Effects of divergent selection for natural antibodies on fearfulness and feather damage of laying hens
Nguyen Ba, Hieu ; Kroeske, Kikianne ; Berghof, T.V.L. ; Rodenburg, T.B. - \ 2017
In: Xth European Symposium on Poultry Welfare, 19-22 June 2017, Ploufragan - France. - World's Poultry Science Association (WPSA) - p. 57 - 57.
broiler breeders - nesting behaviour - genetics - nest design - housing - climate - natural antibodies - feather pecking - fearfulness - behavioural tests - serotonergic system
Broilers have been selected for growth related characteristics, which are negatively correlated to reproductive traits. This genetic background creates challenges in broiler breeders, as the hens do not make optimal use of the nests provided. This project aims to investigate what factors determine nesting behaviour, i.e. where a broiler breeder hen prefers to lay her eggs. Factors such as genetic background, social interactions, physical characteristics of the nest and climate might interfere with the natural nesting behaviour of the hen. Also fundamental trade-offs between different motivations, such as hunger, comfort and safety, might influence nesting behaviour. Behaviour and use of space will be measured in experimental set-ups in order to gain insight in the importance of different system components. This knowledge will be used to optimise housing conditions and develop strategies that stimulate the hen to lay her egg in the nest. The performance of this improved system will be tested in field experiments to investigate the transferability of results from experimental to field conditions.
Natuurlijke antilichamen als voorspeller zieke koe
Knaap, J. van der; Poel, J.J. van der - \ 2015
Veeteelt 32 (2015)15. - ISSN 0168-7565 - p. 10 - 12.
melkveehouderij - dierveredeling - natuurlijke antilichamen - diergezondheid - fokwaarde - dairy farming - animal breeding - natural antibodies - animal health - breeding value
De aanwezigheid van natuurlijke antilichamen, de zogenaamde NAbs, kan sterk verschillen per koe. Door de erfelijkheidsgraad van NAbs is het mogelijk om erop te fokken, zo blijkt uit het project Weerbaar Vee. De uitkomsten bieden perspectief om de gezondheid te verbeteren, maar de uitvoering lijkt nog niet prakijkrijp.
Environmental proxies of antigen exposure explain variation in immune investment better than indices of pace of life
Horrocks, N.P.C. ; Hegemann, A. ; Ostrowski, S. ; Ndithia, H. ; Shobrak, M. ; Williams, J.B. ; Matson, K.D. ; Tieleman, B.I. - \ 2015
Oecologia 177 (2015)1. - ISSN 0029-8549 - p. 281 - 290.
female pied flycatchers - tropical birds - trade-offs - ecological immunology - microbial diversity - natural antibodies - aridity gradient - south-africa - history - patterns
Investment in immune defences is predicted to covary with a variety of ecologically and evolutionarily relevant axes, with pace of life and environmental antigen exposure being two examples. These axes may themselves covary directly or inversely, and such relationships can lead to conflicting predictions regarding immune investment. If pace of life shapes immune investment then, following life history theory, slow-living, arid zone and tropical species should invest more in immunity than fast-living temperate species. Alternatively, if antigen exposure drives immune investment, then species in antigen-rich tropical and temperate environments are predicted to exhibit higher immune indices than species from antigen-poor arid locations. To test these contrasting predictions we investigated how variation in pace of life and antigen exposure influence immune investment in related lark species (Alaudidae) with differing life histories and predicted risks of exposure to environmental microbes and parasites. We used clutch size and total number of eggs laid per year as indicators of pace of life, and aridity, and the climatic variables that influence aridity, as correlates of antigen abundance. We quantified immune investment by measuring four indices of innate immunity. Pace of life explained little of the variation in immune investment, and only one immune measure correlated significantly with pace of life, but not in the predicted direction. Conversely, aridity, our proxy for environmental antigen exposure, was predictive of immune investment, and larks in more mesic environments had higher immune indices than those living in arid, low-risk locations. Our study suggests that abiotic environmental variables with strong ties to environmental antigen exposure can be important correlates of immunological variation.
Minor differences in body condition and immune status between avian influenza virus-infected and noninfected mallards: a sign of coevolution?
Dijk, J.G.B. van; Fouchier, R.A.M. ; Klaassen, M. ; Matson, K.D. - \ 2015
Ecology and Evolution 5 (2015)2. - ISSN 2045-7758 - p. 436 - 449.
a virus - anas-platyrhynchos - natural antibodies - stable hydrogen - wild birds - vice-versa - ducks - patterns - migration - isotopes
Wildlife pathogens can alter host fitness. Low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) infection is thought to have negligible impacts on wild birds; however, effects of infection in free-living birds are largely unstudied. We investigated the extent to which LPAIV infection and shedding were associated with body condition and immune status in free-living mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), a partially migratory key LPAIV host species. We sampled mallards throughout the species' annual autumn LPAIV infection peak, and we classified individuals according to age, sex, and migratory strategy (based on stable hydrogen isotope analysis) when analyzing data on body mass and five indices of immune status. Body mass was similar for LPAIV-infected and noninfected birds. The degree of virus shedding from the cloaca and oropharynx was not associated with body mass. LPAIV infection and shedding were not associated with natural antibody (NAbs) and complement titers (first lines of defense against infections), concentrations of the acute phase protein haptoglobin (Hp), ratios of heterophils to lymphocytes (H:L ratio), and avian influenza virus (AIV)-specific antibody concentrations. NAbs titers were higher in LPAIV-infected males and local (i.e., short distance) migrants than in infected females and distant (i.e., long distance) migrants. Hp concentrations were higher in LPAIV-infected juveniles and females compared to infected adults and males. NAbs, complement, and Hp levels were lower in LPAIV-infected mallards in early autumn. Our study demonstrates weak associations between infection with and shedding of LPAIV and the body condition and immune status of free-living mallards. These results may support the role of mallards as asymptomatic carriers of LPAIV and raise questions about possible coevolution between virus and host.
Development of ileal cytokine and immunoglobulin expression levels in response to early feeding in broilers and layers
Simon, K. ; Vries Reilingh, G. de; Kemp, B. ; Lammers, A. - \ 2014
Poultry Science 93 (2014)12. - ISSN 0032-5791 - p. 3017 - 3027.
immune-responses - gut microbiota - intestinal microbiota - natural antibodies - innate immunity - delayed access - axenic mice - performance - chickens - system
Provision of feed in the immediate posthatch period may influence interaction between intestinal microbiota and immune system, and consequently immunological development of the chick. This study addressed ileal immune development in response to early feeding in 2 chicken breeds selected for different production traits: broilers and layers. Chicks of both breeds either received feed and water immediately posthatch or were subjected to a 72-h feed and water delay. Ileal cytokine and immunoglobulin mRNA expression levels were determined at different time points. Effects of early feeding were limited, but breeds differed strikingly regarding cytokine and immunoglobulin expression levels. Cytokine expression levels in broilers were low compared with layers and showed a transient drop in the second to third week of life. In contrast, broilers showed considerably higher expression levels of IgA, IgM, and IgY. These findings indicate that the 2 breeds use different immune strategies, at least on the ileal level.
Selection Based on Indirect Genetic Effects for Growth, Environmental Enrichment and Coping Style Affect the Immune Status of Pigs
Reimert, I. ; Rodenburg, T.B. ; Ursinus, W.W. ; Kemp, B. ; Bolhuis, J.E. - \ 2014
PLoS ONE 9 (2014)10. - ISSN 1932-6203 - 11 p.
individual behavioral-characteristics - social breeding values - phase protein-levels - growing pigs - sus-scrofa - multilevel selection - complement activity - natural antibodies - housing condition - finishing traits
Pigs living in intensive husbandry systems may experience both acute and chronic stress through standard management procedures and limitations in their physical and social environment, which may have implications for their immune status. Here, the effect of a new breeding method where pigs were selected on their heritable influence on their pen mates' growth, and environmental enrichment on the immune status of pigs was investigated. Hereto, 240 pigs with a relatively positive genetic effect on the growth of their pen mates (+SBV) and 240 pigs with a relatively negative genetic effect on the growth of their pen mates (-SBV) were housed in barren or straw-enriched pens from 4 to 23 weeks of age (n = 80 pens in total). A blood sample was taken from the pigs before, three days after a 24 h regrouping test, and at week 22. In addition, effects of coping style, as assessed in a backtest, and gender were also investigated. Mainly, +SBV were found to have lower leukocyte, lymphocyte and haptoglobin concentrations than -SBV pigs. Enriched housed pigs had a lower neutrophil to lymphocyte (N:L) ratio and lower haptoglobin concentrations, but had higher antibody titers specific for Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin (KLH) than barren housed pigs. No interactions were found between SBV class and housing. Furthermore, pigs with a proactive coping style had higher alternative complement activity and, in the enriched pens, higher antibody titers specific for KLH than pigs with a reactive coping style. Lastly, females tended to have lower leukocyte, but higher haptoglobin concentrations than castrated males. Overall, these results suggest that +SBV pigs and enriched housed pigs were less affected by stress than -SBV and barren housed pigs, respectively. Moreover, immune activation might be differently organized in individuals with different coping styles and to a lesser extent in individuals of opposite genders.
Effects of inclusion of hydrolyzed yeast on the immune response and performance of piglets after weaning
Molist, F. ; Eerden, E. van; Parmentier, H.K. ; Vuorenmaa, J. - \ 2014
Animal Feed Science and Technology 195 (2014). - ISSN 0377-8401 - p. 136 - 141.
growth-performance - saccharomyces-cerevisiae - natural antibodies - weanling pigs - nutrient digestibility - weaned piglets - supplementation - polysaccharides - challenge - chickens
The aim of this study was to examine whether yeast derivative (YD) based on brewery yeast hydrolyzate added to a post-weaning diet affected performance and immune responses in weaning pigs. One hundred and twenty pigs were allocated to 20 pens, taking initial body weight into account, and were distributed into two groups as follows: a negative control diet and the same diet supplemented with 2 g YD/kg. The YD used was Progut® (Hankkija Oy/Suomen Rehu, Hyvinkää, Finland). At days 7 and 21 of the experiment, half of the piglets per group were challenged intramuscularly with 1 mL of a solution of 20% sheep red blood cells (SRBC) in sterile phosphate buffered saline (PBS). At days 0, 14, 21 and 28 of the experiment, blood samples from the challenged piglets were obtained and acute-phase proteins (Pig-MAP), natural antibodies of the IgM- and IgG-isotype binding to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), and agglutinating antibody titers to SRBC were measured. Yeast derivative inclusion improved feed conversion ratio (P=0.025) for the overall period, tended to increase IgG (P=0.087) and IgM (P=0.061) antibodies in serum-binding KLH, and increased (P=0.037) SRBC agglutination titers. Collectively, these data suggest that YD supplementation as 2 g Progut®/kg to weanling pigs triggered the immune system to a more responsive state without penalizing the animal performance which could potentially be beneficial for overcoming disease challenges. Piglets fed with 2 g Progut®/kg for 28 days after weaning also showed an improvement in feed conversion ratio.
Age and genetic selection affect auto-immune profiles of chickens
Parmentier, H.K. ; Harms, E. ; Lammers, A. ; Nieuwland, M.G.B. - \ 2014
Developmental and Comparative Immunology 47 (2014)2. - ISSN 0145-305X - p. 205 - 214.
reactive antibody repertoires - natural antibodies - immunological homunculus - autoantibody repertoire - serum igm - immunoglobulin - specificities - stability - antigens - survival
Specificity, antibody isotype distribution and levels, of natural autoantibodies (NAAb) may be potential informative parameters for immune mediated natural disease resistance, immune modulation, and maintenance of physiological homeostasis. In a previous study we detected IgM and IgG antibodies to liver antigens in plasma from 1 year old chickens. Auto-immune profiles directed towards liver antigens differed between chicken lines divergently selected for specific antibody responses to sheep red blood cells. In the present study we measured the presence and typed levels and antibody isotypes (IgG and IgM) of NAAb binding the ‘auto-antigen’ complex chicken liver cell lysate (CLL) in plasma samples obtained from chickens at 5 weeks and at 1-year of age, respectively, by quantitative western blotting. Extensive staining patterns of plasma antibodies binding CLL were found for both isotypes and at both ages in all birds. At both ages, IgM and IgG bound similar numbers of CLL antigens, which remained almost constant for IgM, whereas the number of IgG stained bands in time was enhanced. Significant differences of binding patterns of NAAb (stained antigen fragments of CLL and staining intensity) were detected between the three different chicken lines at both ages and between both ages, and lines could be clustered on the basis of their auto-antibody profile. The present results indicate that analysis of the plasma NAAb repertoire of poultry like in mammals could provide a way of distinguishing differences of immune competence (as reflected by the selection criterion of antibody responses) between individuals and lines, and could provide tools to select individual birds for health and other traits. The age-dependency of the auto-immune profile suggest that such profiles may also reflect immune maturation, which should be taken into account when relating an auto-immune profile with other traits.
Transgenerational epigenetic effects on innate immunity in broilers: An underestimated field to be explored?
Berghof, T.V.L. ; Parmentier, H.K. ; Lammers, A. - \ 2013
Poultry Science 92 (2013)11. - ISSN 0032-5791 - p. 2904 - 2913.
brain gene-expression - chicken heterophils - oxidative burst - maternal antibodies - natural antibodies - dna methylation - egg-yolk - microflora - system - growth
Transgenerational epigenetics is becoming more and more important for understanding the variation of physiological responses of individuals to the environment and the inheritance of these responses based on all mechanisms other than the actual DNA nucleotide sequence. Transgenerational epigenetics is the phenomenon that the information of the environment of (usually) a female animal is translated into memory-like responses preparing the offspring. As a consequence, individuals of the next generation may show different phenotypic traits depending whether their mothers were kept under different environmental conditions. This may result in either positive or negative effects on the next-generation individuals, which is different from individuals from mothers that have been kept in a different environment. Transgenerational epigenetic effects have been proposed and indicated for specific immune (T cell and antibody) responses (especially in mammals, but also in birds) and innate immunity (nonvertebrates), but surprisingly very little is known of transgenerational effects on innate immunity in chickens. Given the short lifespan of the chicken and therefore the likely dependence of chicken on innate immune mechanisms, more attention should be given to this arm of immunity and mechanisms of inheritance including transgenerational effects that can be initiated in the breeder generation. In addition, it is becoming evident that innate immunity also underlies metabolic disorders in broilers. In the current paper, we will argue that although very little is known of transgenerational effects of innate immunity in poultry, more attention should be given to this type of study. We will illustrate examples of transgenerational epigenetics, and finally propose strategies that should reveal the presence of transgenerational epigenetic effects on innate immunity in chickens and strategies to modulate breeder birds such that these effects positively affect innate immunity of broilers. It is suggested that a mismatch between breeder environment and broiler environment may account for unwanted effects of innate immunity in the broiler
Immunogenetics in dairy cattle : somatic cell count and natural antibody levels
Wijga, S. - \ 2013
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Johan van Arendonk, co-promotor(en): Henk Bovenhuis; John Bastiaansen. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461737274 - 178
melkvee - melkkoeien - immunogenetica - celgetal - natuurlijke antilichamen - genomica - immunologie - genetica - dairy cattle - dairy cows - immunogenetics - somatic cell count - natural antibodies - genomics - immunology - genetics
There remains is a lot to be learned about the interpretation of genetic parameters and the biology of disease resistance and SCS. This PhD thesis aimed to obtain additional insight in disease resistance and SCS by: 1) quantifying the impact of genetics on innate immunity, represented by natural antibodies (NAb), through estimation of heritabilities and genetic correlations; 2) identifying the genomic regions involved in SCS and NAb levels; 3) quantifying the impact of genetics on environmental sensitivity for SCS.
Natural antibody levels are heritable with heritabilities ranging from 0.06 to 0.55 and in general, heritabilities for NAb isotypes were higher than heritabilities for total NAb levels, the latter making no distinction between isotypes. Genetic correlations suggest that isotypes IgA and IgM have a common genetic basis, but that the genetic basis for IgG1 differs from that for IgA or IgM. An additional genome-wide association study for NAb levels showed that information can be gained when total NAb levels are further subdivided into isotype levels. A region on chromosome 23 was significantly associated with genetic variation in isotype IgM levels. The bovine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is located near this region, making this a region of candidate gene(s) involved in NAb expression in dairy cows both from a functional and positional perspective. Results from the study on genetic parameters and the genome-wide association study suggest that NAb isotypes may provide a better characterization of different elements of the immune response or immune competence and enable more effective decisions when breeding programs start to include innate immune parameters. A genome-wide association study was not only performed for NAb levels, but also for SCS. Relatively few associations, however, were found, which suggests that SCS is controlled by multiple loci, each with a relatively small effect, distributed across the genome.
Somatic cell score is partly under genetic control, but is also affected by the environment. Sensitivity to respond to environmental factors, however, can have a genetic origin.
Environmental factors can be divided into known and unknown factors, referred to as macro- and micro environment, respectively. Macro-environmental sensitivity can be expressed as genetic variation in the slope of a reaction norm, whereas micro-environmental sensitivity can be expressed as differences in residual variance that have a genetic origin. Both macro- and micro-environmental sensitivity were found for SCS and these sensitivities were positively correlated. Knowledge on both forms of sensitivity can aid in optimization of selection as correlations between the additive genetic variance in intercept, slope and environmental variance were all away from unity. Selection for reduced environmental sensitivity has the potential to reduce variability in animal performance due to environmental factors and herewith increase predictability of performance across and within environments.
Knowledge on disease biology is important to fully understand the processes involved when selecting for increased disease resistance, as a better understanding enables a better prediction of the consequences. In this context, the general discussion involved the phenotype definition and statistical modeling, influence of maternal effects and genetic variation in the MHC region. The discussion contained three conclusions: 1) analyses of cell types (detailed phenotypes) rather than SCS can provide further insight in the genetic control of SCS and mastitis; 2) no evidence was found for maternal genetic effects on NAb levels in milk. Maternal environmental effects, however, could play a role in NAb levels; 3) genetic diversity in the MHC region is maintained by natural selection. Selective breeding and farm management practices may affect this genetic diversity, which could bring about negative effects on animal fitness, such as fertility problems. Selective breeding for specific MHC haplotypes may therefore impose a risk for negative effects on animal health.
Quantitative trait loci associated with the humoral innate immune response in chickens were confirmed in a cross between Green-Legged Partridgelike and White Leghorn
Slawinska, A. ; Witkowski, A. ; Nieuwland, M.G.B. ; Minozzi, G. ; Bednarczyk, M. ; Siwek, M. - \ 2011
Poultry Science 90 (2011)9. - ISSN 0032-5791 - p. 1909 - 1915.
keyhole limpet hemocyanin - primary antibody-response - red-blood-cells - natural antibodies - laying hens - linkage disequilibrium - affecting susceptibility - mareks-disease - qtl - population
Natural antibodies (NA) create a crucial barrier at the initial steps of the innate humoral immune response. The main role of NA in the defense system is to bind the pathogens at early stages of infection. Different pathogens are recognized by the presence of highly conserved antigen determinant [e. g., lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in gram-negative bacteria or lipoteichoic acid (LTA) in gram-positive bacteria]. In chickens, a different genetic background of NA binds LPS and LTA antigens, encoded by different QTL. The main objective of this work was to confirm known QTL associated with LPS and LTA NA. For this purpose a chicken reference population was created by crossing 2 breeds: a commercial layer, White Leghorn, and a Polish indigenous chicken, Green-Legged Partridgelike. The chromosomal regions analyzed harbored to GGA3, GGA5, GGA6, GGA8, GGA9, GGA10, GGA14, GGA15, GGA18, and GGAZ. The data collected consisted of the NA titers binding LPS and LTA (determined by ELISA at 12 wk of age) as well as the genotypes (30 short tandem repeat markers; average of 3 markers/chromosome, collected for generations F(0), F(1), and F(2)). The analyses were performed with 3 statistical models (paternal and maternal half-sib, line cross, and linkage analysis and linkage disequilibrium) implemented in GridQTL software (http://www.gridqtl.org.uk/). The QTL study of humoral innate immune response traits resulted in the confirmation of 3 QTL associated with NA titers binding LPS (located on GGA9, GGA18, and GGAZ) and 2 QTL associated with NA titers binding LTA (located on GGA5 and GGA14). A set of candidate genes within the regions of the validated QTL has been proposed.
Parameters for natural resistance in bovine milk
Ploegaert, T.C.W. - \ 2010
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Huub Savelkoul; Johan van Arendonk, co-promotor(en): Edwin Tijhaar. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085858270 - 143
melkkoeien - zwartbont - melk - rundermastitis - weerstand - immuunsysteem - immuniteit - natuurlijke antilichamen - genetische variatie - immunologie - diergezondheid - dairy cows - holstein-friesian - milk - bovine mastitis - resistance - immune system - immunity - natural antibodies - genetic variation - immunology - animal health
Parameters for natural resistance in bovine milk
Mastitis or udder inflammation is one of the most important health problems of dairy cattle. Resistance against mastitis and many other diseases is partly based on the naturally present disease resistance capacity: innate immunity. This research therefore aimed to identify adequate immune parameters and determine their relation with the susceptibility of the individual animal for mastitis and possibly also other health problems. Natural antibodies (NAb) were found suitable to further study their relation with natural resistance of dairy cows. Heritability of NAb in milk samples of heifers (cows that had a calf for the first time) was low to moderate, which gives potential for genetic selection. It should, however, be investigated if selection for improved NAb levels has unintentionally also negative relations with other selection traits. Furthermore, NAb could also be influenced by management factors, but this would be a subject for future study. Besides, results suggested that higher levels of certain NAb in milk can decrease the risk for high Somatic Cell Count (in heifers), clinical mastitis and genital organ and fertility problems. However, heifers appear to differ from older cows in the relation of their NAb levels with risk for CM and high SCC, and the (udder) health history also affects this relation.
Effects of organically and conventionally produced feed on biomarkers of health in a chicken model
Huber, M. ; Vijver, L.P.L. van de; Parmentier, H.K. ; Savelkoul, H.F.J. ; Coulier, L. ; Wopereis, S. ; Verheij, E. ; Greef, J. de; Nierop, D. ; Hoogenboom, R.A.P. - \ 2010
The British journal of nutrition 103 (2010)5. - ISSN 0007-1145 - p. 663 - 676.
red-blood-cells - catch-up growth - antibody-responses - natural antibodies - immune-responses - lines - foods - metabolomics - systems - consequences
Consumers expect organic products to be healthier. However, limited research has been performed to study the effect of organic food on health. The present study aimed to identify biomarkers of health to enable future studies in human subjects. A feeding experiment was performed in two generations of three groups of chickens differing in immune responsiveness, which were fed identically composed feeds from either organic or conventional produce. The animals of the second generation were exposed to an immune challenge and sacrificed at 13 weeks of age. Feed and ingredients were analysed on macro- and micronutrients, i.e. vitamins, minerals, trace elements, heavy metals and microbes. The chickens were studied by general health and immune parameters, metabolomics, genomics and post-mortem evaluation. The organic and conventional feeds were comparable with respect to metabolisable energy. On average, the conventionally produced feeds had a 10 % higher protein content and some differences in micronutrients were observed. Although animals on both feeds were healthy, differences between the groups were found. The random control group of chickens fed conventional feed showed overall a higher weight gain during life span than the group on organic feed, although feed intake was mostly comparable. The animals on organic feed showed an enhanced immune reactivity, a stronger reaction to the immune challenge as well as a slightly stronger ‘catch-up growth’ after the challenge. Biomarkers for future research were identified in the parameters feed intake, body weight and growth rate, and in immunological, physiological and metabolic parameters, several of these differing most pronounced after the challenge
Across-line SNP association study of innate and adaptive immune response in laying hens
Biscarini, F. ; Bovenhuis, H. ; Arendonk, J.A.M. van; Parmentier, H.K. ; Jungerius, B.J. ; Poel, J.J. van der - \ 2010
Animal Genetics 41 (2010)1. - ISSN 0268-9146 - p. 26 - 38.
quantitative trait loci - linkage disequilibrium - antibody-response - natural antibodies - chickens - populations - heritability - enteritidis - survival - disease
The aim of the present study was to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for innate and adaptive immunity in laying hens. For this purpose, the associations between 1022 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and immune traits were studied in 583 hens from nine different layer lines. Immune traits were natural antibodies for keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at 20, 40 and 65 weeks, acquired antibodies to the vaccinal virus of Newcastle disease at 20 weeks, and complement activity measured on sheep and bovine red blood cells at 20, 40 and 65 weeks. We adopted a novel approach based on across-line analysis and testing of the SNP-by-line interaction. Among lines, linkage disequilibrium is conserved at shorter distances than in individual lines; therefore, SNPs significantly associated with immune traits across lines are expected to be near the functional mutations. In the analysis, the SNPs that had a significant across-line effect but did not show significant SNP-by-line interaction were identified to test whether the association was consistent in the individual lines. Ultimately, 59 significant associations between SNPs and immune traits were detected. Our results confirmed some previously identified QTL and identified new QTL potentially involved in the immune function. We found evidence for a role of IL17A (chromosome 3) in natural and acquired antibody titres and in the classical and alternative pathways of complement activation. The major histocompatibility genes on chromosome 16 showed significant association with natural and acquired antibody titres and classical complement activity. The IL12B gene on chromosome 13 was associated with natural antibody titres
Seasonal redistribution of immune function in migrant shorebird: annual cycle effects override adjustments to thermal regime
Buehler, D.M. ; Piersma, T. ; Matson, K.D. ; Tieleman, B.I. - \ 2008
American Naturalist 172 (2008)6. - ISSN 0003-0147 - p. 783 - 796.
long-distance migrant - trade-offs - ecological immunology - calidris-canutus - red knots - evolutionary ecology - natural antibodies - tropical birds - life-history - innate
Throughout the annual cycle, demands on competing physiological systems change, and animals must allocate resources to maximize fitness. Immune function is one such system and is important for survival. Yet detailed empirical data tracking immune function over the entire annual cycle are lacking for most wild animals. We measured constitutive immune indices once a month for a year on captive red knots (Calidris canutus). We also examined temperature as an environmental contributor to immune variation by manipulating ambient temperature to vary energy expenditure. To identify relationships among immune indices, we performed principal-component analysis. We found significant repeatability in immune indices over the annual cycle and covariation of immune indices within and among individuals. This covariation suggests immune strategies as individual traits among individuals and the use of different immune strategies during different annual-cycle stages within individuals. Over the annual cycle, both higher-cost phagocyte-based immunity and lower-cost lymphocyte-based immunity were high during mass change, but there was a clear shift toward lower-cost lymphocyte-based immunity during peak molt. Experimental manipulation of temperature had little effect on annual variation in immune function. This suggests that other environmental factors, such as food availability and disease, should also be examined in the future.
Are there differences in immune function between continental and insular birds?
Matson, K.D. - \ 2006
Proceedings of the Royal Society. B: Biological Sciences 273 (2006)1599. - ISSN 0962-8452 - p. 2267 - 2274.
natural antibodies - island populations - acquired-immunity - galapagos-islands - haptoglobin - innate - house - immunology - sparrows - epidemic
Generally, immune system architecture varies with different environments, which presumably reflect different pathogen pressures. Specifically, populations from relatively disease-free, oceanic islands are expected to exhibit reorganized immune systems, which might be characterized by attenuated responses, given the costs of immune function. Some insular animals exhibit an ‘island syndrome,’ including increased susceptibility to disease, and some insular populations have declined when they failed to resist infection by introduced pathogens. I measured eight indices of immune function (haemolysis, haemagglutination, concentration of haptoglobin and concentration of five leukocyte types) in 15 phylogenetically matched pairs of bird populations from North America and from the islands of Hawaii, Bermuda and the Galápagos. Immune responses were not attenuated in insular birds, and several indices, including the concentration of plasma haptoglobin, were elevated. Thus, I find no support for the specific hypothesis that depauperate parasite communities and the costs of immune defences select for reduced immune function. Instead, I suggest that life on islands leads to an apparent reorganization of immune function, which is defined by increases in defences that are innate and inducible. These increases might signal that systems of acquired humoral immunity and immunological memory are less important or dysfunctional in island populations.
Detection of QTL for innate: Non-specific antibody levels binding LPS and LTA in two independent populations of laying hens
Siwek, M.Z. ; Buitenhuis, A.J. ; Cornelissen, S.J.B. ; Nieuwland, M.G.B. ; Knol, E.F. ; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A. ; Groenen, M.A.M. ; Parmentier, H.K. ; Poel, J.J. van der - \ 2006
Developmental and Comparative Immunology 30 (2006)7. - ISSN 0145-305X - p. 659 - 666.
quantitative trait loci - red-blood-cells - natural antibodies - immune-responses - chicken genome - acid - autoantibodies - hemocyanin - bacteria - crosses
In the current study results are presented of an experiment dealing with the Natural antibodies which are measured by level of homotopes LPS and LTA. Two independent populations were examined (F2 population descendant from a cross between chickens divergently selected for either High or Low specific Ab responses to SRBC (HL) and F2 cross descendant from lines expressed different behavior concerning feather pecking (FP)). In total 12 QTL were detected to non-specific antibody titers directed to LTA and LPS and at two ages after applying two statistical models in an F2 HL population. Similarly in an FP cross overall seven QTL were detected. Based on obtained results it might be concluded that different QTL regions are associated with immune responses to homotopes LPS and LTA in poultry
Cold stress equally enhances in vivo pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression in chicken lines divergently selected for antibody responses
Hangalapura, B.N. ; Kaiser, M.G. ; Poel, J.J. van der; Parmentier, H.K. ; Lamont, S.J. - \ 2006
Developmental and Comparative Immunology 30 (2006)5. - ISSN 0145-305X - p. 503 - 511.
red-blood-cells - immune-responses - lymphocyte-proliferation - natural antibodies - responsiveness - exposure - system - adaptation - modulation - exercise
The effects of cold stress, immunization and genetic selection on the expression of mRNA for cytokine genes in poultry have not been completely elucidated. Therefore, in the present experiment, using real-time quantitative RT-PCR, we evaluated the effect of cold stress and immunization with complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) on expression of mRNA for pro-inflammatory (interleukin-1 beta [IL-I beta], IL-6, IL-12 beta), Th-1 (IFN-gamma and IL-2), and Th-2 (IL-4 and IL-10) cytokine genes in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) of chicken lines divergently selected for either high or low antibody responses. Irrespective of the duration, cold stress enhanced expression of mRNA for IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-12 beta and IL-4 cytokine genes in both selection lines. These results indicate that cold stress stimulates both the innate and parts of the adaptive cellular immune system. Immunization with CFA resulted in higher expression of mRNA for pro-inflammatory cytokines and lower expression of mRNA for both Th-1 and Th-2 cytokines. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A hemolysis-hemagglutination assay for characterizing constitutive innate humoral immunity in wild and domestic birds
Matson, K.D. ; Ricklefs, R.E. ; Klasing, K.C. - \ 2005
Developmental and Comparative Immunology 29 (2005)3. - ISSN 0145-305X - p. 275 - 286.
red-blood-cells - natural antibodies - complement activity - chickens - autoantibodies - responses - serum - mice - phytohemagglutinin - responsiveness
Methods to assess immunocompetence requiring only a single sample are useful in comparative studies where practical considerations prevent holding or recapturing individuals. The assay for natural antibody-mediated complement activation and red blood cell agglutination described here, requiring ~100 µl of blood, is highly repeatable. The effects of complement deactivation, 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME), age, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sickness response were examined to validate comparisons among diverse avian species. Complement deactivation by heating significantly reduces lysis and treatment with 2-ME reduces both lysis and agglutination. Lysis and agglutination both increase with age in chickens; LPS treatment does not influence these variables in 11-week-old chickens. In a comparison of 11 species, both lysis (0.0–5.3 titers) and agglutination (1.8–8.0 titers) vary significantly among species. Accordingly, this assay can be used to compare constitutive innate humoral immunity among species and with respect to age, sex, and experimental treatments within populations.
Rate of constitutive innate humoral immune development in Leach's storm petrel (Oceanodroma leucorhoa) chicks is negatively correlated with growth rate
Mauck, R.A. ; Matson, K.D. ; Philipsborn, J. ; Ricklefs, R.E. - \ 2005
Functional Ecology 19 (2005)6. - ISSN 0269-8463 - p. 1001 - 1007.
cell-mediated-immunity - trade-offs - ecological immunology - evolutionary ecology - natural antibodies - pied flycatchers - tit nestlings - immunocompetence - responses - costs
1 Using a simple technique for assessing constitutive innate immune function recently adapted for use in wild populations, we characterize changes in avian immune system development by repeated measurements of individuals over the period of nestling growth in a wild population of Leach's Storm-Petrels (Oceanodroma leucorhoa). 2 We measured levels of natural antibodies (NAb) during the early, middle and late phases of storm-petrel development and related these levels and NAb rate of change to mass and wing length growth. We used natural variation in nestling growth to assess the influence of nutritional status on the development of innate immunity. 3 NAb levels increased over the first 50 days of chick development; however, rate of increase was inversely proportional to wing growth. 4 Initial titre levels were inversely proportional to rate of change in NAb levels over the first 50 days of immune development. This suggests that individuals with low initial NAb levels accelerate immune development to reach adult levels, whereas individuals with high initial levels do not. 5 As in previous studies, our results demonstrate an inverse relationship between growth rate and development of components of the avian immune system. While such a relationship is consistent with the idea that immune function development involves trade-offs, the processes involved are more complex than simple energy allocation.