1), enniatin B (ENNB) and enniatin B1 (ENNB1) in naturally contaminated pasta’s available from retail stores.
Simultaneous real-time PCR quantification of Fusarium asiaticum, F ussurianum and F vorosii, representing the Asian clade of the F graminearum species complex
Fernandez-Ortuno, D. ; Waalwijk, C. ; Lee, T.A.J. van der; Fan, J. ; West, J.S. ; Fraaije, B.A. - \ 2013
International Journal of Food Microbiology 166 (2013)1. - ISSN 0168-1605 - p. 148 - 154.
head blight pathogen - gibberella-zeae - genealogical concordance - southern brazil - wheat - diversity - barley - quantification - populations - mycotoxins
Due to the repeated discovery of new members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC), some of the F. graminearum sensu stricto (s.s.)-specific qPCR assays developed to date have since been shown to be non-specific. In this study, a probe-based qPCR method was developed, targeting a sterol 14-alpha demethylase (CYP51) paralogue, CYP51C unique to the genus Fusarium, for the simultaneous detection of F. asiaticum, F. ussurianum and F. vorosii. Specificity of the assay was demonstrated for a wide range of Fusarium species, including all tested FGSC members (n=6), originating from different hosts and geographic regions. Alongside a previously published assay for detection of F. graminearum, we were able to show that members of the Asian clade of the FGSC (i.e. F. asiaticum, F. ussurianum and F. vorosii) were the primary etiological agent in wheat seeds samples originating from Central-East China. The grain samples from the UK tested negative for the presence of the FGSC's Asian clade and positive for presence of F. graminearum. It is likely that only F. graminearum s.s. is present in the UK, but the presence of other FGSC members cannot be ruled out and need further investigation
Occurrence of Alternaria mycotoxins in food products in the The Netherlands
Lopez Sanchez, P. ; Venema, D.P. ; Rijk, T.C. de; Kok, A. de; Scholten, J. ; Mol, J.G.J. ; Nijs, W.C.M. de - \ 2013
alternaria - voedselveiligheid - voedselanalyse - mycotoxinen - analytische methoden - alternaria - food safety - food analysis - mycotoxins - analytical methods
The objective of this research was: 1) adaptation of an existing LC-MS/MS method to determine 5 Alternaria toxins in various food commodities and 2) perform a survey (95 samples) to gain insight in the levels of Alternaria toxins in fresh apples, tomatoes, citrus, figs, olives, sunflower seeds, cereals, apple juices and tomato sauces, purchased in the Netherlands.
Geographic differences in trichothecene chemotypes of Fusarium graminearum in the Northwest and North of Iran
Davari, M. ; Wei, S.H. ; Babay-Ahari, A. ; Arzanlou, M. ; Waalwijk, C. ; Lee, T.A.J. van der; Zare, R. ; Ende, A.H.G.G. van den; Hoog, G.S. de; Diepeningen, A.D. van - \ 2013
World Mycotoxin Journal 6 (2013)2. - ISSN 1875-0710 - p. 137 - 150.
head blight pathogen - dna-sequence database - species complex - genealogical concordance - wheat - populations - mycotoxins - barley - deoxynivalenol - diversity
The diversity and prevalence of Fusarium species and their chemotypes on wheat in the North-West and North of Iran was determined. Wheat in these areas is severely affected by Fusarium head blight, with Fusarium graminearum as prevalent species causing 96% of the infections in the North-West and 50% in the Northern provinces. Fungal isolates were identified based on morphological characters and sequences of the internal transcribed spacer region, and parts of translation elongation factor 1-alpha and RNA polymerase subunit II sequences. Phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses show little haplotype variation between the F. graminearum strains collected from the different locations, but the isolates differ significantly in their trichothecene chemotypes as determined with a multilocus genotyping assay. E graminearum strains producing 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol were abundant in Ardabil (North-West of Iran), while in Golestan province (North of Iran) at the other side of the Caspian Sea especially nivalenol producing strains and a variety of other Fusarium species were observed. Strains producing 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol were rarely found in both areas. This is the first detailed study on Fusarium infections in Iranian wheat, showing large differences in prevalent etiological agents and in mycotoxin chemotypes geographically.
Cross-validation of predictive models for deoxynivalenol in wheat at harvest
Camardo Leggieri, M. ; Fels-Klerx, H.J. van der; Battilani, P. - \ 2013
World Mycotoxin Journal 6 (2013)4. - ISSN 1875-0710 - p. 389 - 397.
fusarium head blight - small-grain cereals - winter-wheat - weather data - ear blight - mycotoxins - management - variables
To date, several models that predict deoxynivalenol (DON) in wheat at harvest are available. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of two of such models, including a mechanistic model developed in Italy and an empirical model developed in the Netherlands. To this end, field data collected in the periods 2002-2004 and 2009-2011 in Italy, and in the period 2001-2010 in the Netherlands were used. These historical data covered farm observations at 1,306 wheat fields, of which 155 in the Netherlands and 1,151 in Italy. A subset of 10% of the Italian data, derived by random sampling from the total Italian dataset, was used to validate both the Italian and the Dutch model. Additionally, the Italian mechanistic model was validated using the total Dutch dataset. Before validating the Dutch model, it was recalibrated using the remaining 90% of the Italian data. Results showed that predictions of both modelling approaches (mechanistic and empirical) for independent wheat fields were in accordance. Applying a threshold for DON concentration of 1,250 ?g/kg, the mechanistic DON model predicted 90% of the samples correctly. Results for cross-validation of the mechanistic DON model and the recalibrated empirical DON model showed that 93% of the samples were correctly predicted. In general, no more than 6% of underestimates were observed.
Natural toxins - a continuous concern
Nijs, Monique de - \ 2013
natural toxins - mycotoxins - poisoning - food safety - poisonous plants - algae - health protection
Gerstteler mist kennis: Fusarium in gerst is nog onontgonnen terrein
Timmer, Ruud - \ 2013
barley - malting barley - cereals - fusarium - plant pathogenic fungi - mycotoxins - plant protection - breed differences - arable farming
Feed additives : annual report 2012 of the National Reference Laboratory
Driessen, J.J.M. ; Beek, W.M.J. ; Zuidema, T. ; Jong, J. de - \ 2013
Wageningen : RIKILT Wageningen UR (Report / RIKILT Wageningen UR 2013.008) - 15
voedertoevoegingen - toevoegingen - conserveermiddelen - versterkers (enhancers) - voer - mycotoxinen - feed additives - additives - preservatives - enhancers - feeds - mycotoxins
This report of the Dutch National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for feed additives (RIKILT Wageningen UR) descreibes the activities employed in 2012. The main tasks of the NRL are: providing assistance to the European Union Reference Laboratory (EURL) on their request, as well as providing advice and support to the competent authority, which is the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs - Department 'Plantaardige Agroketens en Voedselkwaliteit'.
Seed quality in informal seed systems
Biemond, P.C. - \ 2013
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Paul Struik, co-promotor(en): Tjeerd-Jan Stomph. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461736420 - 120
zaadkwaliteit - zaadfysiologie - vigna unguiculata - vignabonen - zaadkieming - zaadpathologie - mycotoxinen - zea mays - nigeria - seed quality - seed physiology - vigna unguiculata - cowpeas - seed germination - seed pathology - mycotoxins - zea mays - nigeria
Keywords: informal seed systems, seed recycling, seed quality, germination, seed pathology, seed health, seed-borne diseases, mycotoxigenic fungi, Fusarium verticillioides, mycotoxins, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays, Nigeria.
Seed is a crucial input for agricultural production. Approximately 80% of the smallholder farmers in Africa depend for their seed on the informal seed system, consisting of farmers involved in selection, production and dissemination of seed. The lack of overhead, distribution and seed testing costs enables seed-producing farmers to offer seed for low prices, but seed quality is not always good. Seed-producing farmers multiply their seed on-farm without frequent seed renewal, referred to as seed recycling, which may lead to low seed quality. This research analysed the effect of seed recycling on physiological quality and seed health of cowpea and maize, and compared seed quality of the formal and informal seed system.
We tested the physical and physiological quality of cowpea seeds produced by the formal and informal seed system. Five out of six foundation seed samples, 79 out of 81 samples of farmers’ seed, and six out of six seed company samples failed to meet standards for foundation and certified seeds of the National Agriculture Seed Council (NASC), the seed industry regulatory agency in Nigeria. No evidence was found for a negative effect of seed recycling on physiological quality of cowpea seeds. We analysed 45,500 cowpea seeds for seed-borne bacteria and fungi to compare the performance of formal and informal seed systems. All samples were heavily infected with seed-borne pathogens, including Fusarium oxysporum (69% of the samples) and Macrophomina phaseolina (76%). No evidence was found that seed recycling in the informal seed system did lead to increased levels of seed-borne pathogens. We also analysed seed quality of farmer-produced maize seed to compare it with the formal seed system. The seed company samples had significantly higher germination (99.3%) than farmer-produced seed (97.7%), but not a single sample passed the requirements for certified seed of the NASC. Twelve seed-borne pathogens were identified including Bipolaris maydis (found in 45% of the farmer-produced samples), Botryodiplodia theobromae (97%) and Fusarium verticillioides (100%). Seed recycling had no negative effect on the physiological quality or seed health of maize seed. We analysed formal and informal seed systems to assess the opportunities to prevent mycotoxigenic fungi infection in maize seeds. A range of control methods to avoid fungal infection and mycotoxin production is discussed in relation to three criteria for sustainable implementation in developing countries. An integrated approach is recommended, with special attention towards the local seed system. As an overall conclusion of the work it can be stated that the informal seed system did not underperform compared to the formal seed system for cowpea, but did underperform in relation to seed company samples of maize. There was no evidence that seed recycling reduces seed quality of cowpea and maize seed samples, so frequent seed renewal will not improve seed quality of the informal seed system. We recommend a new quality assurance system for the informal seed system based on seed quality testing by farmers themselves, without interference by government or external laboratories. Farmers publish their seed testing results on the bag, while buyers can retest the seed to verify the quality. Further research is required to develop and implement this system in different countries, agro-ecologies and crops, and to develop methods that enable farmers to test seed health quality themselves.
Phomopsin A in lupin flour and lupin-containing food in the Netherlands
Nijs, W.C.M. de; Pereboom-de Fauw, D.P.K.H. ; Rijk, T.C. de; Mol, J.G.J. - \ 2012
- p. 1819 - 1826.
phomopsinen - mycotoxinen - lupinen - voedselveiligheid - lc-ms - phomopsins - mycotoxins - lupins - food safety - liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry
Survey on the occurrence of phomopsin A in lupin flour and lupin containing foods using an LC-MS/MS method.
Aflatoxin determination using in-line immunoaffinity chromatopgraphy in foods
Jinap, S. ; Rijk, T.C. de; Arzandeh, S. ; Kleijnen, H.C.H. ; Zomer, P. ; Weg, G. van der; Mol, J.G.J. - \ 2012
Food Control 26 (2012)1. - ISSN 0956-7135 - p. 42 - 48.
performance liquid-chromatography - mass-spectrometry - column cleanup - trace analysis - online - validation - mycotoxins - products - nuts - contamination
Short throughput times with high precision and sensitivity are of interest of any laboratory. An in-line immunoaffinity chromatographic cleanup procedure coupled to High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and fluorescence detection was developed for the purpose of quantification of the aflatoxin content in food (peanuts, dried figs, and paprika powder). The analysis of the aflatoxin content was performed by HPLC equipped with an in-line immunoaffinity column and a Kobra cell for enhanced detection. Detection limits ranging from 0.14 to 0.32 ng/mL and quantification limits from 0.29 to 0.64 ng/mL were obtained. The trueness was evaluated by analyzing certified reference material and through spiking of aflatoxin reference solutions to food products. The recovery ranged from 75.7 to 92.9% for AFB1, 72.1 to 103.0 % for AFB2, 76.0 to 107.9 % for AFG1 and 82.1 to 103.3% for AFG2. The intra-day (RSDr) repeatability and inter-day (RSDR) reproducibility of measurements were calculated. Both were within the maximum values obtained from the Horwitz equation. The interference experiment showed no interference from other mycotoxins.