|Evaluation for salt stress tolerance of pepper genotypes to be used as rootstocks
Penella, C. ; Nebauer, S.G. ; Lopéz-Galarza, S. ; SanBautista, A. ; Gorbe, E. ; Calatayud, A. - \ 2013
Journal of Food, Agriculture & Environment 11 (2013)3&4. - ISSN 1459-0255 - p. 1101 - 1107.
precautionary principle - basel convention - governance - negotiations - shellfish - malaysia - dioxins - fish
Salinity is a major environmental constraint on crop productivity and grafting can be a sustainable strategy to enhance plant tolerance under adverse growth conditions. Screening different graft combinations under field conditions can be a slow and expensive processes. In this study, plants of 18 genotypes of Capsicum spp. were evaluated during 5 months to select salt tolerant plants to be used as rootstocks in greenhouse under controlled conditions. Their net photosynthetic rate was used as a rapid and sensitive methodology for screening their tolerance to salt stress conditions. The germination potential of some genotypes was also tested under different salinity conditions to see if it would be useful to accelerate the screening process. According to photosynthesis rate, the commercial rootstock ‘Tresor’ and the genotypes ‘Serrano’ (C. annuum), ‘ECU-973’ (C. chinense) and ‘BOL-58’ (C. baccatum) were the most tolerant during this period. Nevertheless, the evaluation of pepper genotypes for salinity tolerance based on the germination performance and chlorophyll fluorescence parameter Fv/Fm ratio were not good indicators of the sensitivity along plant ontogeny. Finally, the selected genotypes as salt-tolerant were validated under field conditions as rootstocks of two interesting pepper cultivars, concluding that using the rootstocks selected by the net photosynthetic rate improved the salt tolerance of the scion in terms of marketable yield and fruit quality.
Hegemony and asymmetry : multiple-chessboard games on transboundary rivers
Warner, J.F. ; Zawahri, N. - \ 2012
International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics 12 (2012)3. - ISSN 1567-9764 - p. 215 - 229.
international rivers - 2-level games - negotiations - politics - waters - tigris - indus
Making sense of EU state aid requirements: the case of green services
Zwaan, P.J. ; Goverde, H.J.M. - \ 2010
Environment and Planning C. Government and Policy 28 (2010)5. - ISSN 0263-774X - p. 768 - 782.
agri-environmental policy - collective sensemaking - implementation - politics - negotiations - legitimacy - knowledge - schemes - model
The concept of green services, developed in the Netherlands, aimed at rewarding activities by farmers in the field of nature and landscape management with a ‘market-based price’ provided by public and private actors. Despite a positive stance on the concept at member-state level, it took considerable efforts to get the concept implemented. The selected case, which is an exemplary case for a more general reorientation on the provision of agrienvironmental measures (eg in the context of the EU Common Agricultural Policy), shows that uncertainties of the EU state aid regime and complex power relationships within a multilevel governance setting led to much delay. We explain these difficulties by drawing from new-institutional and sense-making literature and the literature on escalation. We also show how a modus vivendi was found for establishing the green service concept and thereby provide insights for initiators of new agrienvironmental schemes or other horizontal modes of governance
Moving boundaries in transboundary air pollution co-production of science and policy under the convention on long range transboundary air pollution
Tuinstra, W. ; Hordijk, L. ; Kroeze, C. - \ 2006
Global environmental change : human and policy dimensions 16 (2006)4. - ISSN 0959-3780 - p. 349 - 363.
acid-rain - europe - negotiations
This article focuses on the science-policy interaction in international negotiations in the context of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe's Convention for Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution (CLRTAP). It addresses the question how participants in the assessment process divide and co-ordinate work between science and policy and how this enhances credibility, legitimacy and relevance with multiple audiences. For this purpose the article combines an analytical framework to approach effectiveness of scientific assessment in policy making, with the notion of boundary work and co-production of science and policy. The article argues that knowledge produced within the CLRTAP process and the institutional setting in which this knowledge production takes place cannot be separated from each other. Furthermore credibility, legitimacy and relevance are to a large extent determined by boundary work in an early stage of the process. At the same time boundary work has to take place continuously in order keep the assessment process credible, legitimate and relevant for new audiences. The application of a combined framework for analysing credibility, legitimacy and relevance and for analysing boundary work turns out to be helpful in describing in detail what happens in practice at the science-policy interface. In particular it helps to address the question of the way participants in the assessment process divide and co-ordinate work, how this shapes design elements and how this enhances credibility legitimacy and relevance of an assessment