Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Boommier, Lasius brunneus (Formicidae), als gast in een bosmierennest
    Mabelis, A.A. - \ 2013
    Entomologische Berichten 73 (2013)1. - ISSN 0013-8827 - p. 25 - 25.
    hymenoptera - formicidae - nestelen - diergedrag - hymenoptera - formicidae - nesting - animal behaviour
    De boommier komt vooral in loofbossen voor, al bouwt hij zijn nest ook wel eens in een geïsoleerde boom. In huizen wordt hij soms aangetroffen in een oude balk. Meestal betreft het hout met een hoog vochtgehalte dat door een schimmel is aangetast. De boommier als bewoner van een bosmierennest is wel erg uitzonderlijk.
    Pro Dromi Easy Nesting geeft rust en minder doodliggers
    Hoofs, A.I.J. - \ 2012
    V-focus 9 (2012)5a. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 18 - 19.
    varkenshouderij - zeugen - varkensstallen - nestelen - dierenwelzijn - stalinrichting - dierlijke productie - varkens - huisvesting, dieren - diergezondheid - pig farming - sows - pig housing - nesting - animal welfare - animal housing design - animal production - pigs - animal housing - animal health
    Het hoksysteem voor zeugen, Pro Dromi, is in 2010 ontworpen door 14 zeugenhouders uit het kennisnetwerk ‘Wat liggen ze er mooi bij’. Een extra van dit hoksysteem is het zogenaamde Easy nesting-onderdeel. Anita Hoofs van het Varkens Innovatie Centrum Sterksel onderzocht het Easy nesting-systeem. Wat maakt Pro Dromi Easy Nesting zo bijzonder?
    Pristine wilderness of the Taimyr peninsula : 2008 expedition to the Pyasina Delta, Taimyr peninsula, Russian Federation
    Raad, J.A. ; Mazurov, Y.L. ; Ebbinge, B.S. - \ 2011
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 2190) - 138
    alopex lagopus - branta bernicla - ganzen - lemmingen - wild - arctische gebieden - nestelen - predatie - larus - klimaatverandering - alopex lagopus - branta bernicla - geese - lemmings - wildlife - arctic regions - nesting - predation - larus - climatic change
    Revolutionary non-migratory migrants
    Jonker, M.R. - \ 2011
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Herbert Prins; Ron Ydenberg, co-promotor(en): Sip van Wieren. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085859857 - 128
    ganzen - branta - migratie - oogstschade - predatie - nestelen - nederland - geese - branta - migration - crop damage - predation - nesting - netherlands

    In the migratory behaviour of the Barnacle Goose Branta leucopsis several changes have

    occurred over the past few decades. Barnacle geese breeding in Russia have delayed the

    commencement of spring migration with approximately one month since the 1980s,

    new populations have emerged in former stopover areas in the Baltic Sea region, and a

    non-migratory population has emerged in the wintering area in The Netherlands. This

    thesis aims to understand these changes.

    First, I studied the delay in commencement of spring migration. In the 1970s and 1980s,

    barnacle geese commenced spring migration half April, whereas spring migration now

    commences half May. I used a dynamic programming model to test three different

    possible explanations of delay in migration: 1) Climate change, because geese follow a

    green wave of fresh plant growth during spring migration, and are thus expected to be

    sensitive to increasing spring temperatures. 2) Competition for food during stopover

    because the population migrating to Russia has rapidly increased during the period in

    which the migration change occurred. 3) Predation danger during stopover because the

    number of avian predators such as White-tailed Eagles has drastically increased in the

    Baltic stopover area. The model showed that a delay of one month is adaptive in both

    the case of competition and predation danger. Strikingly, predation danger has received

    very little attention so far in goose studies.

    Migration strategy in geese is not genetically but culturally inherited, especially from

    parents to offspring via an extended period of parental care. Because this thesis focused

    on understanding migratory change, I focused on the parental care behaviour and the

    parent-offspring association because a change in migration was expected to be preceded

    by a change in the parent-offspring association. Because spring migration had delayed,

    the question arose whether the termination of parental care also had delayed. This

    would indicate a mechanistic link between the decision of commencement of migration

    and the termination of care, and would allow the barnacle geese to continue transmission

    of the migratory strategy to their offspring. Therefore, I quantified parental care

    throughout the season from autumn migration in Estonia to wintering in the Netherlands

    and through spring migration in Estonia. To quantify parental care, I compared

    parental geese (geese with offspring) and non-parental geese (geese without offspring).

    I showed that termination of parental care had not delayed but advanced as compared

    to the earlier situation, leaving a gap of two months between the estimated end of parental

    care (March) and the commencement of migration (May). This longer period of

    ‘adolescence’ and the accompanying exploratory behaviour may have strong influence

    on the amount of new colonization attempts by these abandoned offspring.

    In addition to delayed commencement of spring migration, also a non-migratory population

    emerged in the Netherlands. Life-history theory predicts that 1) higher expected

    Summary| 117

    future reproductive success leads to shorter parental care and 2) decreased benefits of

    parental care lead to shorter parental care. Both situations apply to the non-migratory

    population as compared to the migratory population of barnacle geese. Migration is

    a dangerous life-style, and has become even more dangerous as I showed earlier. Additionally,

    the non-migratory offspring encounters few dangers, making the benefits of

    parental care for the parents smaller. Hence, I compared the duration of parental care

    between migratory and non-migratory barnacle geese. To this end, I also quantified the

    parental care of the non-migratory population from autumn until spring. I showed that

    non-migratory barnacle geese take care of their offspring 21% shorter than migratory

    barnacle geese and terminate care already in November. This suggests a rapid adaptive

    adjustment of parental care coincident with altered migration.

    To understand the colonization history of the different populations of the Barnacle

    Goose, I developed a set of 384 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP) specifically

    for the Barnacle Goose. By genotyping 418 individuals from Greenland, Spitsbergen,

    Russia, Sweden and the Netherlands (all major populations) I identified significant population

    structure. The results show that after previously having been separated, population

    admixture occurs now between all populations, indicated by significant linkage

    disequilibrium. Because the traditions of migratory behaviour promote differentiation

    between populations, this admixture suggested that these traditions had broken or had

    become weaker. We also show that the colonization of the Netherlands is not likely to

    have occurred by the Swedish population (which emerged ten years before the Dutch

    population emerged). The Russian and Dutch population are much more alike than the

    Swedish and Dutch population, indicating colonization of the Netherlands by formerly

    Russian barnacle geese.

    In the synthesis I showed that we can use life history trade-offs as indicators of environmental

    change. Based on the shortening of parental care I concluded that predation

    danger is a more likely explanation for the commencement of spring migration than

    food competition in the Baltic. I also showed that the shortening of parental care in

    the Barnacle Goose is not the norm in the Anatidae family, where the form of parental

    care is assumed to be very conservative. The observed change in our study showed that

    either the non-migratory barnacle geese adjusted their parental care unprecedentedly, or

    that the parental care systems in this family are poorly recorded or understood.

    Finally, I showed with a mechanistic model of cultural transmission of migratory behaviour

    that a delay in commencement of spring migration can explain sudden exploratory

    behaviour and colonization of new breeding areas at the cost of increased offspring

    mortality. The model also showed that the importance of culture on the transmission

    of migratory behaviour strongly affected the rate of exploration of new migratory


    Meadow bird ecology at different spatial scales : responses to environmental conditions and implications for management
    Verhulst, J. - \ 2007
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Frank Berendse, co-promotor(en): David Kleijn. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085047551 - 136
    vogels - dierecologie - grondwaterstand - nestelen - milieufactoren - habitats - conservering - nederland - weidevogels - agrarisch natuurbeheer - waadvogels - birds - animal ecology - groundwater level - nesting - environmental factors - habitats - conservation - netherlands - grassland birds - agri-environment schemes - waders
    Het aantal weidevogels in Nederland loopt schrikbarend terug. Zo daalde het aantal broedende grutto’s de afgelopen twintig jaar van 100 duizend naar 45 duizend. Dit ondanks het feit dat de overheid jaarlijks circa 30 miljoen besteedt aan weidevogelbescherming op het boerenland. Boeren kiezen vooral voor twee maatregelen: later maaien en nestbescherming. Jort Verhulst kwam er in zijn promotieonderzoek achter dat dit niet de meest effectieve maatregelen zijn
    Predatie bij weidevogels : op zoek naar de mogelijke effecten van predatie op de weidevogelstand, uitgebreide samenvatting
    Teunissen, W. ; Schekkerman, H. ; Willems, F. - \ 2006
    Beek-Ubbergen : SOVON Vogelonderzoek Nederland (Alterra-rapport 1292 samenvatting) - 24
    vogels - populaties - predatie - predatoren - nestelen - nederland - weidevogels - birds - populations - predation - predators - nesting - netherlands - grassland birds
    Weidevogels zijn in de laatste decennia sterk in aantal achteruitgegaan. Dit proces lijkt zich de laatste jaren zelfs nog te versnellen. Oorzaken voor deze negatieve ontwikkeling worden vooral gezocht in verlies van geschikt broedgebied voor weidevogels en de voortgaande intensivering van het agrarisch landgebruik. Daarnaast wordt predatie van legsels en kuikens de laatste jaren steeds vaker als probleem genoemd; volgens sommigen is het zelfs de hoofdoorzaak van de afnemende weidevogelpopulaties. Meningen daarover lopen echter zeer uiteen. SOVON, Alterra en Landschapsbeheer Nederland hebben daarom gezamenlijk een grootschalig onderzoek uitgevoerd naar het effect van predatie op de weidevogelpopulaties
    Hotspots van biodiversiteit in Nederland op basis van broedvogelgegevens
    Turnhout, C. van; Loos, W.B. ; Foppen, R.P.B. ; Reijnen, M.J.S.M. - \ 2006
    Wageningen / Beek-Ubbergen : WOT Natuur & Milieu / SOVON (WOt-werkdocument 33) - 58
    broedvogels - biodiversiteit - inventarisaties - nestelen - zoögeografie - kaarten - nederland - landschapsecologie - breeding birds - biodiversity - inventories - nesting - zoogeography - maps - netherlands - landscape ecology
    Dit WOT rapport richt zich op het vervaardigen van kaarten van broedvogels in Nederland. De inventarisatie is gemaakt op basis van landschapstype: open, halfopen en gesloten agrarisch, bos, duin, heide, kwelder en moeras. De basisgegevens zijn afkomstig uit verschillende bronnen, afhankelijk van de zeldzaamheid van de soort als broedvogel. Het onderzoek is verricht door Alterra en SOVON
    Predatie bij weidevogels; op zoek naar de mogelijke effecten van predatie op de weidevogelstand
    Teunissen, W. ; Schekkerman, H. ; Willems, F. - \ 2005
    Beek-Ubbergen : Sovon (Alterra-document 1292) - 172
    predatie - nestelen - voortplanting - predatoren - nederland - weidevogels - predation - nesting - reproduction - predators - netherlands - grassland birds
    Gezamenlijk onderzoek van SOVON, Alterra en Landschapsbeheer Nederland naar natuurlijke schade aan legsels en kuikens van weidevogels. Door plaatsing van videocamera's en temperatuurloggers werd aanvullende informatie verkregen, naast het vele veldverk verricht door boeren en vrijwilligers
    Studies on breeding shorebirds at Medusa Bay, Taimyr, in Summer 2002
    Schekkerman, H. ; Tulp, I.Y.M. ; Calf, K.M. ; Leeuw, J.J. de - \ 2004
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 922) - 101
    vogels - nestelen - voortplanting - monitoring - arctische gebieden - predatie - geleedpotigen - rusland - waadvogels - birds - nesting - reproduction - monitoring - arctic regions - predation - arthropods - russia - waders
    In the summer of 2002 a combined Dutch-Russian expedition took place to the Willem Barentz field station at Medusa Bay near Dikson in north-western Taimyr, Russia. The expedition was organised by Alterra and the Agricultural Department of the Dutch Embassy in Moscow. Research questions addressed by the Alterra team and basic results obtained during the 2002 season are presented in this report. More elaborate analyses and discussion of the data will be made elsewhere. Where useful, results are compared with data collected in 2000 and 2001. Subjects of study generally concerned breeding biology of arctic breeding shorebirds, especially with respect to timing of breeding.
    Broedvogels van het eiland De Dode Hond in 2002
    Jonkers, D.A. - \ 2003
    Hilversum : Vogelwerkgroep Het Gooi en Omstreken (Uitgave / Vogelwerkgroep Het Gooi en Omstreken 136) - 28
    broedvogels - nestelen - inventarisaties - eilanden - noord-holland - randmeren - breeding birds - nesting - inventories - islands
    Dode Hond is een kunstmatig eiland in het Eemmeer. In het nabijgelegen dorp Spakenburg staat het eiland bekend onder de naam 'Vogeleiland'. Dit heeft zijn oorsprong in het doel van het eiland als depot voor grond die vrijkwam bij de aanleg van de dijk van Flevoland. In die tijd vlogen veel vogels rond het eiland om in de pas gestorte grond naar voedsel te zoeken. Vele vogelsoorten en andere dieren kunnen hier ongestoord leven.
    Broedvogels in 2000 op de Blaricummer- en Tafelbergheide
    Jonkers, D.A. - \ 2001
    Hilversum : Vogelwerkgroep Het Gooi en Omstreken - 30
    broedvogels - nestelen - monitoring - inventarisaties - heidegebieden - habitats - noord-holland - het gooi - ornithologie - breeding birds - nesting - inventories - heathlands
    Studies on breeding shorebirds at Medusa Bay, Taimyr, in summer 2001
    Tulp, I. ; Schekkerman, H. - \ 2001
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 451) - 111
    vogels - nestelen - diergedrag - voortplanting - monitoring - kustgebieden - arctische gebieden - ecologie - geleedpotigen - predatie - rusland - waadvogels - oevers - broedgedrag - fauna - noordpoolgebied - ornithologie - steltlopers - Siberië - birds - nesting - animal behaviour - reproduction - monitoring - coastal areas - arctic regions - ecology - arthropods - predation - russia - waders - shores - fauna
    In the Summer of 2001 a combined Dutch-Russian expedition took place to the Willem Barentz field station at Medusa Bay near Dikson in north-western Taimyr. The expedition was organized by Alterra, the Working Group for International Waterbird and Wetland Research (WIWO) and the Agricultural Department of the Dutch Embassy in Moscow. The results obtained by the Alterra team are presented in this report. Subjects of study generally concerned breeding biology of arctic breeding shorebirds, especially aspects related to timing of breeding and adult body condition. This report's purpose is not to discuss the findings thoroughly but merely to summarize the research questions addressed and present all basic information collected during the 2001 season. Topics included are spring arrival and autumn departure of waders from the tundra, breeding phenology, nest success, biometrics of adult waders, chick growth rate, return rates of adult shorebirds, and seasonal and weather-related variation in arthropod availability. Where useful, results are compared with data collected in a previous expedition in 2000. More elaborate analyses and discussion of the data will be made elsewhere.
    LARCH Vogels Nationaal; een expertsysteem voor het beoordelen van de ruimtelijke samenhang en de duurzaamheid van broedvogelpopulaties in Nederland
    Reijnen, R. ; Jochem, R. ; Jong, M. de; Heer, M. de; Sierdsema, H. - \ 2001
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 235) - 63
    vogels - nestelen - populaties - habitats - vegetatie - cartografie - distributie - ecologie - modellen - nederland - habitatfragmentatie - broedvogels - fauna - landschapsecologie - ornithologie - populatiebiologie - simulatiemodel - birds - nesting - populations - habitats - vegetation - mapping - distribution - ecology - models - netherlands - habitat fragmentation - fauna
    Het model LARCH is een onderdeel van het kerninstrumentarium van het Natuurplanbureau. Het model voorspelt de kans op duurzaam voorkomen van vooral diersoorten op basis van de ruimtelijke configuratie van leefgebieden en de kwaliteit daarvan. Dit rapport beschrijft het toepasbaar maken van LARCH voor 89 broedvogelsoorten in Nederland, LARCH VOGELS NATIONAAL genaamd. Ten behoeve hiervan is een speciale begroeiingstypenkaart vervaardigd. Het model maakt deel uit van de Natuurplanner van het RIVM. De Natuurplanner integreert kennis over de effecten van de zogenoemde "ver"-thema's (verdroging, verzuring, vermesting) op planten en vegetatie(structuur). Door de uitbreiding met broedvogels kan ook de kennis over versnippering worden meegenomen.
    Produceren grutto's Limosa limosa in agrarisch grasland voldoende jongen voor een duurzame populatie?
    Schekkerman, H. ; Müskens, G.J.D.M. - \ 2000
    Limosa 73 (2000)4. - ISSN 0024-3620 - p. 121 - 134.
    limosa limosa - graslanden - graslandbeheer - weiden - vegetatiebeheer - bedrijfsvoering - maaien - natuurbescherming - voortplanting - voortplantingsvermogen - nestelen - nesten - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - populatie-ecologie - voortplantingsgedrag - broedplaatsen - overleving - vogelnesten - weidevogels - populatiebiologie - agrarisch natuurbeheer - ecologie - fauna - grasland - grutto - ornithologie - steltloper - weidevogel - limosa limosa - grasslands - grassland management - pastures - vegetation management - management - mowing - nature conservation - reproduction - reproductive performance - nesting - nests - farm management - population ecology - reproductive behaviour - breeding places - survival - birds' nests - grassland birds - population biology - agri-environment schemes - fauna
    Door het volgen van met zenders uitgeruste grutto's werden gegevens verzameld over uitkomstsucces, vervolglegsels en kuikenoverleving in agrarische graslandgebieden met vormen van agrarisch natuurbeheer in West- en Midden-Nederland. In de meeste gevallen was het reproductiesucces te laag om verdere achteruitgang van de soort te voorkomen. Agrarisch natuurbeheer biedt wel perspectieven, maar vooral in het maaibeheer zijn aanpassingen nodig
    Overzomerende grauwe ganzen in het noordelijk Deltagebied : een modelmatige benadering van de aantalontwikkeling bij verschillende beheersscenario's
    Schekkerman, H. ; Klok, T.C. ; Voslamber, B. ; Turnhout, C. van; Willems, F. ; Ebbinge, B.S. - \ 2000
    Wageningen : Alterra (SOVON-onderzoeksrapport 2006/06 / Alterra-rapport 139) - 73
    anser - ganzen - populatiedynamica - ecologie - dichtheidsafhankelijkheid - nestelen - overleving - voortplanting - bedrijfsvoering - modellen - oogstschade - nederland - zuid-holland - fauna - landbouwschade - ornithologie - trekvogels - Zeeland - Brabant - anser - geese - population dynamics - ecology - density dependence - nesting - survival - reproduction - management - models - crop damage - netherlands - zuid-holland - fauna
    De broedpopulatie van de grauwe gans in het noordelijk Deltagebied neemt sterk toe, en dat leidt in toenemende mate tot landbouwschade in het zomerhalfjaar. In dit rapport wordt, op grond van gegevens over overleving en reproductiesucces, afkomstig uit Zweden en uit Oost-Nederland, een populatiemodel gepresenteerd, waarmee de te verwachten toekomstige populatieontwikkelingen zijn verkend. De modeluitkomsten zijn sterk afhankelijk van het veronderstelde reproductiesucces en indiceren dat de populatie op termijn zou kunnen toenemen tot ruwweg 10 000-20 000 vogels. De effecten van verschillende mogelijke beheersmaatregelen zijn met scenario's doorgerekend.
    Studies on breeding shorebirds at Medusa Bay, Taimyr, in Summer 2000
    Tulp, I. ; Schekkerman, H. ; Klaassen, R. - \ 2000
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 219) - 85
    vogels - nestelen - diergedrag - voortplanting - monitoring - kustgebieden - arctische gebieden - ecologie - geleedpotigen - predatie - rusland - oevers - waadvogels - birds - nesting - animal behaviour - reproduction - monitoring - coastal areas - arctic regions - ecology - arthropods - predation - russia - waders - shores
    In the Summer of 2000 a combined Dutch-Russian expedition took place to the Willem Barentz field station at Medusa Bay near Dikson in north-western Taimyr. The expedition was organized by Alterra, the Working Group for International Waterbird and Wetland Research (WIWO) and the Dutch Agricultural Department of the Dutch Embassy in Moscow. As a background document containing all basic information collected during the 2000 season, the results obtained by the Alterra team and part of the results obtained by the WIWO team will be presented in this report. Its purpose is not to discuss data thoroughly but merely to summarize the research questions addressed and present the basic data. More elaborate analyses and discussion of the data will be made in theform of papers in international refereed journals, in combination with results from the 2001 season. Subjects of study generally concerned breeding biology of arctic breeding shorebirds and were all related to the timing of breeding.
    Broedvogels van de Hoorneboegsche Heide in 1998
    Jonkers, D.A. - \ 1998
    Hilversum : Vogelwerkgroep Het Gooi en Omstreken - 50
    broedvogels - nestelen - populatiedichtheid - populatie-ecologie - mortaliteit - populatiegroei - verspreiding - heidegebieden - noord-holland - het gooi - breeding birds - nesting - population density - population ecology - mortality - population growth - dispersal - heathlands
    The biology and management of wild helmeted guineafowl (Numida meleagris galeata Pallas) in the Waza region of North Cameroon
    Njiforti, H.L. - \ 1997
    Agricultural University. Promotor(en): H.H.T. Prins; H.A. Udo de Haes. - Maroua : Njiforti - ISBN 9789054857365 - 132
    numida - parelhoenders - wildbescherming - populatie-ecologie - nestelen - maatschappelijke betrokkenheid - kameroen - numida - guineafowls - wildlife conservation - population ecology - nesting - community involvement - cameroon

    Criticisms have arisen with respect to the way protected areas in Africa are being managed in a top-down fashion, with the state as the sole owner. Such an approach has failed in a number of protected areas because of encroachment (mainly poaching and habitat destruction), socioeconomic instability, and conflicts of interests with local communities. The long-term conservation of wildlife and the future of many protected areas in Africa today requires a review of present management strategies. In the general introduction (Chapter 1), some of the major problems of protected areas of Africa in general and of Cameroon in particular are discussed.

    One of the major problems facing the managers of protected areas is poaching of wildlife by both local communities and outsiders. 'Bushmeat' (meat from wild animals) is a major source of animal proteins in most parts of Africa. In the two Northern provinces of Cameroon, meat from wildlife is widely consumed. The North African Porcupine ( Hystrix cristata ) and the guineafowl ( Numida meleagris ) top the list among the wildlife species that are consumed (Chapter 2). Since wildlife utilisation by local communities cannot be completely stopped, it is important that some way be found to make such use sustainable. A good sustainable use scheme may also be a way of getting local communities involved in nature and wildlife conservation. Such a scheme could take the form of a regulated hunting arrangement for villages in the area adjacent to protected areas. However, if local communities are to be legally authorised to exploit any natural resources, the exploitation must be sustainable. For the exploitation to be sustainable, there must be a good management strategy based on sound ecological knowledge of the resources.

    The guineafowl was chosen as a species that could possibly be exploited by local communities around the Waza National Park of North Cameroon. The biology of this bird was investigated from 1991 to 1995 to establish an ecological basis for such exploitation. Censuses in and around the Waza National Park showed that the population density of guineafowl in this area could be up to 216±108 birds/km 2. This density varies with habitat type, year, and level of human activity (Chapter 3). Investigation of the diet of this bird from crop content analysis (Chapter 4) showed that it is omnivorous. It feeds on a wide
    variety of plant seeds, roots and insects, but especially on the rhizomes of Stylochiton lancifolius (a plant) and on termites (an insect). A study of the breeding performance of the guineafowl inside the National Park (Chapter 5) showed that the annual rainfall plays an important role in its annual breeding success. Nest abandonment, predation of both eggs and guineafowl hens, trampling by elephants and floods were found to be principal causes of nest losses, but play a lesser role in the total breeding success.

    An investigation of mortality and mortality factors (Chapter 6) showed that the annual mortality rate varied slightly with sex, age and year. A multifactorial analysis of population parameters showed that variations in annual breeding success resulting from variation in annual rainfall could explain most of the population density changes in the region. Hence annual rainfall can be used to estimate annual production and possible harvesting strategy for the Waza guineafowl population.

    Studies on the home range size, emigration, and social organisation (Chapter 7) showed that the home range size varied with season (rainy and dry season). Group size varied with month, being largest between March and April and smallest in August. Young birds and birds in large groups had a higher tendency to emigrate. Information from previous chapters is used to develop a model for predicting annual guineafowl productivity and assess the possible magnitude of harvesting quota for the Waza region (Chapter 8). In the last chapter (Chapter 9), information from a socioeconomic survey in the Waza region and those from other chapters are used to propose a hunting zone for the management of hunting of guineafowl by villagers. A possible set-up of an organisation for running this hunting zone is also proposed.

    Resultaten van de huiszwaluwcensus in 1995
    Jonkers, D.A. ; Leys, H.N. - \ 1996
    Het Vogeljaar 44 (1996)1. - ISSN 0042-7985 - p. 19 - 22.
    dieren - hirundinidae - inventarisaties - mortaliteit - nestelen - nesten - nederland - populatiedichtheid - populatie-ecologie - populatiegroei - veldwerk - observatie - animals - inventories - mortality - nesting - nests - netherlands - population density - population ecology - population growth - field work - observation
    Resultaten van een jaarlijkse telling van huiszwaluwnesten
    Nestbezoek door hanen
    Rooijen, J. van - \ 1995
    Praktijkonderzoek voor de Pluimveehouderij 6 (1995)4. - ISSN 0924-9087 - p. 27 - 29.
    dierlijke producten - broedsheid - hanen - uitbroeden - nestelen - nesten - kwaliteit - vleeskuikenouderdieren - animal products - broodiness - cocks - hatching - nesting - nests - quality - broiler breeders
    Bij de houderij van vleeskuikenouderdieren streeft men naar zoveel mogelijk schone, gave, bevruchte eieren in de nesten. In de praktijk is men vrij algemeen van mening dat bezoeken aan legnesten door hanen hier een negatief effect op hebben. De literatuur suggereert echter dat nestbezoek door hanen ook, tijdens een gedrag dat nestelen wordt genoemd, het leggen van bevruchte nesteieren kan stimuleren.
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