Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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The Endogenous African Business: Why and How It Is Different, Why It Is Emerging Now, and Why It Matters
Ingenbleek, Paul T.M. - \ 2019
Journal of African Business 20 (2019)2. - ISSN 1522-8916 - p. 195 - 205.
Africa - African business - history - natural resources - rural areas

Africa is currently undergoing a transition that is unprecedented in its history. For the first time, the demand of urban populations pulls business development, thus creating economies with higher levels of specialization than before. This essay highlights the phenomenon of the endogenous African businesses that are arising in this process. These businesses tap into the natural resources and the social, economic, and cultural systems that build upon them. These resources and systems make the African business environment different from business environments in other parts of the world. Furthermore, the endogenous businesses have access to knowledge on how to manage modern businesses in the formal sector of the economy. In combination with African resources and systems, such knowledge enables them to create and sustain and competitive advantage in modern dynamic marketplaces. Endogenous African businesses are important because they have the potential to fuel economic growth, to revitalize rural areas, to contribute to food security and healthy diets, and to provide role models of which Africans can be proud. Hence, these businesses deserve our attention in the next two decades of scholarly research and education on African business.

Towards a Theory of Claim Making: Bridging Access and Property Theory
Kronenburg García, Angela ; Dijk, Han van - \ 2019
Society & Natural Resources (2019). - ISSN 0894-1920
access - Claim making - land - natural resources - property - theory

This article proposes a framework for studying and understanding how people make claims to land and other natural resources. We argue that a focus on claim-making practices of actors (individuals, groups, institutions, companies, the state), and the processes of appropriation, accessing and contestation that come along with it, best responds to Sikor and Lund’s call to examine “the grey zone” between access and property. We identify and discuss three practices of claim making: “grounding claims” is the practice of inscribing or altering the landscape with visible markers connoting ownership; “talking claims” is when speech is used strategically to make, justify and contest claims; and “representing claims” is when claims are represented on material objects (maps, title deeds) that are detached from the resource. We contribute to debates on enclosure, large-scale land acquisitions and resource grabbing by providing a lens of claim making through which these processes can be conceptualized.

Between Soviet Legacy and Corporate Social Responsibility: Emerging Benefit Sharing Frameworks in the Irkutsk Oil Region, Russia
Tysyachnyouk, M. ; Petrov, Andrey N. ; Kuklina, Vera ; Krasnoshtanova, Natalia - \ 2018
Sustainability 10 (2018)9. - ISSN 2071-1050 - 23 p.
benefit sharing - extractive industries - natural resources - Russia - Arctic - corporate social responsibility
Benefit sharing arrangements are a central element of the interactions between oil companies and local communities in resource regions of the Arctic and sub-Arctic. This paper focused on developing a systematic understanding and typology of benefit sharing arrangements within the oil sector in the Russian Arctic and sub-Arctic, using the Irkutsk Oil Region as a case study. It provided a critical analysis of prevalent arrangements and practices (modes and mechanisms of benefit sharing), as well as examined institutional and social underpinnings of these benefit sharing frameworks. Qualitative methodology with semi-structured interviews were used. The paper demonstrated that sub-Arctic communities are not equally benefiting from oil and gas extraction. Despite a considerable variety of existing arrangements revealed by this study, no benefit sharing mode or mechanism prevalent today ensures sustainable development of local communities. This may stem from the incompatibility between post-Soviet legacies, corporate social responsibility principles, and local institutional frameworks. Although focused on a particular region, this research was indicative of general benefit sharing patterns in modern Russia and beyond.
Bedrijven en hun impact op en afhankelijkheid van natuurlijk kapitaal
Smits, M.J.W. ; Bos, E.J. ; Heide, C.M. van der; Selnes, T. ; Vogelzang, T.A. - \ 2016
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (Rapport / LEI Wageningen UR 2016-060) - ISBN 9789462578395 - 27 p.
natuurlijke hulpbronnen - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - ecosystemen - dienstensector - bedrijven - organisaties - natural resources - sustainability - ecosystems - services - businesses - organizations
What tools and data do companies use to measure their impact on natural capital, and what are the gaps in terms of instruments ? The main findings, based on interviews are: i) companies mainly work with LCA ii) companies with many products prefer to work with labels, iii) there is a need for standardisation at the sector level, iv) availability of data at field level is a bottleneck, v) nonfrontrunners could be more involved in natural capital.
The contribution of sustainable trade to the conservation of natural capital
Oorschot, M. van; Wentink, Carsten ; Kok, Marcel ; Beukering, P. ; Kuik, O. ; Drunen, M. van; Berg, J. van den; Ingram, V.J. ; Judge, L.O. ; Arets, E.J.M.M. ; Veneklaas, E.J. - \ 2016
The Hague : PBL: Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL publication 1700) - 96 p.
certification - sustainability - cost benefit analysis - resource conservation - natural resources - tropics - ecosystem services - biobased economy - certificering - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - kosten-batenanalyse - hulpbronnenbehoud - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - tropen - ecosysteemdiensten
PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency has conducted a study into the potential impact of certified sustainable production on natural capital and the related ecosystem goods and services. Forests are a well-known example of natural capital; they are valuable to society, among other things because they store large amounts of carbon. The performed cost-benefit analyses show that certified resource production has several societal benefits, such as reductions in environmental pollution, soil erosion and health damage. However, for resource producers, the financial returns of more sustainable production methods are often limited. The uneven distribution of costs and benefits over public and private actors forms a barrier to any further scale up of sustainable production. Thus, there is a need for additional solutions, besides certifying trade to help conserve ecosystems elsewhere in the world.
Manure: a valuable resource! : Introduction and scope of manure management
Vellinga, Th.V. - \ 2016
Wageningen UR Livestock Research
animal manures - manure policy - manure treatment - livestock farming - natural resources - climatic change - food security - farm management - dierlijke meststoffen - mestbeleid - mestverwerking - veehouderij - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - klimaatverandering - voedselzekerheid - agrarische bedrijfsvoering
Recording of a webinar on Integrated Manure Management conducted on February 3, 2016 and organized by the Livestock and Manure Management project lead by Wageningen UR Livestock Research and Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations: http://www.manurekiosk.org/ Key speakers:• Opening address: outlining the Climate and Clean Air Coalition (CCAC) and framing the Livestock and Manure Management Component by Mrs Helena MOLIN VALDÉS, Head of the CCAC Secretariat at the UN Environment Programme in Paris. • Setting the scope: Introduction to Integrated Manure Management and how this is an important element to feed the world. What are the principles that make it work? by Theun VELLINGA, Senior Researcher Livestock Systems and Climate Change at Wageningen UR (University & Research centre) Livestock Research in the Netherlands; and leader of the Livestock and Manure Management project. • How to get to practice change? by Eric KEMP-BENEDICT, Director of the Asian Centre of the Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) in Bangkok; and partner in the Livestock and Manure Management project.
Micropolitics in Resistance: The Micropolitics of Large-Scale Natural Resource Extraction in South East Asia
Rasch, E.D. ; Kohne, F.M. - \ 2016
Society & Natural Resources 29 (2016)4. - ISSN 0894-1920 - p. 479 - 492.
Micropolitics - resistance - natural resources - extraction - south east asia - society
This article analyzes Southeast Asian local communities’ resistance against the globalizing large-scale exploitation of natural resources using a micropolitical ecology approach. It focuses on how communities struggle for livelihoods, both resisting and appropriating globalized practices and narratives. Our ethnographic material encompasses natural resource conflicts in two communities: one on Sumatra (Indonesia) and one on Palawan (the Philippines). In both communities foreign and national companies have laid claims on community lands, transforming local power relations and wealth distribution as well as the relations of the communities vis-à-vis globalized production and the state. Communities often split over such transformations; some members negotiate a share in the globalized markets, while others organize resistance against these developments. The article argues that the specifics of this resistance against globalization can only be explained by taking into account the “micropolitics” within which they are produced, which calls for an ethnographic research approach to globalization.
Biofuel production in Vietnam : Greenhouse gas emissions and socioeconomic impacts
Thanh, L. le - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Ekko van Ierland; Xueqin Zhu. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576186 - 197
biofuels - greenhouse gases - environmental economics - emission - socioeconomics - fuels - natural resources - vietnam - biobrandstoffen - broeikasgassen - milieueconomie - emissie - sociale economie - brandstoffen - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - vietnam
The overall objective of this thesis is to study the energy efficiency, GHG emission savings, and the economic viability of biofuels as energy for transportation and to examine the impacts of biofuel policies on food production, welfare, and emission in Vietnam.
Goede verwerking van natuurgras bij oogst en bewaren essentieel voor succes : : themanummer groene grondstoffen
Durksz, D.L. - \ 2015
Vakblad Natuur Bos Landschap 12 (2015)118. - ISSN 1572-7610 - p. 28 - 30.
mestvergisting - mest - biogas - co-vergisting - grasmaaisel - maaien - graslandbeheer - biomassa - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - graskuilvoer - manure fermentation - manures - co-fermentation - grass clippings - mowing - grassland management - biomass - natural resources - grass silage
Natuurgras kan uitstekend dienst doen als co-vergister in mestvergisters. Maar dan moeten de oogst en de opslag wel goed gebeuren.
Economische prikkels voor vergroening in de landbouw
Brouwer, F.M. ; Smit, A.B. ; Verburg, R.W. - \ 2015
Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 37) - 92 p.
stimulansen - economie - melkveehouderij - akkerbouw - economie van natuurlijke hulpbronnen - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - hulpbronnenbehoud - agrarische economie - groene hart - flevoland - nederland - incentives - economics - dairy farming - arable farming - natural resource economics - natural resources - resource conservation - agricultural economics - netherlands
In dit rapport worden de mogelijkheden verkend om een duurzaam gebruik van natuurlijke hulpbronnen door economische prikkels te stimuleren. Het onderzoek betreft de economische prikkels en externe effecten in de melkveehouderij in het Groene Hart en de akkerbouw in Flevoland. Over het algemeen zal een lastenverzwaring in het gebruik van bijvoorbeeld kunstmest en gewasbeschermings-middelen relatief weinig effect hebben. Daarentegen zal het belasten van hoge emissies en het belonen van lage emissies naar verwachting meer stimuleren om negatieve externe effecten te verminderen.
Runoff and sediment yield of tilled and spontaneous grass-covered olive groves grown on sloping land
Palese, A.M. ; Ringersma, Jacquelijn ; Baartman, J.E.M. ; Peters, P. ; Xiloyannis, C. - \ 2015
Soil Research 53 (2015)5. - ISSN 1838-675X - p. 542 - 552.
conservation measures - natural resources - nutrient losses - soil management

Soil erosion in olive groves is a widespread phenomenon in the Mediterranean Basin. Many studies have investigated the effects of tillage and herbaceous ground cover (spontaneous or seeded) in their effectiveness to reduce soil erosion in a wide range of Mediterranean sites under different pedoclimatic and topographic conditions. The present study was performed in Ferrandina, southern Italy: a small drip-type rainfall simulator was used on square microplots (0.25×0.25m) to evaluate the propensity to erosion of a steep rain-fed olive grove (mean slope ∼10%) with a sandy loam soil by measuring runoff and sediment load under extreme rain events. Two types of soil management were compared: (1) spontaneous grasses as ground cover (GC) providing a maximum ground cover close to 100%; and (2) tillage (T). In the tillage treatment, a further distinction was made between runoff and sediment produced 1 day (T1) and 10 days (T2) after tillage in order to assess the temporal evolution of tillage effects. The results show that GC reduced surface runoff to approximately one-third and soil losses to zero compared with T1. T2 microplots, tested 10 days after tillage, produced only one-tenth the sediment compared with T1 microplots that were subjected to rainfall simulations 1 day after tillage. Total runoff between the two tilled microplots was similar, although runoff on T1 microplots increased steadily over time whereas runoff on T2 microplots remained stable over the duration of simulations. Such findings may be useful to direct and strengthen the policy towards measures to prevent further soil degradation, as clearly requested by the European Union via the cross-compliance concept. A further economic recognition to the olive growers for the achievable environmental benefits could convince them to a shift towards alternative soil management strategies.

LPPSLH end line report - MFS II country evaluations, Civil Society component
Klaver, D.C. ; Nugroho, K. ; Smidt, H. ; Sinung Prasetyo, K. ; Sutantio, S. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / CDI 15-060) - 86
maatschappelijk middenveld - verandering - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - milieu - sociale participatie - armoede - gemeenschapsontwikkeling - ontwikkeling - ontwikkelingssamenwerking - evaluatie - nederland - indonesië - civil society - change - natural resources - environment - social participation - poverty - community development - development - development cooperation - evaluation - netherlands - indonesia
This report describes the results of the end line assessment of the Indonesian Foundation for Research and Development of Natural Resources and Environment –LPPSLH that is a partner of Hivos. It assesses LPPSLH’s efforts towards strengthening Civil Society in Indonesia, using the CIVICUS analytical framework. It is a follow-up of a baseline study conducted in 2012. Key questions that are being answered comprise changes in the five CIVICUS dimensions to which LPPSLH contributed; the nature of its contribution; the relevance of the contribution made and an identification of factors that explain LPPSLH’s role in civil society strengthening. The evaluation was commissioned by NWO-WOTRO, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research in the Netherlands and is part of the programmatic evaluation of the Co-Financing System - MFS II financed by the Dutch Government, whose overall aim is to strengthen civil society in the South as a building block for structural poverty reduction. Apart from assessing impact on MDGs, the evaluation also assesses the contribution of the Dutch Co-Funding Agencies to strengthen the capacities of their Southern Partners, as well as the contribution of these partners towards building a vibrant civil society arena.
Adaptive collaborative governance of Nepal's community forests: shifting power, strenghtening livelihoods
McDougall, C.L. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Cees Leeuwis, co-promotor(en): J.L.S. Jiggins. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462572881 - 322
bewonersparticipatie - governance - sociale samenwerking - sociaal leren - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - bosbouw - gemeenschappen - middelen van bestaan - adaptatie - sociaal kapitaal - vrouwen - armoede - nepal - community participation - governance - social cooperation - social learning - natural resources - forestry - communities - livelihoods - adaptation - social capital - women - poverty - nepal

Short Summary

Cynthia McDougall--PhD Dissertation

Knowledge, Technology, &Innovation Chairgroup (WASS)

Adaptive collaborative governance of Nepal’s community forests: Shifting power, strengthening livelihoods

Community-based natural resource governance has taken root around the globe. And, yet, as demonstrated by community forestry in Nepal, such programmes have generally not yet lived up to their goals and expectations. After decades of implementation, community forestry in Nepal faces several key challenges. Central to these challenges are: the need to increase equity in community forest user group decision making and benefit sharing; and, to increase the livelihood benefits from community forestry overall. The research project on which this study is based sought to address these challenges at the community forest user group scale. The research objective was to contribute empirically-based insights regarding if and how adaptive collaborative governance of community forests in Nepal can constructively influence engagement, livelihoods, social capital and conflict—especially in regard to women and the poor. Further, the research aimed to elucidate the underlying issue of power in community-based natural resource governance. In particular, it sought to contribute deeper, theoretically-based understanding of the persistence of power imbalances in community forestry, and of the potential of adaptive collaborative governance to shift such imbalances.

Sustainable futures : social sciences research at Wageningen University
Frankema, E.H.P. ; Houweling, W. ; Mol, A.P.J. ; Möller, O. ; Wesseler, J.H.H. ; Branderhorst, A. ; Versluis, K. ; Tielens, J. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462573833 - 71
sociale wetenschappen - hogere agrarische scholen - universiteiten - onderzoek - levenswetenschappen - nederland - mensen - samenleving - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - milieu - social sciences - agricultural colleges - universities - research - life sciences - netherlands - people - society - natural resources - environment
Balans van de Leefomgeving 2014 deel 7 : natuurlijk kapitaal als nieuw beleidsconcept
Dirkx, G.H.P. ; Knegt, B. de; Bodegraven, J. van; Bredenoord, H. ; Hinsberg, A. van; Hoek, D.J. van der; Oorschot, M. van; Vixseboxse, E. ; Wiertz, J. ; Belder, E. den; Bouwma, I.M. ; Gerritsen, A.L. ; Hendriks, C.M.A. ; Sanders, M.E. ; Vos, B.I. de - \ 2014
Den Haag : Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving - 26
ecosysteemdiensten - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - landgebruik - recreatie - natuurbeheer - erosiebestrijding - bodemvruchtbaarheid - inventarisaties - beleidsevaluatie - ecosystem services - natural resources - land use - recreation - nature management - erosion control - soil fertility - inventories - policy evaluation
Keuzes nodig bij invulling nieuw beleidsconcept natuurlijk kapitaal Het kabinet introduceert met natuurlijk kapitaal een beleidsconcept waarin de baten van natuur centraal staan. Om het beoogde behoud en duurzaam gebruik van natuurlijk kapitaal te realiseren is het nodig dat het kabinet aangeeft welke keuzes het hierin wil maken. Omvang van een aantal Nederlandse ecosysteemdiensten gedaald Het aanbod van enkele diensten die het natuurlijk kapitaal in Nederland levert, nam de afgelopen jaren af. Dit geldt voor de voorziening van drinkwater, gebruik van niet-drinkwater in bijvoorbeeld landbouw en industrie, bodemvruchtbaarheid, koolstofvastlegging en plaagonderdrukking. Dit blijkt uit de eerste resultaten van de ‘Graadmeter goederen en diensten uit ecosystemen’, die het PBL in deze balans presenteert. Het kabinet wil de Nederlandse ecosysteemdiensten in kaart brengen om ze een volwaardige plaats te geven in de afwegingen van overheden en bedrijven. Daar kan deze graadmeter bij helpen. Nederlandse economie is afhankelijk van natuurlijk kapitaal in buitenland De Nederlandse economie gebruikt veel grondstoffen uit ecosystemen buiten Nederland. Dat maakt de Nederlandse economie afhankelijk van natuurlijke systemen buiten Nederland en tegelijkertijd medeverantwoordelijk voor de wereldwijde aantasting ervan. Een voorhoede van bedrijven maakt zich zorgen over deze afhankelijkheid en erkent haar verantwoordelijkheid, maar vraagt de overheid aan te geven waar het met verduurzaming heen wil en een gelijk speelveld te creëren. Natuurbeleid werpt vruchten af, maar er is nog veel te doen Het tot nu toe uitgevoerde natuurbeleid begint vruchten af te werpen. Planten en dieren profiteren van het herstel, het beheer en de ontwikkeling van de natuur. Het aantal planten en dieren op de Rode Lijsten van bedreigde soorten neemt af, evenals de mate waarin zij worden bedreigd. De staat van instandhouding van veel soorten en habitats is echter nog onvoldoende om de doelstellingen van de Vogel- en Habitatrichtlijn te kunnen realiseren. Ook als de plannen voor het Natuurnetwerk Nederland in 2027 zijn gerealiseerd, zal het niet lukken deze doelstellingen volledig te halen. Ambitie voor verduurzaming landbouw ruimtelijk specificeren De generieke ambitie tot verduurzaming van de landbouw zou ruimtelijk specifiek kunnen worden uitgewerkt. Dan kunnen ecosysteemdiensten worden geleverd op de plaats waar er vraag naar is en kan de landbouw zich elders blijven concentreren op de voedselproductie. De intensiteit waarmee de landbouw natuurlijk kapitaal in Nederland gebruikt, beperkt immers de mogelijkheden om het voor iets anders te benutten dan voedselproductie. En meer ruimte voor andere ecosysteemdiensten, zoals waterberging of recreatie, zal vaak ten koste gaan van die voedselproductie. Innovatiebeleid inzetten om ambities natuurlijk kapitaal te verwezenlijken Een meer duurzame benutting van natuurlijk kapitaal vraagt om innovatie van bijvoorbeeld productieprocessen. Het innovatiebeleid is nog maar beperkt toegespitst op een duurzame benutting van natuurlijk kapitaal. Het zou bovendien meer gebruik kunnen maken van de ervaringskennis van voorlopers op dit gebied, door in te zetten op de vorming van netwerken waarin kennisinstellingen, producenten, ketenpartijen en ngo’s kennis en ervaring kunnen delen. Particuliere financiering van natuurlijk kapitaal komt niet vanzelf tot stand Het kabinet verwacht dat burgers en bedrijven die baat hebben bij natuurlijk kapitaal, er in zullen willen investeren om dit in stand te houden. In de praktijk blijkt dat echter nog nauwelijks te gebeuren. Dat komt deels door gewenning aan de ‘gratis’ beschikbaarheid van natuurlijk kapitaal, maar ook doordat het niet mogelijk is degenen die niet meebetalen aan het behoud uit te sluiten van het profijt ervan.
Networks and knowledge at the interface: governing the coast of East Kalimantan, Indonesia
Kusumawati, R. - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Leontine Visser, co-promotor(en): Simon Bush; P.M. Laksono. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461739292 - 185
ontwikkeling - sociologie - plattelandsontwikkeling - kustgebieden - visserij - middelen van bestaan - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - governance - milieubeleid - etnografie - decentralisatie - overheidsbeleid - indonesië - zuidoost-azië - development - sociology - rural development - coastal areas - fisheries - livelihoods - natural resources - governance - environmental policy - ethnography - decentralization - government policy - indonesia - south east asia
Measuring Social Learning in Participatory Approaches to Natural Resource Management
Wal, M.M. van der; Kraker, J. de; Offermans, A. ; Kroeze, C. ; Kirschner, P. ; Ittersum, M.K. van - \ 2014
Environmental Policy and Governance 24 (2014)1. - ISSN 1756-932X - p. 1 - 15.
natuurlijke hulpbronnen - hulpbronnenbeheer - sociaal leren - participatief management - klimaatverandering - governance - natural resources - resource management - social learning - participative management - climatic change - governance - cultural theory - stakeholder participation - climate-change - sustainability - perspectives - framework - dilemmas
The role of social learning as a governance mechanism in natural resource management has been frequently highlighted, but progress in finding evidence for this role and gaining insight into the conditions that promote it are hampered by the lack of operational definitions of social learning and practical methods to measure it. In this article, we present a simple and flexible method to measure social learning, whether it has occurred and to what extent, among stakeholders in natural resource management. The method yields measurements of social learning that are visual, quantitative and qualitative. First, we elaborate our definition of social learning as a convergence of perspectives and outline how stakeholder perspectives in natural resource management can be described with Cultural Theory. Next, we provide a generic description of the method, followed by two examples illustrating its application to the domains of water and land management. Finally, we discuss relative strengths and weaknesses of the method and how it could be applied to improve our understanding of factors that contribute to social learning.
De ecologische achtergrond van de crisis
Lyklema, J. - \ 2013
Civis Mundi (2013). - ISSN 0030-3283 - 9
natuurlijke hulpbronnen - economische analyse - ruwe grondstoffen - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - ecologische verstoring - natural resources - economic analysis - raw materials - sustainability - ecological disturbance
Het recente gebeuren met de Fyra illustreert weer eens dat het progressief moeilijker wordt significante verbeteringen op infrastructureel niveau te realiseren. Deze talrijke dagelijks waarneembare afgeleide symptomen van het ecologische probleem worden door de politiek vaak als het probleem gezien, en dus gaat de politiek daar wat aan doen. Symptoombestrijding heet dat. Echter, op zijn hoogst kunnen deze manipulaties een deel van de problemen tijdelijk vooruit schuiven ten koste van een vergroting van de problemen op langere termijn. Feitelijk leiden ze tot een vergroting van de huidige crisis doordat telkens een extra hypotheek wordt genomen op de eindige ecologische gebruiksruimte.
PES, peasants and power in Andean watersheds : power relations and payment for environmental services in Colombia and Ecuador
Rodriguez de Francisco, J.C. - \ 2013
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Linden Vincent, co-promotor(en): Rutgerd Boelens; J. Budds. - Wageningen : Wageningen UR - ISBN 9789461737861 - 179
hulpbronnenbeheer - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - beheer van waterbekkens - ecosysteemdiensten - inheemse volkeren - plattelandsgemeenschappen - milieubeleid - andes - colombia - ecuador - landbouw bedrijven in het klein - resource management - natural resources - watershed management - ecosystem services - indigenous people - rural communities - environmental policy - andes - colombia - ecuador - peasant farming

During the last decade, the market environmentalist policy model of Payment for Environmental Services (PES) has become a widely promoted and implemented conservation and development tool, around the world as well as in the Andean countries Colombia and Ecuador. For upstream peasant indigenous communities in the Andes, the great expansion of this policy model has meant an increased level of negotiations and interactions with a wide range of downstream water users and conservation agencies. However, there is not a clear understanding of how power dynamics influence the terms of exchange in watershed PES schemes, and the implications that these dynamics have for peasant indigenous control of, and access to, natural resources. The main research question of this thesis is: How do power relations influence the promotion of PES as a policy model and the crafting and operation of PES (-like) projects, and how in turn do these influence natural resource management and control by PES-targeted peasant communities, in the Andean regions of Colombia and Ecuador? The cases included in this thesis show how the impacts of these forms of power influencing PES schemes are variegated, but for the poorest they appear to work toward the deeper entrenching of the status quo, which in most cases implies confirmation and extension of unequal access and rights to natural resources.

Transfrontier Conservation Areas: people living on the edge
Andersson, J.A. ; Garine-Wichatitsky, M. de; Cumming, D.H.M. ; Dzingirai, V. ; Giller, K.E. - \ 2013
Oxon, UK : Routledge - ISBN 9781849712088 - 216
beschermingsgebieden - grensgebieden - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - samenleving - sociologie - toerisme - wild - wildbescherming - mensen - zuidelijk afrika - conservation areas - frontier areas - natural resources - sustainability - society - sociology - tourism - wildlife - wildlife conservation - people - southern africa
This book focuses on the forgotten people displaced by, or living on the edge of, protected wildlife areas. It moves beyond the grand 'enchanting promise' of conservation and development across frontiers, and unfounded notions of TFCAs as integrated social-ecological systems. Peoples' dependency on natural resources – the specific combination of crop cultivation, livestock keeping and natural resource harvesting activities – varies enormously along the conservation frontier, as does their reliance on resources on the other side of the conservation boundary. Hence, the studies in this book move from the dream of eco-tourism-fuelled development supporting nature conservation and people towards the local realities facing marginalized people, living adjacent to protected areas in environments often poorly suited to agriculture.
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