Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Ontsnipperingsplan N525 : advies voor het ontwerp en de positionering van een faunapassage
    Grift, E.A. van der - \ 2017
    Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2823) - 49
    bosfragmentatie - habitatfragmentatie - het gooi - vechtstreek - wildpassages - natuurreservaten - fauna - wildbeheer - forest fragmentation - habitat fragmentation - wildlife passages - nature reserves - wildlife management
    De Hilversumseweg (N525), een provinciale weg tussen Hilversum en Laren, vormt een barrière tussen enkele grote bos- en heideterreinen in het centrale deel van het Gooi. Dit betreft aan de noordzijde van de weg de Bussummer- en Westerheide en aan de zuidzijde de Zuiderheide en het Laarder Wasmeer. In het programma Gooi en Vechtstreek van de provincie Noord-Holland is voorzien in het opstellen van een plan van aanpak voor ‘ontsnippering’ van deze verkeersweg. Een natuurverbinding bij de N525 moet het mogelijk maken dat diersoorten vrijelijk tussen de natuurgebieden aan weerszijden van de weg kunnen bewegen zonder het risico te lopen om te worden aangereden. In dit kader verkent de provincie Noord-Holland momenteel, in samenspraak met de gemeenten Hilversum en Laren en het Goois Natuurreservaat, nut en noodzaak van faunamaatregelen bij de N525. Het doel van onderhavig onderzoek is om het waarom, wat en waar van ontsnippering van de N525 te onderzoeken.
    Understanding relations between pastoralism and its changing natural environment
    Tamou, Charles - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): I.J.M. Boer, co-promotor(en): S.J. Oosting; R. Ripoll Bosch; I. Youssao Aboudou Karim. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431552 - 154
    pastoralism - livestock - grazing - crop production - nature conservation - cattle breeds - environment - nature reserves - benin - pastoralisme - vee - begrazing - gewasproductie - natuurbescherming - rundveerassen - milieu - natuurreservaten - benin

    The competition for land has become an issue of major concern and cause of conflict, especially between pastoralists and crop farmers, but also between pastoralists and nature conservation institutions. The Biosphere Reserve of W in Benin Republic (WBR) and its surrounding lands are located in the agro-pastoral contact zone in West Africa, enabling competition for land, and affecting the relations between pastoralism and its environment. The general aim of this thesis, therefore, was to understand the relations between pastoralism and its changing natural environment. In terms of land use change, cropland area around WBR expanded, whereas grazing area reduced. Population growth and rising demand for food crops and cash crops were the indirect causes of this loss of grazing lands. Competing claims over land existed between crop farmers and pastoralists, among crop farmers, and among crop farmers, pastoralists, and the WBR authority due to past expropriation, unfair and incomplete implementation of the WBR regulations and the increasing shift of pastoral lifestyle to crop farming. In terms of effects of grazing on plant communities, highly grazed sites had more species diversity than lowly grazed sites. This suggests that the current level of grazing was not damaging plant communities’ diversity. Annual species dominated the surveyed vegetation, suggesting that restoration of grazing lands with perennials requires human intervention. Herding involves taking decisions and moving of livestock in search for feed. Herding decisions are based on traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) of soil, forage and livestock. Pastoralists identified five different soils, which they selected for herding at different times of the year. Perennial grasses were perceived of high nutritional quality, whereas annuals were of low nutritional quality. Afzelia africana had high perceived quality for milk production, whereas Khaya senegalensis had the highest perceived quality for meat production, health and strength. In decision making for herding, pastoralists used a holistic approach, combining TEK about soil, vegetation and livestock, in a structured and prioritised reasoning. Changes in the pastoral system can lead to changes in desired livestock traits, which may lead to loss of indigenous breeds. Keteeji was valued for its endurance and tolerance to trypanosomiasis, Bodeeji was highly valued for endurance and Gudali was perceived of high value for meat and milk production, but of low value for endurance. To deal with the changing and unfavourable conditions of their environment, pastoralists preferred cattle breeds performing well on adaptive traits i.e. withstanding hunger, intelligence, and withstanding disease. Our results suggest that pastoralism is under pressure and that its survival depends on policies. In the pessimistic scenario, i.e. without any change, pastoralists will use, likely, the stepping-out strategy in the future. In the optimistic scenario, two possible institutional interventions could help maintaining pastoralism in the region: payments for ecosystem services provided by pastoralism, and association of pastoralism with nature conservation. In practice, however, the implementation of these two interventions is very challenging, which implies an increasing vulnerability of pastoralists and pastoral lifestyle.

    A safe operating space - Terry Hughes
    Wageningen UR, - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR
    ecosystemen - ecologische verstoring - natuurreservaten - klimaatverandering - maatregelen - ecosystems - ecological disturbance - nature reserves - climatic change - measures
    Mondiaal beeldbepalende ecosystemen zoals het Groot Barrière Rif en het Amazonewoud lopen het risico op instorting door klimaatverandering. Dat risico kan echter fors worden verkleind door lokale maatregelen zoals het inperken van overbevissing, vervuiling en boskap, zo stelt een internationaal team van wetenschappers onder leiding van Marten Scheffer van Wageningen University in Science van 20 maart 2015
    Webinar Msc Forest and Nature Conservation
    Wageningen UR, ; Scheffer, M. - \ 2014
    Wageningen UR
    ecosystemen - ecologische verstoring - natuurreservaten - klimaatverandering - maatregelen - plaatselijke planning - ecosystems - ecological disturbance - nature reserves - climatic change - measures - local planning
    Mondiaal beeldbepalende ecosystemen zoals het Groot Barrière Rif en het Amazonewoud lopen het risico op instorting door klimaatverandering. Dat risico kan echter fors worden verkleind door lokale maatregelen zoals het inperken van overbevissing, vervuiling en boskap, zo stelt een internationaal team van wetenschappers onder leiding van Marten Scheffer van Wageningen University in Science van 20 maart 2015
    A village dog is not a stray : human-dog interactions in coastal Mexico
    Ruiz Izaguirre, E. - \ 2013
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Imke de Boer, co-promotor(en): Karen Eilers. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461736819 - 150
    honden - zwerfdieren - dorpen - huishoudens - natuurreservaten - attitudes - mens-dier relaties - diergedrag - zeeschildpadden - uitselecteren - kustgebieden - mexico - dogs - stray animals - villages - households - nature reserves - attitudes - human-animal relationships - animal behaviour - turtles - culling - coastal areas - mexico

    Dogs (Canis familiaris) are considered one of the most numerous carnivores worldwide. Although in the Global North dogs are popular companions, that live inside homes, about 80% of the dogs in the world are village dogs. Village dogs are typically free-roaming, scavenge refuse around human dwellings and are associated with one or various households. At present, village dogs in the Global South are a concern for (inter)national organizations and individuals, such as tourists. Concerns arise about: overpopulation, transmission of zoonoses, welfare of village dogs, and issues relating to dog–wildlife interactions, such as predation on wildlife. Dog culling has proved ineffective in managing dog populations, in controlling zoonoses, and preventing wildlife predation, but remains the dominant strategy to manage village dogs in Mexico. The objective of this thesis was to improve the understanding of human–dog interactions in coastal areas of Mexico in order to identify strategies - embedded in the social and cultural context - to manage village dogs. The Pacific Coast of Mexico was used as a case study area because of its high dog density and its importance for tourism and sea-turtle nesting. Village dogs interact with tourists and are known to scavenge sea-turtle nests. Conclusions presented are based on fieldwork conducted in three village in Oaxaca and two in Michoacán. This fieldwork comprised, among others, interviews with villagers, dog behavioral tests, and radio-tracking of village dogs. Village dogs that live nearby nature protected areas are part of three main systems: the household, the village, and the nature protected area. Humans keep dogs mainly for guarding, as work companions and as children’s playmates. At household level, dogs interact with familiar (i.e. caregivers) and unfamiliar humans (e.g. visitors). At village level, dogs interact with familiar humans from other households, or with unfamiliar humans, such as tourists. At all system levels, village dogs have experiences with humans that may range from positive to negative, and this may be reflected in their behavioral responses towards humans. Dogs reported to engage in human-dog play (mainly with children) were more likely to respond with tail wagging to a caregiver’s call and to approach an unfamiliar human. Dogs can enter a nature protected area (i.e. sea-turtle nesting beach) by themselves or with other dogs or humans. Food is a central element in the above-described holistic system. Village dogs scavenge for food in proximity to humans, beg for food, or prey on sea-turtle eggs. Bodycondition of village dogs was in general close to optimal, and dogs maintained body condition also in the low season for sea-turtle nesting and tourism. Nest scavenger dogs, however, had a lower metabolic energy intake of tortillas, and a larger mean distance from home compared to non-nest scavengers. This suggests that nest scavenging is hunger-driven, and therefore, solutions need to focus on caregivers’ feeding practices. The keeping of dogs in the above-described system, is subject to clashing perceptions and discourses of external (e.g. tourists, authorities) and internal (villagers) stakeholders. External stakeholders refer to village dogs as stray or abandoned, and any dog that is not totally dependent on humans (e.g. village dog) is considered out of place. Total dependence of dogs on humans is a logical ethical argument deriving from the idea that humans took dogs out of the wild (in line with the ‘Pinocchio theory’). Villagers’ narratives, in contrast, perceive dogs as autonomous and able to take care of themselves (in line with the Village Dog theory of dog self-domestication). Dog welfare problems (i.e. dogs being too thin or sick) in coastal Oaxaca were perceived more by international than by Mexican tourists. Dogpredation of sea-turtle nests was an important concern for tourists, but not for internal stakeholders. In conclusion, the findings of this thesis show that village dogs in coastal Mexico are not ‘stray’, but interact with familiar humans from one or various households. Interactions of dogs with humans surpass a purely ecological relationship, as village dogs also fill a social niche and have important functions. Current policies and attempts to manage village dog populations in Mexico are derived from discourses and experiences largely disconnected from the village context. In order to find possible strategies to manage village dog populations, it is necessary to acknowledge the complexity of human–dog interactions, and include the views of both external and internal stakeholders.

    Bonaire Natioanl Marine Park (BNMP) op weg naar werelderfgoed
    Cremer, J.S.M. ; Meesters, H.W.G. - \ 2012
    Den Burg : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C140/12) - 21
    mariene gebieden - caribisch gebied - bonaire - aquatische ecologie - cultureel erfgoed - natuurreservaten - marine areas - caribbean - aquatic ecology - cultural heritage - nature reserves
    Het Bonaire National Marine Park (BNMP) staat sinds 2011 op de Nederlandse Voorlopige lijst van het Werelderfgoed. Dit betekent dat een nominatie kan worden ingediend om als natuurlijk werelderfgoed erkend te worden. In dit rapport wordt beschreven welke stappen nodig zijn om tot een nominatie voor de status van werelderfgoed te komen.
    Baseline surveys of Lac Bay benthic and fish communities, Bonaire
    Debrot, A.O. ; Hylkema, A. ; Vogelaar, W. ; Meesters, H.W.G. ; Engel, M.S. ; Leon, R. ; Prud'homme van Reine, W.F. ; Nagelkerken, I. - \ 2012
    Den Helder : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C129/12) - 52
    mariene gebieden - baaien - caribisch gebied - bonaire - aquatische ecologie - natuurreservaten - marine areas - bays - caribbean - aquatic ecology - nature reserves
    Lac Bay is a clear-water, 5 m deep shallow tropical lagoon of 7 km2 opening onto the wave and wind exposed east coast of the island of Bonaire, southern Caribbean. Over the last decades land reclamation by mangroves in Lac has been expanding the surface of turbid, saline backwaters into the bay at an average rate of 2.34 ha per year. This process threatens the future habitat quality and critical ecological function the bay fulfills as the most important fish nursery habitat for Bomaire
    Brandganzen en Kleine Mantelmeeuwen in het Wormer- en Jisperveld : effecten op weidevogels
    Kleijn, D. ; Hout, J.J. van der; Jansman, H.A.H. ; Lammertsma, D.R. ; Melman, T.C.P. - \ 2012
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 2293) - 48
    ganzen - vogels - populatiedynamica - diergedrag - weidevogels - nadelige gevolgen - natuurreservaten - noord-holland - geese - birds - population dynamics - animal behaviour - grassland birds - adverse effects - nature reserves - noord-holland
    In het Noord-Hollandse natuurreservaat 'het Wormer- en Jisperveld' is een driejarig onderzoek (2009-2011) uitgevoerd naar de verspreiding van weidevogels in relatie tot de aanwezigheid van lokale broedpopulaties van de Brandgans en de Kleine Mantelmeeuw. Onderzocht is of er een directe relatie is (bijvoorbeeld via gedrag/interactie/predatie) of een indirecte relatie (via beïnvloeding van vegetatiehoogte/structuur). In de periode maart-juni (dus gedurende de vestigingsfase, broedfase en kuikenfase) van elk jaar zijn de onderzochte soorten gekarteerd en is de vegetatiehoogte in kaart gebracht. Met een toets die de ruimtelijke associatie dan wel dissociatie in beeld brengt, is bepaald of de soorten elkaar ‘mijden’ of elkaar ‘zoeken’. Daarnaast is gekeken hoe de ruimtelijke verspreiding van weidevogelterritoria zich verhield tot de komst en ruimtelijke verspreiding van de nesten van de Brandgans en de Kleine Mantelmeeuw in de periode 1992-2010. Aanvullend is een globale analyse uitgevoerd naar de invloed van ganzen op de mogelijkheden van agrarische exploitatie.
    A Proposal Towards a Dutch Caribbean Marine Mammal Sanctuary
    Debrot, A.O. ; Witte, R.H. ; Scheidat, M. ; Lucke, K. - \ 2011
    Den Burg : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C149/11) - 153
    zeezoogdieren - natuurreservaten - beschermde gebieden - wildbescherming - caribische zee - nederlandse wateren - nederlandse antillen - marine mammals - nature reserves - reserved areas - wildlife conservation - caribbean sea - dutch waters - netherlands antilles
    Based on the goals set forth in the Dutch Biodiversity Policy Programme, The Netherlands has a traditionally strong commitment to protect biodiversity and marine mammals both internationally and in its own national and Kingdom waters. Last year the responsible ministry, namely the Netherlands Ministry of Economic Affairs, Agriculture and Innovation (EL&I), developed a management plan for the biological resources of the recently declared Dutch Caribbean Exclusive Economic Zone. The Dutch Caribbean EEZ was formally declared on June 10, 2010, and amounts to more than 90.000 km2 of diverse tropical marine habitats. One of the key ambition coming forth from that plan was to develop a Dutch Caribbean Marine Mammal Sanctuary (MMS). This report provides the necessary review and background on which to base such an endeavour. Our updated review establishes beyond doubt that the Dutch Caribbean EEZ has a rich and diverse marine mammal fauna which merits more extensive protection. Even though the fauna is only poorly known, based almost exclusively on incidental sightings and strandings, it amounts to a minimum of 19 marine mammal species, and possibly up to more than 30. Without exception, all documented species appear on protected species lists of one or more treaties ratified by the Kingdom, and/or its constituent countries. Large differences are apparent between the leeward and windward sectors of the Dutch Caribbean EEZ, both in terms of species composition and conservation issues. Throughout the region, cetaceans are playing an increasingly important role in island economies as an important natural attraction for eco-based recreation and tourism, and in this respect the Dutch Caribbean also possesses major potential. We here propose the establishment of a MMS as the cornerstone to sustainable conservation and management of these charismatic animals. Ecological arguments for the establishment of habitat protection by means of the concept of sanctuaries are outlined, as are the many environmental issues that would eventually need to be addressed within the sanctuary. Legal designation of a marine mammal sanctuary (MMS) would form the first and most important step which provides the framework for all broader (international cooperation) and in depth (knowledge and conservation development) initiatives. Once established, the fuller implementation of a marine mammal sanctuary should be seen as a gradual process, involving development of knowledge, policy, rules and regulations, public and stakeholder participation. In this the Netherlands would follow and importantly reinforce the efforts of other nations who have already established MMS’s within the region. Favourable pre-conditions for the establishment of a MMS in the Dutch Caribbean include the fact that a) all cetaceans are already have a legal status in the Dutch Caribbean EEZ which calls for actual protection, b) the most deleterious fishing practices are already significantly limited and controlled within Kingdom waters, c) the key enforcer, namely the Coastguard, is already strongly present (largely due to other reasons), d) the islands generally have a strong tradition of marine protected areas in coastal habitat, e) the incremental costs for research and enforcement needed to establish a sanctuary is modest, f) public support is high, thanks to the generally high level of development and awareness of the public, g) indigenous fishery practices do not conflict with cetacean conservation, and h) whale watching interests are only in their infancy. We conclude our review by proposing the following key action points to establishing a MMS: a) Legal designation of the EEZ (one or both sectors) as MMS, along with establishment of legal guidelines for interacting with cetaceans (whale watching). b) Establish bonds of cooperation with sister sanctuaries in the region (France, USA, Dominican Republic), (e.g. regional stranding and sightings data network). c) Conduct baseline quantitative surveys of cetacean distribution and assessments in light of sources of deleterious sound sources and risks of vessel strikes. d) Review and adapt existing national and insular legal frameworks to improve these, preferably by developing separate and standardized marine mammals legislation. e) Develop information systems to promote the development of a whale (cetacean) watching industry. f) Train and equip marine parks and island veterinarians to conduct elementary autopsies and collect basic stranding specimens for analysis of causes of mortality, contamination levels and genetics, and link them to international academic institutions who will accept and analyse the specimens in regional context. g) Develop species action plans (e.g. humpback). h) Conduct cetacean surveys and management reviews every 5 years to assess marine mammal status and conservation progress.
    Land van altena: kornsche boezem en pompveld
    Beers, P.W.M. van; Weeda, E.J. - \ 2011
    In: Excursieverslagen 2006 / van Dort, K., Haveman, R., Janssen, J.A.M., Wageningen : Plantensociologische Kring Nederland - p. 26 - 33.
    polders - natuurreservaten - natuurgebieden - hydrologie - graslanden - natura 2000 - land van heusden en altena - nature reserves - natural areas - hydrology - grasslands
    In het Land van Altena, dat deel uitmaakt van het historische stroomgebied van de Maas in noordwestelijk Brabant, liggen twee oude boezemgebieden : de Kornsche Boezem en het Pompveld. Beide zijn als natuurreservaat in beheer, het eerste gebied bij Staatsbosbeheer en het tweede bij Het Brabants landschap. Ze maken deel uit van een Natura-2000-gebied met de weidse naam Loevestein, Pompveld en Kornsche Boezem. Tijdens de PKN excursie ging de aandacht in de Kornsche Boezem uit naar de moerassige dotterbloemhooilanden
    Lessen voor succesvol investeren in Landschap
    Overbeek, M.M.M. - \ 2011
    Den Haag : LEI, onderdeel van Wageningen UR (LEI-publicatie 11-119)
    natuurbeheer - landschapsbeheer - financieren - natuurreservaten - nationale landschappen - vechtstreek - gelderse vallei - noord-brabant - gelderse poort - nature management - landscape management - financing - nature reserves - national landscapes
    In vier voorbeeldgebieden is ervaring opgedaan met nieuwe particuliere financieringsconstructies. Ook worden de maatschappelijke baten vastgesteld van het toegankelijker en mooier maken van het landschap. 1. Amstelland ten zuiden van Amsterdam, geflankeerd door Amstelveen, Uithoorn, Abcoude én de Bijlmermeer. Een particulier initiatief van de Stichting Beschermers Amstelland (SBA). 2. Het Binnenveld ligt in de Gelderse Vallei op de grens van Utrecht en Gelderland en vormt een binnentuin voor de WERV- gemeenten Wageningen, Ede, Rhenen en Veenendaal die het initiatief hebben genomen. 3. Het Groene Woud tussen Tilburg, Eindhoven en Den Bosch biedt een cultuurhistorisch landschap met de Campina heidevelden, Oisterwijkse bossen en het Dommeldal. Gemeenten en regionale partijen hebben hier samen het initiatief genomen. 4. Ooijpolder-Groesbeek kent een grote landschappelijke verscheidenheid met een rivierenlandschap in de Ooijpolder waaruit de stuwwal bij Nijmegen oprijst en een bos- en heuvellandschap in Groesbeek. Hier hebben de gemeenten Nijmegen, Groesbeek, Millingen aan de Rijn en Ubbergen en regionale partijen samen het initiatief genomen
    Cooperation or competition : dilemma for resource managers in sustainable wildlife utilisation
    Mwakiwa, E. - \ 2011
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Herbert Prins; J. Hearne, co-promotor(en): Erwin Bulte; Hans Stigter. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789461730381 - 137
    wildbeheer - particulier eigendom - grondeigendom - modelleren - loxodonta africana - savannen - grondproductiviteit - natuurreservaten - nationale parken - zuid-afrika - wildlife management - private ownership - land ownership - modeling - loxodonta africana - savannas - land productivity - nature reserves - national parks - south africa

    Keywords: analytical modelling; Associated Private Nature Reserves; consumptive use; elephants; Kruger National Park; land productivity; non-consumptive use; waterpoints; Savanna ecosystem model; South Africa.

    Wildlife as part of biodiversity is a global natural resource. However, landowners have some control over the future of wildlife on their land. Wildlife could be managed by the state or private landowners. The survival of the wildlife and their habitats is determined by how these landowners decide to use the land and the renewable resources on it. Some complication come into place given that wildlife usually roam on land held over by more than one owner providing more challenge to its management. In addition, wildlife as a natural resource has multiple uses that generate revenues for the betterment of the landowners. The uses could be consumptive or non-consumptive. Each landowner has multiple objectives which might be conflicting which poses even a greater challenge to the sustainable wildlife management.

    To meet their objectives wildlife managers use management tools. Some of the tools used include constructing or closing of artificial waterpoints, fire management, fencing, and population manipulation through culling/hunting or translocation of animals. However, use of these management tools can lead to unintended or opposite effects if they are not well understood. There are direct and indirect effects of the tools on biodiversity. Landowners could be tempted to excessively use some of the tools in order to achieve their objectives. In addition, most studies have concentrated on either the ecological or economic effects of the wildlife management tools. For the landowner, it is essential that he comprehends both the ecological and economic effects of the wildlife management tools for the sustainable management of wildlife, a contribution of this study.

    The main objective of this study is to assess the ecological and economic implications of some wildlife management tools on the landowners’ welfare. I use simple ecological economic analytical models based on the Pontryagin’s maximum principle to perform the analyses. The Savanna ecosystem model which is a spatially explicit, process-oriented model is also used to further explore the effects of one of the wildlife management tools on landowner’s multiple objectives.

    One of the tools that is analyzed in this thesis is the improvement of land productivity through increasing of vegetation quality. Given that, it is usually not easy to increase the land size in response to increased incentives, some landowners might consider increasing the land productivity. The results show that utilization of wildlife can contribute to wildlife conservation and enhancement of welfare as a result of investment by landowners into habitat quality improvement. However, the use of a wildlife management tool has direct and indirect effects as demonstrated by another framework presented in this thesis on waterpoints. Waterpoints are used by wildlife managers to supplement natural water supplies which in turn support herbivore populations, like elephants. A private oriented landowner may be interested only in maximization of profits or personal benefits either from elephant offtake and/or tourism revenue, thus might ignore the negative effects that could be brought about by elephants to biodiversity. In such case, the game reserve management as the authority entrusted with sustainable management of the game reserve should use economic instruments such as subsidies or payments for the compliant landowners and/or taxes or charges for the non-compliant landowners to encourage compliance with sustainable wildlife management practices.

    The Savanna ecosystem model is used to explore the effects of waterpoints on elephant density (representing an economic objective) and biodiversity (representing an ecological objective). The model is used to analyze the differential impact of waterpoints on the Kruger National Park’s regions under 26 waterpoints manipulation scenarios. The model is also used to analyze elephant impact on vegetation biomass diversity in four regions of Kruger National Park. The results showed that constructing (or closing) extra waterpoints in one region does not necessarily translate into higher (or lower) elephant densities in that region, but the effect depends on the vegetation and other conditions of the region in comparison to neighbouring regions. In one of the regions, the model showed that there is a trade-off between elephant density and vegetation biomass diversity. In another region, elephants’ effect on vegetation biomass diversity follows the intermediate disturbance hypothesis, whilst in other regions the relationship is positive. The intermediate disturbance hypothesis postulates that there would be a higher diversity of vegetation structure at intermediate elephant densities whilst at extreme levels of both low and high disturbance the diversity would be reduced. The model thus suggests that different strategies should be adopted for different regions, e.g., an adaptive management strategy could be used for one of the regions where waterpoints are switched on and off depending on the elephant density.

    Another wildlife management tool that is analyzed is the use of physical barriers like fences. Physical barriers could be utilised by landowners to separate different wildlife uses which might be conflicting. Landowners or game reserve management are often faced with the decision whether to undertake consumptive (hunting) and/or non-consumptive (tourism) use on their properties. A theoretical model is constructed to examine these cases. The results show that that the two uses can be undertaken in the same contiguous area if the consumptive use is not dominating.

    In conclusion, what emerges from this work is that given that the landowner’s welfare is not only affected by his own actions but also his neighbours’ modi operandi, then the landowner should consider all levels of cooperation with his neighbours in order to fully maximize his welfare. This includes cooperation in terms of which management tool(s) he and/or his neighbour should use. The frameworks presented in this thesis could be used by landowners (both state and private) to analyze the effects of their management actions on their welfare.

    Samenwerken in Nationale Parken en Natuurparken: hoe kan het beter?
    Blok, S. ; Korthals, M.J.J.A.A. - \ 2010
    Groen : vakblad voor groen in stad en landschap (2010). - ISSN 0166-3534 - p. 22 - 25.
    nationale parken - beschermingsgebieden - erfgoed - natuurbescherming - natuurreservaten - landschapsparken - landschapsbescherming - samenwerking - nationale landschappen - national parks - conservation areas - heritage areas - nature conservation - nature reserves - country parks - landscape conservation - cooperation - national landscapes
    Hoe goed of hoe slecht werken de twintig Nederlandse Nationale Parken met elkaar samen?. Op die vragen en nog een aantal andere wordt in dit artikel ingegaan. Deliberatie is daarbij het kernbegrip. Er zijn namelijk de nodige problemen bij de samenwerking binnen Parken
    Veengebieden bij veenwouden
    Jager, H.J. ; Weeda, E.J. - \ 2010
    In: Excursieverslagen 2005 / J.A.M. Janssen K. van Dort, R. Haveman, Wageningen : Plantensociologische Kring Nederland - p. 60 - 63.
    natuurreservaten - veengebieden - vegetatietypen - friesland - nature reserves - peatlands - vegetation types - friesland
    De veengebieden ten westen en noorden van Veenwouden vormen restanten van een groot hoogveen, dat vanaf de late middeleeuwen in ontgonnen (Van der Ploeg 1993). Toen het kleinschalige veenontginningslandschap in de 20e eeuw grootscheeps herontgonnen werd, zijn enkele delen als monument gespaard. Aan de westkant aan de rand van Tytsjerksteradiel wist It Fryske Gea in 1961 Het Ottema-Wiersma-reservaat veilig te stellen. Enkele kilometers noordoostwaards, in Dantumadeel, kwam het Houtwiel in beheer bij Staatsbosbeheer
    Strandreservaten: voor natuur en kustveiligheid
    Engelbertink, R.B.J. ; Paulissen, M.P.C.P. ; Janssen, G.M. ; Vanagt, T.J. ; Slim, P.A. - \ 2010
    De Levende Natuur 111 (2010)2. - ISSN 0024-1520 - p. 108 - 112.
    stranden - kustgebieden - natuurbescherming - ecosystemen - natuurreservaten - beaches - coastal areas - nature conservation - ecosystems - nature reserves
    Het strand vormt een belangrijke overgangszone tussen zee en duinen met karakteristieke habitats en de daarbij behorende flora en fauna. De strandnatuur staat echter onder druk, onder andere door verstorende werking van zandsuppleties en recreatie. Een mogelijkheid tot bescherming is het instellen van strandreservaten. Kenmerkend voor strandreservaten is dat er rust wordt gecreëerd, dat natuurlijke processen hun gang mogen gaan en dat vloedmerkmaterialen niet worden opgeruimd. Aanbevelingen met betrekking tot realisatie worden gegeven
    Recreation, tourism and nature in a changing world : proceedings of the fifth international conference on monitoring and management of visitor flows in recreational and protected areas : Wageningen, the Netherlands, May 30-June 3, 2010
    Goossen, M. ; Elands, B. ; Marwijk, R. van - \ 2010
    Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen University and Research Centre - ISBN 9789032703875 - 332
    natuurtoerisme - recreatie - bosrecreatie - openluchtrecreatie - recreatiegebieden - natuurreservaten - nationale parken - impact van bezoekers - recreatiemanagement - toeristenindustrie - natuurbeheer - nature tourism - recreation - forest recreation - outdoor recreation - amenity and recreation areas - nature reserves - national parks - visitor impact - recreation management - tourist industry - nature management
    Proceedings of the fifth international conference on monitoring and management of visitor flows in recreational and protected areas : Wageningen, the Netherlands, May 30-June 3, 2010
    Advies recreatief gebruik van het Laarder Wasmeer
    Grift, E.A. van der; Ammerlaan, C. ; Henkens, R.J.H.G. ; Ottburg, F.G.W.A. ; Pouwels, R. ; Smits, N.A.C. - \ 2009
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 1880) - 75
    openluchtrecreatie - heidegebieden - natuurwaarde - natuurreservaten - nadelige gevolgen - het gooi - outdoor recreation - heathlands - natural value - nature reserves - adverse effects - het gooi
    In opdracht van het Goois Natuurreservaat is onderzocht of recreatief gebruik van het Beschermd Natuurmonument Laarder Wasmeer mogelijk is zonder dat de natuurdoelstelling voor het gebied wordt aangetast, en zo ja, onder welke voorwaarden recreatief gebruik van het terrein dan kan plaatsvinden. Het advies is om het recreatief gebruik van het Laarder Wasmeer zeer extensief te houden om de natuurpotenties van het gebied maximaal te kunnen benutten. Dit betekent dat recreanten bij voorkeur slechts beperkt en onder begeleiding toegang zouden moeten krijgen tot het gebied.
    Ammoniakemissie en -depositie in en rondom Natura 2000-gebieden en beschermde natuurmonumenten in de provincie Gelderland
    Gies, T.J.A. ; Kros, J. ; Smidt, R.A. ; Voogd, J.C.H. - \ 2009
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 1850) - 49
    luchtverontreiniging - depositie - ammoniak - emissie - natuurreservaten - natuurbescherming - nederland - ammoniakemissie - natura 2000 - natuurgebieden - gelderland - air pollution - deposition - ammonia - emission - nature reserves - nature conservation - netherlands - ammonia emission - natural areas
    Voor de Gelderse beheerplannen Natura 2000 is wat betreft het agrarische gebruik met name het onderdeel ammoniak- en stikstofdepositie een punt van aandacht. Een te hoge stikstofdepositie op de natuurlijke ecosystemen kan leiden tot een verstoring en verslechtering van de biodiversiteit van deze ecosystemen. In veel Natura 2000-gebieden is de stikstofdepositie zo hoog dat daarmee niet wordt voldaan aan de instandhoudingsdoelstellingen voor deze gebieden. Extra beschermde maatregelen zijn noodzakelijk. Om inzicht te krijgen in deze problematiek geeft dit rapport per gebied de totale, actuele stikstofdepositie, uitgesplitst naar verschillende bronnen (landbouw, overige bronnen en buitenland), de actuele gebiedseigen depositie (binnen 10 km zone) als gevolg van de landbouw. Deze is uitgesplitst naar depositie a.g.v. stal- en mestopslagemissies, en depositie a.g.v. mestaanwending- en beweidingemissies in zones van 0-3, 3-5 km en 5-10 km per Natura 2000-gebied.
    Damherten en reeën in het natuurreservaat De Kop van Schouwen : inventarisaties
    Groot Bruinderink, G.W.T.A. ; Breukelen, L. van - \ 2009
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 1933) - 84
    damherten - herten - natuurreservaten - karteringen - monitoring - methodologie - zeeuwse eilanden - zeeland - veldwerk - fallow deer - deer - nature reserves - surveys - methodology - field work
    Bij het inventariseren van damherten en reeën op de Kop van Schouwen zijn veel waarnemingsmethoden, zowel direct als indirect, beperkt bruikbaar vanwege de geringe doorkijkbaarheid van delen van het gebied. Bij de thans gehanteerde methode kan gebruik worden gemaakt van een groot aantal vrijwilligers, terwijl bijvoorbeeld een goed uitgevoerde transecttelling de inzet vereist van professionals. Voor een analyse van de populatieontwikkeling dient een groot deel van de populatie nauwkeurig te worden aangesproken. Op dit punt is verbetering mogelijk. Het advies voor de Kop van Schouwen luidt dan ook om de gevolgde methode voort te zetten, met aandacht voor een aantal verbeteringen. Een belangrijke aanbeveling is om bij een volgende gelegenheid het begin en einde van de telling beter te synchroniseren. ‘Gemiddeld’ zijn er tijdens drie tellingen op twee dagen 433 damherten en 171 reeën geteld. De indruk bestaat dat bij beide hoefdiersoorten in de groep ‘kalveren’ (juvenielen) waarnemingsfouten worden gemaakt, waarbij een deel wordt ingedeeld bij de groep volwassen vrouwelijke dieren. Ook zal een deel van de volwassen vrouwtjes bestempeld worden als ‘onaangesproken’, dat wil zeggen, dat onbekend was wat voor dieren het zijn
    Effecten van maatregelen in de landbouw op de stikstofdepositie in de Natura 2000-gebieden en beschermde natuurmonumenten in de Provincie Gelderland
    Gies, T.J.A. ; Kros, J. ; Voogd, J.C.H. - \ 2009
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 1927) - 63
    landbouw - depositie - ammoniak - nitraten - cost effective analysis - natuurbescherming - regio's - natuurreservaten - nederland - natuurbeheer - gelderland - agriculture - deposition - ammonia - nitrates - cost effectiveness analysis - nature conservation - regions - nature reserves - netherlands - nature management
    In deze studie is de ammoniak en stikstofdepositie op de Natura 2000-gebieden in Gelderland verkend en zijn de mogelijke effecten van maatregelen in de landbouw op de gebiedseigen depositie van stikstof uit de landbouw weergegeven. Daarmee wordt inzicht gegeven in welke mate de beschikbare maatregelen het best ingezet kunnen worden. Daarnaast vormt het inzicht in deze onderwerpen ook een belangrijke bijdrage aan het proces voor het opstellen van de beheerplannen voor de Natura 2000-gebieden. Deze rapportage is een aanvulling op de studie uit 2008 waarvan de resultaten staan verwoord in Alterra-rapport 1850.
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