Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Bedrijven en hun impact op en afhankelijkheid van natuurlijk kapitaal
Smits, M.J.W. ; Bos, E.J. ; Heide, C.M. van der; Selnes, T. ; Vogelzang, T.A. - \ 2016
Wageningen : LEI Wageningen UR (Rapport / LEI Wageningen UR 2016-060) - ISBN 9789462578395 - 27
natuurlijke hulpbronnen - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - ecosystemen - dienstensector - bedrijven - organisaties - natural resources - sustainability - ecosystems - services - businesses - organizations
What tools and data do companies use to measure their impact on natural capital, and what are the gaps in terms of instruments ? The main findings, based on interviews are: i) companies mainly work with LCA ii) companies with many products prefer to work with labels, iii) there is a need for standardisation at the sector level, iv) availability of data at field level is a bottleneck, v) nonfrontrunners could be more involved in natural capital.
The contribution of sustainable trade to the conservation of natural capital
Oorschot, M. van; Wentink, Carsten ; Kok, Marcel ; Beukering, P. ; Kuik, O. ; Drunen, M. van; Berg, J. van den; Ingram, V.J. ; Judge, L.O. ; Arets, E.J.M.M. ; Veneklaas, E.J. - \ 2016
The Hague : PBL: Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL publication 1700) - 96
certification - sustainability - cost benefit analysis - resource conservation - natural resources - tropics - ecosystem services - biobased economy - certificering - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - kosten-batenanalyse - hulpbronnenbehoud - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - tropen - ecosysteemdiensten - biobased economy
PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency has conducted a study into the potential impact of certified sustainable production on natural capital and the related ecosystem goods and services. Forests are a well-known example of natural capital; they are valuable to society, among other things because they store large amounts of carbon. The performed cost-benefit analyses show that certified resource production has several societal benefits, such as reductions in environmental pollution, soil erosion and health damage. However, for resource producers, the financial returns of more sustainable production methods are often limited. The uneven distribution of costs and benefits over public and private actors forms a barrier to any further scale up of sustainable production. Thus, there is a need for additional solutions, besides certifying trade to help conserve ecosystems elsewhere in the world.
Manure: a valuable resource! : Introduction and scope of manure management
Vellinga, Th.V. - \ 2016
Wageningen UR Livestock Research
animal manures - manure policy - manure treatment - livestock farming - natural resources - climatic change - food security - farm management - dierlijke meststoffen - mestbeleid - mestverwerking - veehouderij - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - klimaatverandering - voedselzekerheid - agrarische bedrijfsvoering
Recording of a webinar on Integrated Manure Management conducted on February 3, 2016 and organized by the Livestock and Manure Management project lead by Wageningen UR Livestock Research and Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations: Key speakers:• Opening address: outlining the Climate and Clean Air Coalition (CCAC) and framing the Livestock and Manure Management Component by Mrs Helena MOLIN VALDÉS, Head of the CCAC Secretariat at the UN Environment Programme in Paris. • Setting the scope: Introduction to Integrated Manure Management and how this is an important element to feed the world. What are the principles that make it work? by Theun VELLINGA, Senior Researcher Livestock Systems and Climate Change at Wageningen UR (University & Research centre) Livestock Research in the Netherlands; and leader of the Livestock and Manure Management project. • How to get to practice change? by Eric KEMP-BENEDICT, Director of the Asian Centre of the Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI) in Bangkok; and partner in the Livestock and Manure Management project.
Biofuel production in Vietnam : Greenhouse gas emissions and socioeconomic impacts
Thanh, L. le - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Ekko van Ierland; Xueqin Zhu. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576186 - 197
biofuels - greenhouse gases - environmental economics - emission - socioeconomics - fuels - natural resources - vietnam - biobrandstoffen - broeikasgassen - milieueconomie - emissie - sociale economie - brandstoffen - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - vietnam
The overall objective of this thesis is to study the energy efficiency, GHG emission savings, and the economic viability of biofuels as energy for transportation and to examine the impacts of biofuel policies on food production, welfare, and emission in Vietnam.
Goede verwerking van natuurgras bij oogst en bewaren essentieel voor succes : : themanummer groene grondstoffen
Durksz, D.L. - \ 2015
Vakblad Natuur Bos Landschap 12 (2015)118. - ISSN 1572-7610 - p. 28 - 30.
mestvergisting - mest - biogas - co-vergisting - grasmaaisel - maaien - graslandbeheer - biomassa - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - graskuilvoer - manure fermentation - manures - biogas - co-fermentation - grass clippings - mowing - grassland management - biomass - natural resources - grass silage
Natuurgras kan uitstekend dienst doen als co-vergister in mestvergisters. Maar dan moeten de oogst en de opslag wel goed gebeuren.
Economische prikkels voor vergroening in de landbouw
Brouwer, F.M. ; Smit, A.B. ; Verburg, R.W. - \ 2015
Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 37) - 92
stimulansen - economie - melkveehouderij - akkerbouw - economie van natuurlijke hulpbronnen - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - hulpbronnenbehoud - agrarische economie - groene hart - flevoland - nederland - incentives - economics - dairy farming - arable farming - natural resource economics - natural resources - resource conservation - agricultural economics - groene hart - flevoland - netherlands
In dit rapport worden de mogelijkheden verkend om een duurzaam gebruik van natuurlijke hulpbronnen door economische prikkels te stimuleren. Het onderzoek betreft de economische prikkels en externe effecten in de melkveehouderij in het Groene Hart en de akkerbouw in Flevoland. Over het algemeen zal een lastenverzwaring in het gebruik van bijvoorbeeld kunstmest en gewasbeschermings-middelen relatief weinig effect hebben. Daarentegen zal het belasten van hoge emissies en het belonen van lage emissies naar verwachting meer stimuleren om negatieve externe effecten te verminderen.
LPPSLH end line report - MFS II country evaluations, Civil Society component
Klaver, D.C. ; Nugroho, K. ; Smidt, H. ; Sinung Prasetyo, K. ; Sutantio, S. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR (Report / CDI 15-060) - 86
maatschappelijk middenveld - verandering - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - milieu - sociale participatie - armoede - gemeenschapsontwikkeling - ontwikkeling - ontwikkelingssamenwerking - evaluatie - nederland - indonesië - civil society - change - natural resources - environment - social participation - poverty - community development - development - development cooperation - evaluation - netherlands - indonesia
This report describes the results of the end line assessment of the Indonesian Foundation for Research and Development of Natural Resources and Environment –LPPSLH that is a partner of Hivos. It assesses LPPSLH’s efforts towards strengthening Civil Society in Indonesia, using the CIVICUS analytical framework. It is a follow-up of a baseline study conducted in 2012. Key questions that are being answered comprise changes in the five CIVICUS dimensions to which LPPSLH contributed; the nature of its contribution; the relevance of the contribution made and an identification of factors that explain LPPSLH’s role in civil society strengthening. The evaluation was commissioned by NWO-WOTRO, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research in the Netherlands and is part of the programmatic evaluation of the Co-Financing System - MFS II financed by the Dutch Government, whose overall aim is to strengthen civil society in the South as a building block for structural poverty reduction. Apart from assessing impact on MDGs, the evaluation also assesses the contribution of the Dutch Co-Funding Agencies to strengthen the capacities of their Southern Partners, as well as the contribution of these partners towards building a vibrant civil society arena.
Adaptive collaborative governance of Nepal's community forests: shifting power, strenghtening livelihoods
McDougall, C.L. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Cees Leeuwis, co-promotor(en): J.L.S. Jiggins. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462572881 - 322
bewonersparticipatie - governance - sociale samenwerking - sociaal leren - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - bosbouw - gemeenschappen - middelen van bestaan - adaptatie - sociaal kapitaal - vrouwen - armoede - nepal - community participation - governance - social cooperation - social learning - natural resources - forestry - communities - livelihoods - adaptation - social capital - women - poverty - nepal

Short Summary

Cynthia McDougall--PhD Dissertation

Knowledge, Technology, &Innovation Chairgroup (WASS)

Adaptive collaborative governance of Nepal’s community forests: Shifting power, strengthening livelihoods

Community-based natural resource governance has taken root around the globe. And, yet, as demonstrated by community forestry in Nepal, such programmes have generally not yet lived up to their goals and expectations. After decades of implementation, community forestry in Nepal faces several key challenges. Central to these challenges are: the need to increase equity in community forest user group decision making and benefit sharing; and, to increase the livelihood benefits from community forestry overall. The research project on which this study is based sought to address these challenges at the community forest user group scale. The research objective was to contribute empirically-based insights regarding if and how adaptive collaborative governance of community forests in Nepal can constructively influence engagement, livelihoods, social capital and conflict—especially in regard to women and the poor. Further, the research aimed to elucidate the underlying issue of power in community-based natural resource governance. In particular, it sought to contribute deeper, theoretically-based understanding of the persistence of power imbalances in community forestry, and of the potential of adaptive collaborative governance to shift such imbalances.

Sustainable futures : social sciences research at Wageningen University
Frankema, E.H.P. ; Houweling, W. ; Mol, A.P.J. ; Möller, O. ; Wesseler, J.H.H. ; Branderhorst, A. ; Versluis, K. ; Tielens, J. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462573833 - 71
sociale wetenschappen - hogere agrarische scholen - universiteiten - onderzoek - levenswetenschappen - nederland - mensen - samenleving - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - milieu - social sciences - agricultural colleges - universities - research - life sciences - netherlands - people - society - natural resources - environment
Balans van de Leefomgeving 2014 deel 7 : natuurlijk kapitaal als nieuw beleidsconcept
Dirkx, G.H.P. ; Knegt, B. de; Bodegraven, J. van; Bredenoord, H. ; Hinsberg, A. van; Hoek, D.J. van der; Oorschot, M. van; Vixseboxse, E. ; Wiertz, J. ; Belder, E. den; Bouwma, I.M. ; Gerritsen, A.L. ; Hendriks, C.M.A. ; Sanders, M.E. ; Vos, B.I. de - \ 2014
Den Haag : Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving - 26
ecosysteemdiensten - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - landgebruik - recreatie - natuurbeheer - erosiebestrijding - bodemvruchtbaarheid - inventarisaties - beleidsevaluatie - ecosystem services - natural resources - land use - recreation - nature management - erosion control - soil fertility - inventories - policy evaluation
Keuzes nodig bij invulling nieuw beleidsconcept natuurlijk kapitaal Het kabinet introduceert met natuurlijk kapitaal een beleidsconcept waarin de baten van natuur centraal staan. Om het beoogde behoud en duurzaam gebruik van natuurlijk kapitaal te realiseren is het nodig dat het kabinet aangeeft welke keuzes het hierin wil maken. Omvang van een aantal Nederlandse ecosysteemdiensten gedaald Het aanbod van enkele diensten die het natuurlijk kapitaal in Nederland levert, nam de afgelopen jaren af. Dit geldt voor de voorziening van drinkwater, gebruik van niet-drinkwater in bijvoorbeeld landbouw en industrie, bodemvruchtbaarheid, koolstofvastlegging en plaagonderdrukking. Dit blijkt uit de eerste resultaten van de ‘Graadmeter goederen en diensten uit ecosystemen’, die het PBL in deze balans presenteert. Het kabinet wil de Nederlandse ecosysteemdiensten in kaart brengen om ze een volwaardige plaats te geven in de afwegingen van overheden en bedrijven. Daar kan deze graadmeter bij helpen. Nederlandse economie is afhankelijk van natuurlijk kapitaal in buitenland De Nederlandse economie gebruikt veel grondstoffen uit ecosystemen buiten Nederland. Dat maakt de Nederlandse economie afhankelijk van natuurlijke systemen buiten Nederland en tegelijkertijd medeverantwoordelijk voor de wereldwijde aantasting ervan. Een voorhoede van bedrijven maakt zich zorgen over deze afhankelijkheid en erkent haar verantwoordelijkheid, maar vraagt de overheid aan te geven waar het met verduurzaming heen wil en een gelijk speelveld te creëren. Natuurbeleid werpt vruchten af, maar er is nog veel te doen Het tot nu toe uitgevoerde natuurbeleid begint vruchten af te werpen. Planten en dieren profiteren van het herstel, het beheer en de ontwikkeling van de natuur. Het aantal planten en dieren op de Rode Lijsten van bedreigde soorten neemt af, evenals de mate waarin zij worden bedreigd. De staat van instandhouding van veel soorten en habitats is echter nog onvoldoende om de doelstellingen van de Vogel- en Habitatrichtlijn te kunnen realiseren. Ook als de plannen voor het Natuurnetwerk Nederland in 2027 zijn gerealiseerd, zal het niet lukken deze doelstellingen volledig te halen. Ambitie voor verduurzaming landbouw ruimtelijk specificeren De generieke ambitie tot verduurzaming van de landbouw zou ruimtelijk specifiek kunnen worden uitgewerkt. Dan kunnen ecosysteemdiensten worden geleverd op de plaats waar er vraag naar is en kan de landbouw zich elders blijven concentreren op de voedselproductie. De intensiteit waarmee de landbouw natuurlijk kapitaal in Nederland gebruikt, beperkt immers de mogelijkheden om het voor iets anders te benutten dan voedselproductie. En meer ruimte voor andere ecosysteemdiensten, zoals waterberging of recreatie, zal vaak ten koste gaan van die voedselproductie. Innovatiebeleid inzetten om ambities natuurlijk kapitaal te verwezenlijken Een meer duurzame benutting van natuurlijk kapitaal vraagt om innovatie van bijvoorbeeld productieprocessen. Het innovatiebeleid is nog maar beperkt toegespitst op een duurzame benutting van natuurlijk kapitaal. Het zou bovendien meer gebruik kunnen maken van de ervaringskennis van voorlopers op dit gebied, door in te zetten op de vorming van netwerken waarin kennisinstellingen, producenten, ketenpartijen en ngo’s kennis en ervaring kunnen delen. Particuliere financiering van natuurlijk kapitaal komt niet vanzelf tot stand Het kabinet verwacht dat burgers en bedrijven die baat hebben bij natuurlijk kapitaal, er in zullen willen investeren om dit in stand te houden. In de praktijk blijkt dat echter nog nauwelijks te gebeuren. Dat komt deels door gewenning aan de ‘gratis’ beschikbaarheid van natuurlijk kapitaal, maar ook doordat het niet mogelijk is degenen die niet meebetalen aan het behoud uit te sluiten van het profijt ervan.
Networks and knowledge at the interface: governing the coast of East Kalimantan, Indonesia
Kusumawati, R. - \ 2014
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Leontine Visser, co-promotor(en): Simon Bush; P.M. Laksono. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789461739292 - 185
ontwikkeling - sociologie - plattelandsontwikkeling - kustgebieden - visserij - middelen van bestaan - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - governance - milieubeleid - etnografie - decentralisatie - overheidsbeleid - indonesië - zuidoost-azië - development - sociology - rural development - coastal areas - fisheries - livelihoods - natural resources - governance - environmental policy - ethnography - decentralization - government policy - indonesia - south east asia
Measuring Social Learning in Participatory Approaches to Natural Resource Management
Wal, M.M. van der; Kraker, J. de; Offermans, A. ; Kroeze, C. ; Kirschner, P. ; Ittersum, M.K. van - \ 2014
Environmental Policy and Governance 24 (2014)1. - ISSN 1756-932X - p. 1 - 15.
natuurlijke hulpbronnen - hulpbronnenbeheer - sociaal leren - participatief management - klimaatverandering - governance - natural resources - resource management - social learning - participative management - climatic change - governance - cultural theory - stakeholder participation - climate-change - sustainability - perspectives - framework - dilemmas
The role of social learning as a governance mechanism in natural resource management has been frequently highlighted, but progress in finding evidence for this role and gaining insight into the conditions that promote it are hampered by the lack of operational definitions of social learning and practical methods to measure it. In this article, we present a simple and flexible method to measure social learning, whether it has occurred and to what extent, among stakeholders in natural resource management. The method yields measurements of social learning that are visual, quantitative and qualitative. First, we elaborate our definition of social learning as a convergence of perspectives and outline how stakeholder perspectives in natural resource management can be described with Cultural Theory. Next, we provide a generic description of the method, followed by two examples illustrating its application to the domains of water and land management. Finally, we discuss relative strengths and weaknesses of the method and how it could be applied to improve our understanding of factors that contribute to social learning.
De ecologische achtergrond van de crisis
Lyklema, J. - \ 2013
Civis Mundi (2013). - ISSN 0030-3283 - 9
natuurlijke hulpbronnen - economische analyse - ruwe grondstoffen - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - ecologische verstoring - natural resources - economic analysis - raw materials - sustainability - ecological disturbance
Het recente gebeuren met de Fyra illustreert weer eens dat het progressief moeilijker wordt significante verbeteringen op infrastructureel niveau te realiseren. Deze talrijke dagelijks waarneembare afgeleide symptomen van het ecologische probleem worden door de politiek vaak als het probleem gezien, en dus gaat de politiek daar wat aan doen. Symptoombestrijding heet dat. Echter, op zijn hoogst kunnen deze manipulaties een deel van de problemen tijdelijk vooruit schuiven ten koste van een vergroting van de problemen op langere termijn. Feitelijk leiden ze tot een vergroting van de huidige crisis doordat telkens een extra hypotheek wordt genomen op de eindige ecologische gebruiksruimte.
PES, peasants and power in Andean watersheds : power relations and payment for environmental services in Colombia and Ecuador
Rodriguez de Francisco, J.C. - \ 2013
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Linden Vincent, co-promotor(en): Rutgerd Boelens; J. Budds. - Wageningen : Wageningen UR - ISBN 9789461737861 - 179
hulpbronnenbeheer - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - beheer van waterbekkens - ecosysteemdiensten - inheemse volkeren - plattelandsgemeenschappen - milieubeleid - andes - colombia - ecuador - landbouw bedrijven in het klein - resource management - natural resources - watershed management - ecosystem services - indigenous people - rural communities - environmental policy - andes - colombia - ecuador - peasant farming

During the last decade, the market environmentalist policy model of Payment for Environmental Services (PES) has become a widely promoted and implemented conservation and development tool, around the world as well as in the Andean countries Colombia and Ecuador. For upstream peasant indigenous communities in the Andes, the great expansion of this policy model has meant an increased level of negotiations and interactions with a wide range of downstream water users and conservation agencies. However, there is not a clear understanding of how power dynamics influence the terms of exchange in watershed PES schemes, and the implications that these dynamics have for peasant indigenous control of, and access to, natural resources. The main research question of this thesis is: How do power relations influence the promotion of PES as a policy model and the crafting and operation of PES (-like) projects, and how in turn do these influence natural resource management and control by PES-targeted peasant communities, in the Andean regions of Colombia and Ecuador? The cases included in this thesis show how the impacts of these forms of power influencing PES schemes are variegated, but for the poorest they appear to work toward the deeper entrenching of the status quo, which in most cases implies confirmation and extension of unequal access and rights to natural resources.

Transfrontier Conservation Areas: people living on the edge
Andersson, J.A. ; Garine-Wichatitsky, M. de; Cumming, D.H.M. ; Dzingirai, V. ; Giller, K.E. - \ 2013
Oxon, UK : Routledge - ISBN 9781849712088 - 216
beschermingsgebieden - grensgebieden - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - samenleving - sociologie - toerisme - wild - wildbescherming - mensen - zuidelijk afrika - conservation areas - frontier areas - natural resources - sustainability - society - sociology - tourism - wildlife - wildlife conservation - people - southern africa
This book focuses on the forgotten people displaced by, or living on the edge of, protected wildlife areas. It moves beyond the grand 'enchanting promise' of conservation and development across frontiers, and unfounded notions of TFCAs as integrated social-ecological systems. Peoples' dependency on natural resources – the specific combination of crop cultivation, livestock keeping and natural resource harvesting activities – varies enormously along the conservation frontier, as does their reliance on resources on the other side of the conservation boundary. Hence, the studies in this book move from the dream of eco-tourism-fuelled development supporting nature conservation and people towards the local realities facing marginalized people, living adjacent to protected areas in environments often poorly suited to agriculture.
Integrated modelling for land use planning and policy recommendation in the Northern Uplands of Vietnam
Bui, T.Y. - \ 2013
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Leo Stroosnijder, co-promotor(en): Saskia Visser. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461736406 - 102
landgebruiksplanning - landgebruik - modelleren - beleid - hulpbronnenbeheer - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - erosie - landbouwproductie - vietnam - land use planning - land use - modeling - policy - resource management - natural resources - erosion - agricultural production - vietnam

The study focuses on analyses of major development problems related to livelihood and natural resource management in the Northern Uplands of Vietnam (NUV). The study was conducted in Suoi Con, a small agro-forestry watershed with the total area is about 1760 ha. The watershed is characterized by a high poverty rate and low agricultural production and household income. Livelihood of the households is dependent upon self-sufficient agricultural production, which accounts for nearly 80% of the total production value. Traditional agricultural activities have led to various land degradation problems.

The main objective of the study is to integrate modeling of (i) erosion assessment, (ii) land use optimization and (iii) land use decision making in order to improve the effectiveness and adoption of recommendations that contribute to the improved livelihood of farmers and sustainable natural resource management. This will be achieved through: (1) increasing understanding of the interactions between agro-ecological and socio-economic dynamics at watershed scale; (2) facilitating emergence of a common agreement on ecological sustainability, social equity and economically sound solutions; and (3) stimulating dialogues among various stakeholders to achieve a shared responsibility of the common resources.

The biophysical and socioeconomic characteristics of the study area were explored through surveys, FAO’s land evaluation, literature review and stakeholder meetings. The Predict and Localize Erosion and Runoff (PLER) model and the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) were used to examine influences of land use on soil erosion at the watershed scale.Although agricultural land in the watershed has several limitations such as steep slopes, low soil fertility, high acidity and serious soil erosion, different soil types and the large variation topography and crop suitability create flexibility in farmers’ land use decisions. The Land Use Planning and Analysis System (LUPAS) was then applied to analyze feasibilities of alternative land use options. Based on land use scenarios, 4 main land use constraints in the regions were analyzed. Results of the analysis were finally discussed with stakeholders though Role Playing Game sections to find feasible land use solution and to develop policy recommendations.

Results of the study showed that different actors in the watershed have different views on land use targets, objectives, constraints and decisions. The integrated modeling approach used in this study identified that traditional technology level appears to be a largest constraint that significantly holds back agricultural production of the region. Land area, capital and labour are also constraints but they only appear if agricultural technology is improved. Land fragmentation should be considered as an important factor because without any new agricultural technique, crop variety or external capital, land consolidation can significantly improve food production and income.

Integration of individual tools described in this study represents a participatory approach for land use planning, in which problems in land use are explicitly defined and land use plans are developed and revised by stakeholders under their own social and economic conditions. Imperfections in given land use plans and possible solutions proposed by stakeholders provide policy makers with ideas to improve land use planning and to bridge the gaps between land use objectives of the government and of farmers.

The integrated modelling approach developed and presented in this thesis can make use of individual research tools for describing agro-ecological and socio-economic dynamics and for developing land use policy. It has the potential to serve planners and policy makers to increase the likelihood of developing plans that will effectively increase farmer livelihood and improve resource conservation. This integrated modelling approach can incorporate different aspects of land use into land use planning and test hypotheses regarding the contributions of intended plans to general development targets. Furthermore, it can support bottom-up land use planning as it allows incorporation of different stakeholders in analysing existing problems, proposing solutions and developing land use plans. Therefore, it can increase the likelihood of adoption. This in turn will create the chances for achievement of targets of the government, researchers and farmers through effective implementation of the plans.

Effecten van mosselzaadvisserij op sublitorale natuurwaarden in de westelijke Waddenzee: samenvattend eindrapport
Smaal, A.C. ; Craeymeersch, J.A.M. ; Drent, J. ; Jansen, J.M. ; Glorius, S.T. ; Stralen, M.R. van - \ 2013
Yerseke : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C006/13 PR1) - 162
schaal- en schelpdierenvisserij - schaal- en schelpdierenteelt - mossels - mosselteelt - milieueffect - nederland - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - waddenzee - natuurwaarde - shellfish fisheries - shellfish culture - mussels - mussel culture - environmental impact - netherlands - natural resources - wadden sea - natural value
Dit rapport gaat over de effecten van mosselzaadvisserij in de westelijke Waddenzee op de natuurwaarden beneden laagwater: het sublitoraal. In de periode 2006 – 2012 is hiernaar onderzoek gedaan in opdracht van de overheid en de schelpdiersector. Het onderzoek is opgezet omdat onvoldoende bekend was welke gevolgen de mosselzaadvisserij zou kunnen hebben voor de natuurwaarden. Aangezien de Waddenzee een beschermd natuurgebied is, is er een vergunning nodig om te mogen vissen. Hiervoor moet door middel van een passende beoordeling worden aangetoond dat de visserij geen als significant te beoordelen negatieve effecten heeft op de realisatie van de instandhoudingsdoelstellingen voor de habitattypen en soorten waarvoor het gebied waarin de visserij plaatsvindt, is aangewezen. De profielen voor de habitattypen en soorten omschrijven wat onder die natuurwaarden moet worden verstaan. De vraagstelling van dit onderzoek komt er op neer na te gaan in hoeverre er effecten zijn van mosselzaadvisserij op de geformuleerde instandhoudingsdoelstelling voor habitattype 1110A, permanent overstroomde zandbanken (subtype ‘getijdengebied’). Omdat bij de aanvang van het onderzoek door diverse overheidsinstanties nog volop werd gewerkt aan het definiëren van de instandhoudingsdoelstellingen, is het onderzoek breder van opzet, en zijn meerdere variabelen in het onderzoek meegenomen waarmee natuurwaarden kunnen worden beschreven.
Fishing activities on the Frisian Front and the Cleaver Bank; Historic developments and effects of management
Hamon, K.G. ; Oostenbrugge, J.A.E. van; Bartelings, H. - \ 2013
The Hague : LEI, part of Wageningen UR (Memorandum / LEI : Research area Natural resources ) - 67
natuurlijke hulpbronnen - visserij - natura 2000 - natural resources - fisheries
In 2008, the Minister of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality notified four proposed Sites of Community Interest (pSCIs) to the European Commission (for protection as Special Conservation Areas (SCAs) under the Habitats Directive). These areas are the Dogger Bank, Cleaver Bank, the Coastal Zone and the Vlakte van de Raan. The areas have been chosen for their specific habitats and ecological values (Bos et al., 2008). In addition, the Frisian Front will be designated as SPA (Special Protection Area) under the Bird Directive. Based on this decision a process has been executed during the last four years for the development of the provisions of this Directive in Dutch legislation and policy, namely the North Sea Natura 2000 project. LEI facilitated this process by making an initial inventory of the fishing activities of both Dutch and foreign fleets in these areas (Van Oostenbrugge et al., 2010). The current status is that for the areas in the coastal zone, management measures have been finalised and implemented. In the Dutch exclusive economic zone the state of play is that for the Dogger Bank, Cleaver Bank and the Frisian Front management proposals are being prepared for decision making in the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) context. Designating these areas under national law requires the Nature Protection Act to enter into force in the Dutch EEZ. This has been discussed in parliament (on 13 June 2012). Some questions remain on the importance of these areas for the Dutch fisheries and the economic consequences of management measures. The consequences of the management regime for the Dogger Bank are estimated by the ICES in the international process of the Dogger Bank Steering Group. The ministry of Economic Affairs has asked LEI to update the report from 2010 for the Frisian Front and the Cleaver Bank. Because a large part of the Belgian, UK and German flagged vessels are owned by Dutch companies, those fishing fleets are also taken into account in the current study.
Fishing activities on the Central Oyster Grounds 2006-2011
Oostenbrugge, J.A.E. van; Bartelings, H. ; Hamon, K.G. - \ 2013
The Hague : LEI, part of Wageningen UR (Memorandum / LEI : Research area Natural resources ) - 45
natuurlijke hulpbronnen - oesters - benthos - aquatische gemeenschappen - visserij - visserijbeleid - natural resources - oysters - aquatic communities - fisheries - fishery policy
The Central Oyster Grounds are generally awarded for their ecological values. The area is especially important for benthos because of their species diversity and density, the total biomass, distribution of species, and the balanced composition of the benthic community' (Ministry of Economic affairs, 2012). In the Marine Strategy (OlM/2012-25338), the area has been assigned as one of the search areas that will be used for spatial protection measures in the frame of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive and the Common Fisheries Policy. Because of this, the ministry has asked LEI to make an inventory of the fishing practices in the area of the Central Oyster Grounds in the period 2006-2011. Because the Dutch fishing sector also has important economic interests in foreign fishing fleets (Belgian, German and UK), these fleets are also taken into consideration.
Understanding learning in natural resource management : experiences with a contextualised responsive evaluation approach
Kouévi, T.A. - \ 2013
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Cees Leeuwis, co-promotor(en): Barbara van Mierlo; S.D. Vodouhê. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461735164 - 209
evaluatie - methodologie - reacties - sociaal onderzoek - leerervaringen - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - hulpbronnenbeheer - ontwikkelingseconomie - economie van natuurlijke hulpbronnen - evaluation - methodology - responses - social research - learning experiences - natural resources - resource management - development economics - natural resource economics

This dissertation may be located in the wide debate on the effectiveness of policy interventions in developing countries, in the field of natural resource management (NRM). It is especially concerned with contributing to the understanding of the limited effectiveness of fishery management interventions in the municipality of Grand-Popo in Benin, where fishing people face fishery resource depletion and livelihood degradation. It looks at this topic from a learning perspective, and explores a way of stimulating learning and effectiveness with an action research approach. Building on Argyris and Schön (1976), the study contributes to discussions on learning in NRM by regarding learning as changes in action theories operationalized as the integration of specific micro-theories or micro-assumptions underlying stakeholders’ actions. Also novel is the experimentation with and evaluation of a responsive evaluation (RE) as an action research approach in the fishery context of Grand-Popo.
To account for the research process and findings, this dissertation is structured around six chapters. Chapter 1 is the general introduction which discusses the background information justifying the research choices, the research objectives and questions, and the methodology that was used to answer the research questions. It explores possible reasons for the limited effectiveness of interventions in natural resource management (NRM). The conclusion is that NRM interventions are affected negatively by various limitations in the sphere of perspectives and understanding. Limited understandings of NRM complexity, limitations in interactions for exchange among stakeholders, differences in management action theories and practices, multiplicity and lack of coordination of interventions explain among others the ineffectiveness of NRM interventions. Therefore the study proposed to explore whether the limited effectiveness of generations of interventions in Grand-Popo is indeed related to limited learning. As there appeared to be scope to enhance learning, the study continued with the design, experimentation with and evaluation of a RE process.
To deepen the understanding of the learning related to the problems faced by the fishing people and interventionists in the case study, the process of learning in generations of interventions was investigated and discussed in chapter 2. To redress fishery resources’ depletion and improve the fragile livelihoods of fishing people, successive interventions since the 1950s continued to propose solutions such as income generating activities’ diversification and the establishment of fishing rules. This chapter reveals that fishery interventions were repeatedly ineffective, because of limited learning which was interpreted as repetitive discrepancy between espoused and in-use action theories of the interventionists. Therefore, we suggested to facilitate learning interaction among the stakeholders towards more effectiveness of the fishery management interventions.
To develop a good action research approach to stimulate learning, in chapter 3, the study was extended to the unfolding of the action theories of the interventions’ beneficiaries, for the sake of comparing them with those of the interventionists. It shows ambiguity in the fishery problems solving action theories of the interventionists and the fishing people; power differences among the stakeholders; and, the absence of learning interactions among the stakeholders. RE was chosen, since this is an evaluation approach that addresses such conditions. However, this approach needed to be adapted to the study context. The main adaptations compared to ‘regular’ RE related to the operationalization of learning in terms of changes in action theories, the investigation of action theories in-use in addition to those espoused, and the inclusion of an analysis of the history and the intervention system to deal with routine and complexity of NRM, and to stimulate high level learning. These adaptations led to what is called the contextualised RE approach in this chapter.
In order to assess the relevance and performance of the proposed RE approach, we experimented with it in the fishery case study of Grand-Popo. Chapter 4 reports on how and the extent to which it contributed to learning by and among the interventionists and fishing people involved. This chapter reveals the occurrence of single-loop, double-loop, and social learning, but also a remaining gap between changes in espoused theories and theories in use. The single-loop learning concerned changes in action strategies like the extent of the fishing people’s demands, and the intervention resource raising strategy of the interventionists. The double-loop learning addressed the underlying reasons for action such as the redefinition of the roles played in intervention processes. The fishing people redefined their own roles as more active to show concern for solving their problems, to diversify their intervention partners, and to lobby for solutions. The interventionists suggested that they needed to empower the fishing people to lobby with politicians and financial partners in collaboration with interventionists about their problems. The social learning concerned emergent congruence in the action theories of the two stakeholder categories with regard to the need for mutual commitment to the effective solving of the fishery problems. The gaps between espoused and in-use action theories related to the complexity of NRM in this case and survival threats. We concluded that it may be difficult for RE to stimulate learning in NRM and provided some suggestions to improve its use.
Chapter 5 goes into depth about exploring the reasons for the limitations in the learning notwithstanding the RE process. It discusses which issues were sensitive for the interventionists and the fishing people, and how they presented them in different interaction settings of the adapted RE approach (interviews, meetings). It discusses which discursive strategies the stakeholders employed to put their issues on the agenda in the meetings with the other stakeholder groups. It shows that some sensitive issues that were mentioned during the interviews, were not discussed at all, while others were discussed with indirect discursive strategies. The sensitive issues were: expectations of the fishing people unfulfilled by the interventionists; prevalence of material interests of the interventionists and the fishing people over concerns of effective interventions; compliance of the interventionists with the electoral concerns of politicians; corruption practices of the interventionists; and physical and occult aggressiveness of the fishing people. The discursive strategies used by the interventionists and the fishing people were silence and indirect discursive strategies. This chapter suggests the necessity of paying attention to discursive strategies and sensitive issues that may hinder learning in natural resource management (NRM) facilitation settings.
Chapter 6 recalls the research questions, summarizes and discusses the major findings, and concludes the dissertation with lessons and implications for policy and practice in NRM and monitoring and evaluation (M&E). The reasons for the limitations in learning by the interventionists and the fishing people were explored on the basis of relevant literature. They related to the opportunities to learn offered by the environment, the motivation and the capacity to learn of the interventionists and the fishing people, and to the level of complexity of the NRM context. Based on the analyses of the reasons for the limitations in learning by the interventionists and the fishing people, this chapter suggests a two track approach. The first track relates to working towards a more conducive learning environment, and the second to further improving the design of RE. It suggests to create and institutionalize incentives and mechanisms to train and raise awareness about the importance of, and to support feedback generating, exchanging, capturing and learning by stakeholders. This chapter suggests also to create incentive structure for implementers of policies and projects that rewards effectiveness and sanctions a lack of performance. In the second track, flexible learning strategies are seen to help improving the performance of the design of further RE in NRM context. To these ends, inclusive monitoring and evaluation, audio-visual learning stimulation strategies, action oriented learning strategy, and the training of evaluators on strategies to get sensitive issues on discussion and learning agendas are suggested.
In all, the thesis demonstrates that limitations in learning are prevalent in Grand-Popo, and likely undermine the effectiveness of (series of) NRM interventions. It makes clear that we should not have naïve expectations about the potential of systematic approaches and methodologies to foster learning, and that creating more conducive conditions for learning should be a first priority.

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