Food safety management systems performance in African food processing companies: a review of deficiencies and possible improvement strategies
Kussaga, J.B. ; Jacxsens, L. ; Tiisekwa, B.P.M. ; Luning, P.A. - \ 2014
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 94 (2014)11. - ISSN 0022-5142 - p. 2154 - 2169.
traditional dairy-products - escherichia-coli o157-h7 - small-scale fermentation - global commodity chain - south-west nigeria - microbiological quality - developing-countries - pesticide-residues - aflatoxin contamination - natural occurrence
This study seeks to provide insight into current deficiencies in food safety management systems (FSMS) in African food-processing companies and to identify possible strategies for improvement so as to contribute to African countries’ efforts to provide safe food to both local and international markets. This study found that most African food products had high microbiological and chemical contamination levels exceeding the set (legal) limits. Relative to industrialized countries, the study identified various deficiencies at government, sector/branch, retail and company levels which affect performance of FSMS in Africa. For instance, very few companies (except exporting and large companies) have implemented HACCP and ISO 22000:2005. Various measures were proposed to be taken at government (e.g. construction of risk-based legislative frameworks, strengthening of food safety authorities, recommend use of ISO 22000:2005, and consumers’ food safety training), branch/sector (e.g. sector-specific guidelines and third-party certification), retail (develop stringent certification standards and impose product specifications) and company levels (improving hygiene, strict rawmaterial control, production process efficacy, and enhancing monitoring systems, assurance activities and supportive administrative structures). By working on those four levels, FSMS of African food-processing companies could be better designed and tailored towards their production processes and specific needs to ensure food safety.
Colour-encoded paramagnetic microbead-based direct inhibition triplex flow cytometric immunoassay for ochratoxin A, fumonisins and zearalenone in cereals and cereal-based feed
Peters, J. ; Thomas, D. ; Boers, E.A.M. ; Rijk, T.C. de; Berthiller, F. ; Haasnoot, W. ; Nielen, M.W.F. - \ 2013
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 405 (2013)24. - ISSN 1618-2642 - p. 7783 - 7794.
linked-immunosorbent-assay - surface-plasmon resonance - mycotoxin analysis - natural occurrence - food - b-1 - products - maize - corn - regulations
A combined (triplex) immunoassay for the simultaneous detection of three mycotoxins in grains was developed with superparamagnetic colour-encoded microbeads, in combination with two bead-dedicated flow cytometers. Monoclonal antibodies were coupled to the beads, and the amounts of bound mycotoxins were inversely related to the amounts of bound fluorescent labelled mycotoxins (inhibition immunoassay format). The selected monoclonal antibodies were tested for their target mycotoxins and for cross-reactivity with relevant metabolites and masked mycotoxins. In the triplex format, low levels of cross-interactions between the assays occurred at irrelevant high levels only. All three assays were influenced by the sample matrix of cereal extracts to some extent, and matrix-matched calibrations are recommended for quantitative screening purposes. In a preliminary in-house validation, the triplex assay was found to be reproducible, sensitive and sufficiently accurate for the quantitative screening at ML level. The triplex assay was critically compared to liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry using reference materials and fortified blank material. Results for the quantification of ochratoxin A and zearalenone were in good agreement. However, the fumonisin assay was, due to overestimation, only suitable for qualitative judgements. Both flow cytometer platforms (Luminex 100 and FLEXMAP 3D) performed similar with respect to sensitivity with the advantages of a higher sample throughput and response range of the FLEXMAP 3D and lower cost of the Luminex 100.
Mycotoxin contamination of cereal grain commidities in relation to climate in North West Europe
Fels-Klerx, H.J. van der; Klemsdal, S.S. ; Hietaniemi, V. ; lindblad, M. ; Ioannou-Kakouri, E. ; Asselt, E.D. van - \ 2012
Food Additives & Contaminants. Pt. A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment 29 (2012)10. - ISSN 1944-0049 - p. 1581 - 1592.
fusarium toxins - deoxynivalenol content - natural occurrence - winter-wheat - ochratoxin-a - head blight - ht-2 toxin - t-2 toxin - uk - trichothecenes
This study aimed to investigate mycotoxin contamination of cereal grain commodities for feed and food production in North Western Europe during the last two decades, including trends over time and co-occurrence between toxins, and to assess possible effects of climate on the presence of mycotoxins. For these aims, analytical results related to mycotoxin contamination of cereal grain commodities, collected in the course of national monitoring programmes in Finland, Sweden, Norway and the Netherlands during a 20-year period, were gathered. Historical observational weather data, including daily relative humidity, rainfall and temperature, were obtained from each of these four countries. In total 6382 records, referring to individual sample results for mycotoxin concentrations (one or more toxins) in cereal grains were available. Most records referred to wheat, barley, maize and oats. The most frequently analysed mycotoxins were deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin and zearalenone. Deoxynivalenol had the highest overall incidence of 46%, and was mainly found in wheat, maize and oats. Mycotoxins that showed co-occurrence were: deoxynivalenol and 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol in oats; deoxynivalenol and zearalenone in maize and wheat; and T-2 toxin and HT-2 toxin in oats. The presence of both deoxynivalenol and zearalenone in wheat increased with higher temperatures, relative humidity and rainfall during cultivation, but the presence of nivalenol was negatively associated with most of these climatic factors. The same holds for both nivalenol and deoxynivalenol in oats. This implies that climatic conditions that are conducive for one toxin may have a decreasing effect on the other. The presence of HT-2 toxin in oats showed a slight decreasing trends over time, but significant trends for other toxins showed an increasing presence during the last two decades. It is therefore useful to continue monitoring of mycotoxins. Obtained results can be used for development of predictive models for presence of mycotoxins in cereal grains.
Role of Solanum dulcamara L. in Potato Late Blight Epidemiology
Golas, T.M. ; Weerden, G.M. van der; Berg, R.G. van den; Mariani, C. ; Allefs, J.J.H.M. - \ 2010
Potato Research 53 (2010)1. - ISSN 0014-3065 - p. 69 - 81.
infestans mont debary - nevado-de-toluca - phytophthora-infestans - natural occurrence - solanaceous hosts - western slopes - resistance - plant - inoculation - strains
Four sites with naturally growing Solanum dulcamara were surveyed during 2006 and 2007 for the presence of late blight. Despite 2 years of observations, no late blight was detected among natural populations of bittersweet. Nevertheless, repeated infections occurred on few S. dulcamara plants from a collection growing in a botanical garden in the same years. These plants were used to investigate the possibility of survival of the inoculum between seasons. In the respective years, a set of 21 and 52 S. dulcamara accessions inoculated with Phytophthora infestans under field conditions resulted in a wide range of responses to the disease. More susceptible reactions were found among genotypes collected at greater distance from commercial potato fields indicating the possibility of genetic selection caused by P. infestans. However, both scarceness of natural infections and no overwintering, suggest that bittersweet may not play a role in late blight epidemiology
Development of a generic PCR detection of deoxynivalenol- and nivalenol-chemotypes of Fusarium graminearum
Li, H.P. ; Wu, A.B. ; Zhao, C.S. ; Scholten, O.E. ; Löffler, H.J.M. ; Liao, Y.C. - \ 2005
FEMS Microbiology Letters 243 (2005)2. - ISSN 0378-1097 - p. 505 - 511.
gibberella-zeae - trichothecene biosynthesis - natural occurrence - mycotoxins - wheat - identification - sporotrichioides - quantification - chromatography - polymorphism
Based on the intergenic sequences of Tri5¿Tri6 genes involved in the mycotoxin pathways of Fusarium species, a generic PCR assay was developed to detect a 300 bp fragment of deoxynivalenol (DON)-chemotypes and a 360 bp sequence of nivalenol (NIV)- chemotypes of Fusarium graminearum. Mycotoxin chemotypes identified by the PCR assays were confirmed by the chemical analyses of HPLC or GC/MS. Further analysis of 364 F. graminearum isolates from 12 provinces of China showed that 310 were DON-chemotypes and 54 were NIV-chemotypes. Sequence analyses revealed that DON-chemotypes display more variations than NIV-chemotypes. This PCR assay could be used to detect mycotoxin-producing Fusarium-species and may thus help to develop strategies to avoid or reduce mycotoxin contamination of cereals. Also this assay may provide useful alternatives to antibody-based mycotoxin tests