Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Enhancing governance for sanitation marketing in DRC : Creating an enabling environment for sanitation marketing
    Klaver, D.C. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Centre for Development Innovation - p. 1 - 38.
    marketing - marketing policy - sanitation - new sanitation - governance - civil rights - congo democratic republic - east africa - marketing - marketingbeleid - volksgezondheidsbevordering - nieuwe sanitatie - governance - burgerrechten - democratische republiek kongo - oost-afrika
    This report is one of the results of the ‘Sanitation Marketing in Equateur Province’ project in RDC, in which Wageningen UR and Oxfam Great Britain (Oxfam GB) work together.

    • It Describes the characteristics of different governance arrangements that address sanitation problems in Gemena in terms of actors involved and decision-making process and power;
    •Assesses the strengths and weaknesses of these different governance arrangements in solving collective problems in the field of sanitation, and
    •Presents different policy propositions on how to create more enabling governance arrangements for the sustainable provision of sanitation services.
    Alg groeit goed op plas en poep van NIOO
    Sikkema, A. ; Lamers, P.P. - \ 2015
    Resource: weekblad voor Wageningen UR 10 (2015)8. - ISSN 1874-3625
    afvalwater - afvalwaterbehandeling - nieuwe sanitatie - biobased economy - algen - chlorella sorokiniana - organische meststoffen - algenteelt - waste water - waste water treatment - new sanitation - algae - organic fertilizers - algae culture
    Chlorella sorokiniana reinigt geconcentreerd wc-water. Resultaat: schoon water én meststof
    Closing Domestic Nutrient Cycles Using Microalgae
    Vasconcelos Fernandes, T. ; Shresthat, R. ; Suit, Y. ; Papini, G. ; Zeeman, G. ; Vet, L.E.M. ; Wijffels, R.H. ; Lamers, P.P. - \ 2015
    Environmental Science and Technology 49 (2015)20. - ISSN 0013-936X - p. 12450 - 12456.
    algen - afvalwater - afvalwaterbehandeling - stikstof - fosfor - biomassa productie - proefopzet - nieuwe sanitatie - algae - waste water - waste water treatment - nitrogen - phosphorus - biomass production - experimental design - new sanitation
    This study demonstrates that microalgae can effectively recover all P and N from anaerobically treated black water (toilet wastewater). Thus, enabling the removal of nutrients from the black water and the generation of a valuable algae product in one step. Screening experiments with green microalgae and cyanobacteria showed that all tested green microalgae species successfully grew on anaerobically treated black water. In a subsequent controlled experiment in flat-panel photobioreactors, Chlorella sorokiniana was able to remove 100% of the phosphorus and nitrogen from the medium. Phosphorus was depleted within 4 days while nitrogen took 12 days to reach depletion. The phosphorus and nitrogen removal rates during the initial linear growth phase were 17 and 122 mg·L–1·d–1, respectively. After this initial phase, the phosphorus was depleted. The nitrogen removal rate continued to decrease in the second phase, resulting in an overall removal rate of 80 mg·L–1·d–1. The biomass concentration at the end of the experiment was 11.5 g·L–1, with a P content of approximately 1% and a N content of 7.6%. This high algal biomass concentration, together with a relatively short P recovery time, is a promising finding for future post-treatment of black water while gaining valuable algal biomass for further application.
    Hoeveel is onze poep eigenlijk waard?
    Vet, L.E.M. - \ 2015
    Universiteit van Nederland
    afvalwaterbehandeling - waterzuivering - rioolwater - mestvergisting - geneesmiddelen - fosfaat - terugwinning - algenteelt - helofytenfilters - feces - nieuwe sanitatie - biobased economy - lesmaterialen - waste water treatment - water treatment - sewage - manure fermentation - drugs - phosphate - recovery - algae culture - artificial wetlands - faeces - new sanitation - teaching materials
    Prof. dr. Louise Vet van Wageningen UR heeft een donkerbruin vermoeden dat we waardevolle stoffen door het toilet spoelen. Sterker nog: ze weet het zeker. Voedingsstoffen, zelfs medicijnen: In dit college vertelt ze hoe we met algen en nieuwe technologie kostbaar spul uit ons bruine spul kunnen halen. Louise Vet is hoogleraar Evolutionaire Ecologie aan de Universiteit Wageningen en directeur van het Nederlands Instituut voor Ecologie. Professor Vet is een vrouw met een missie: een zo duurzaam mogelijke wereld realiseren. Zo gaf ze zelf het goede voorbeeld door het kantoorcomplex en lab waar zij haar onderzoek doet geheel via de cradle-to-cradle filosofie in te richten.
    Microalgae cultivation for nutrient recovery from human urine
    Tuantet, K. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Grietje Zeeman, co-promotor(en): Hardy Temmink; Marcel Janssen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462572676 - 174
    afvalwaterbehandeling - afvalwateraquacultuur - urine - algenteelt - terugwinning - fosfor - stikstof - fotobioreactoren - biomassa productie - biobased economy - nieuwe sanitatie - waste water treatment - wastewater aquaculture - urine - algae culture - recovery - phosphorus - nitrogen - photobioreactors - biomass production - biobased economy - new sanitation
    Nieuwe, brongerichte sanitatieconcepten krijgen meer en meer aandacht en laten een groot potentieel zien voor het terugwinnen van nutriënten, organische stof en water, en voor de productie van energie. Verschillende van deze nieuwe sanitatieconcepten zijn geïmplementeerd in landen zoals Nederland, Duitsland, Zweden en China. Van de beschikbare terugwinningstechnieken voor urine is er geen één die zowel stikstof als fosfor kan terugwinnen. Dat is wel mogelijk door algen te kweken op urine, vanwege de hoge N:P ratio in de algen biomassa. Tot nu toe zijn er maar een beperkt aantal studies uitgevoerd gericht op het gebruik van urine voor het kweken van microalgen. Microalgenkweek heeft een groot potentieel voor de behandeling van urine in vergelijking met de meeste andere technieken die op dit moment al commercieel beschikbaar zijn. Een model system voor Nederlandse omstandigheden werd geëvalueerd, gebruik makend van parameterwaarden uit de experimenten beschreven in dit proefschrift als wel uit de literatuur. Dit heeft aangetoond dat in Nederland microalgenkweek mogelijk is van de late lente tot laat in de zomer.
    Haalbaarheidstudie: regenwater opvangen en benutten op luchthaven Schiphol
    Kuller, M. ; Dolman, N. ; Spiller, M. ; Vreeburg, J.H.G. - \ 2014
    H2O online (2014)19 sept..
    luchthavens - regenwateropvang - neerslag - watervoorziening - nieuwe sanitatie - haarlemmermeer - airports - water harvesting - precipitation - water supply - new sanitation
    Voor een effectieve bescherming van beschikbare (zoet)waterbronnen is het opvangen en benutten van regenwater op regionale schaal noodzakelijk, evenals het vergroten van de regionale zelfvoorzienendheid. Deze studie op het terrein van luchthaven Schiphol laat zien dat regenwateropvang van verschillende oppervlakten haalbaar is, maar dat voor volledige dekking een vrij grote berging noodzakelijk is.
    Nutrient removal and microalgal biomass production on urine in a short light-path photobioreactor
    Tuantet, K. ; Temmink, B.G. ; Zeeman, G. ; Janssen, M.G.J. ; Wijffels, R.H. ; Buisman, C.J.N. - \ 2014
    Water Research 55 (2014). - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 162 - 174.
    waterzuivering - bioreactoren - fosfaten - stikstof - terugwinning - nieuwe sanitatie - biomassa productie - urine - algenteelt - biobased economy - water treatment - bioreactors - phosphates - nitrogen - recovery - new sanitation - biomass production - urine - algae culture - biobased economy - chlorella-sorokiniana - spirulina-platensis - anaerobic treatment - black water - phosphorus - management - efficiency - vulgaris - biofuels
    Due to the high nitrogen and phosphorus content, source-separated urine can serve as a major nutrient source for microalgae production. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutrient removal rate and the biomass production rate of Chlorella sorokiniana being grown continuously in urine employing a short light-path photobioreactor. The results demonstrated, for the first time, the possibility of continuous microalgae cultivation in human urine. The lowest dilution factor successfully employed was a factor of 2 (50% v/v urine). Microalgae dominated a smaller bacterial population and were responsible for more than 90% of total nitrogen and phosphorus removal.
    Handelingsperspectief circulaire economie Amsterdam - Gezamenlijke oplossingen en kansen voor betere kringloopsluiting in Metropoolregio Amsterdam (MRA) - Factsheets bij het visiedocument
    Thoden Van Velzen, E.U. ; Weijma, J. ; Sukkel, W. ; Vader, J. ; Reinhard, A.J. ; Oliemans, W.J. - \ 2013
    LEI (LEI 13-083 13-083) - 83
    afvalverwerking - kringlopen - reststromen - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - stadslandbouw - voedselvoorziening - fosfaat - terugwinning - biobased economy - nieuwe sanitatie - amsterdam - waste treatment - cycling - residual streams - sustainability - urban agriculture - food supply - phosphate - recovery - new sanitation
    Als resultaat van de samenwerking met de Metropoolregio Amsterdam benoemt Wageningen UR in dit document voor vier kringlopen actuele mogelijkheden en bijbehorende maatregelen om de kringlopen zo goed mogelijk te sluiten. In de vorm van factsheets wordt voor elke maatregel uitgewerkt wat deze oplevert voor de dimensies people, planet, profit en proces en wat de kosten, de risico’s en de randvoorwaarden daarbij zijn. De vier kringlopen zijn fosfaat, water, afval en voedsel.
    Waterschap maakt goudmijn van zuiveringsinstallaties
    Crielaard, J.P. - \ 2013
    SocialInnovationFoundation.org
    stedelijk afvalwater - nieuwe sanitatie - recycling - innovaties - waterschappen - municipal wastewater - new sanitation - innovations - polder boards
    “Wist je dat wij 10 procent van onze energierekening door het toilet spoelen? Dat is toch zonde”, zegt Jack Crielaard, van The Social Innovation Foundation (TSIF). Als we sommige dingen anders organiseren en anders gaan denken ligt dat allemaal voor het oprapen.” TSIF helpt bedrijven en organisaties om die kansen ook echt op te rapen en is op dit moment nauw betrokken bij de ontwikkeling van “groene hubs” door Waterschap Rijn en IJssel.
    Evaluating the potential of improving residential water balance at building scale
    Agudelo Vera, C.M. ; Keesman, K.J. ; Mels, A.R. ; Rijnaarts, H. - \ 2013
    Water Research 47 (2013)20. - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 7287 - 7299.
    watervoorziening - zelfvoorziening - nieuwe sanitatie - watergebruik - vraag - huishoudens - woonwijken - stedelijke gebieden - hydrologische cyclus - duurzame ontwikkeling - regenwateropvang - hergebruik van water - water supply - self sufficiency - new sanitation - water use - demand - households - residential areas - urban areas - hydrological cycle - sustainable development - water harvesting - water reuse - waste-water - rainwater
    Earlier results indicated that, for an average household, self-sufficiency inwater supply can be achieved by following the Urban harvest Approach (UHA), in a combination of demand minimization, cascading and multi-sourcing. To achieve these results, it was assumed that all available local resources can be harvested. In reality, however, temporal, spatial and locationbound factors pose limitations to this harvest and, thus, to self-sufficiency. This article investigates potential spatial and temporal limitations to harvest local water resources at building level for the Netherlands, with a focus on indoor demand. Two building types were studied, a free standing house (one four-people household) and a mid-rise apartment flat (28 two-person households). To be able tomodel yearlywater balances, daily patterns considering household occupancy and presence ofwater using applianceswere defined per building type. Three strategies were defined. The strategies include demand minimization, light grey water (LGW) recycling,andrainwaterharvesting(multi-sourcing).Recyclingandmulti-sourcingcater for toilet flushing and laundrymachine. Results showed thatwater saving devicesmay reduce 30% of the conventional demand. Recycling of LGWcan supply 100% of second quality water (DQ2)whichrepresents36%of theconventionaldemandorupto20%of theminimizeddemand. Rainwater harvestingmay supply approximately 80%of theminimized demand in case of the apartmentflat and 60%in case of the free standinghouse.Toharvest these potentials, different system specifications, related to the household type, are required. Two constraints to recycle and multi-source were identified, namely i) limitations in the grey water production and availablerainfall;andii) thepotential toharvestwaterasdeterminedbythe temporalpatternin water availability, water use, and storage and treatment capacities.
    Prospects of Source-Separation-Based Sanitation Concepts: A Model-Based Study
    Tervahauta, T.H. ; Trang Hoang, ; Hernández, L. ; Zeeman, G. ; Buisman, C.J.N. - \ 2013
    Water 5 (2013)3. - ISSN 2073-4441 - p. 1006 - 1035.
    afvalwaterbehandeling - huishoudens - afvoerwater - nieuwe sanitatie - voedingsstoffen - terugwinning - energieterugwinning - biobased economy - waste water treatment - households - effluents - new sanitation - nutrients - recovery - energy recovery - biobased economy - life-cycle assessment - waste-water treatment - grey water - black water - human urine - constructed wetlands - anaerobic-digestion - domestic sewage - energy
    Separation of different domestic wastewater streams and targeted on-site treatment for resource recovery has been recognized as one of the most promising sanitation concepts to re-establish the balance in carbon, nutrient and water cycles. In this study a model was developed based on literature data to compare energy and water balance, nutrient recovery, chemical use, effluent quality and land area requirement in four different sanitation concepts: (1) centralized; (2) centralized with source-separation of urine; (3) source-separation of black water, kitchen refuse and grey water; and (4) source-separation of urine, feces, kitchen refuse and grey water. The highest primary energy consumption of 914 MJ/capita(cap)/year was attained within the centralized sanitation concept, and the lowest primary energy consumption of 437 MJ/cap/year was attained within source-separation of urine, feces, kitchen refuse and grey water. Grey water bio-flocculation and subsequent grey water sludge co-digestion decreased the primary energy consumption, but was not energetically favorable to couple with grey water effluent reuse. Source-separation of urine improved the energy balance, nutrient recovery and effluent quality, but required larger land area and higher chemical use in the centralized concept.
    New sanitation : bridging cities and agriculture
    Zeeman, G. - \ 2012
    Wageningen : Wageningen University, Wageningen UR - ISBN 9789461733252 - 23
    nieuwe sanitatie - afvalwater - afvalwaterbehandeling - afval - kringlopen - volksgezondheid - anaërobe behandeling - terugwinning - new sanitation - waste water - waste water treatment - wastes - cycling - public health - anaerobic treatment - recovery
    This inaugural lecture revolves around recovering raw materials such as phosphate, nitrogen, organic substances, energy and water from domestic waste and wastewater. If separated at source using less water, these materials can be recovered more efficiently and used as fertilisers in agriculture, for example. This is an important move at a time when raw materials are becoming increasingly scarce.
    Over Spoelen en Vermalen : bewonersonderzoek naar percepties and gebruikerservaringen van het project Waterschoon in Sneek
    Naus, J. ; Vliet, B.J.M. van - \ 2012
    Wageningen : Wageningen Universiteit - 28
    nieuwe sanitatie - aangepaste technologie - vacuümpompen - woningen - milieutechnologie - burgers - perceptie - friesland - new sanitation - appropriate technology - vacuum pumps - dwellings - environmental technology - citizens - perception
    Op dit moment zijn er een aantal demonstratieprojecten gaande in Nederland waarin alternatieve vormen van sanitatie (nieuwe sanitatie) worden toegepast. Een van de meest vooruitstrevende projecten is het Waterschoon project in Sneek. Hier worden 230 huurwoningen gerealiseerd (bouwproject Noorderhoek) waarbij toiletten en keukenvermalers voor organisch afval worden aangesloten op een vacuümsysteem en een vergistingsinstallatie in de wijk. Het project bouwt voort op de ervaringen van een demonstratieproject met vacuüm toiletten bij 32 woningen in Lemmerweg-Oost in Sneek.
    Resource recovery from source separated domestic waste(water) streams; Full scale results
    Zeeman, G. ; Kujawa, K. - \ 2011
    Water Science and Technology 64 (2011)10. - ISSN 0273-1223 - p. 1987 - 1992.
    urine - scheiding - afvalwaterbehandeling - afvalverwerking - afvalhergebruik - nieuwe sanitatie - huishoudens - terugwinning - urine - separation - waste water treatment - waste treatment - waste utilization - new sanitation - households - recovery - phosphorus - nutrients - water
    A major fraction of nutrients emitted from households are originally present in only 1% of total wastewater volume. New sanitation concepts enable the recovery and reuse of these nutrients from feces and urine. Two possible sanitation concepts are presented, with varying degree of source separation leading to various recovery products. Separate vacuum collection and transport followed by anaerobic treatment of concentrated black water (BW) demonstrated on a scale of 32 houses preserve 7.6 g/N/p/d and 0.63 gP/p/d amounting to respectively 69 and 48% of the theoretically produced N and P in the household, and 95% of the retained P was shown to be recoverable via struvite precipitation. Reuse of the anaerobic sludge in agriculture can substantially increase the P recovery. Energy recovery in the form of biogas from anaerobic digestion of concentrated BW, fits well in new concepts of sustainable, zero energy buildings. Nutrient recovery from separately collected urine lowers the percentage of nutrient recovery in comparison with BW but can, on the other hand, often be implemented in existing sanitation concepts. Theoretically 11gN/p/d and 1.0 g P/p/d are produced with urine, of which 38–63 and 34–61% were recovered in practice on a scale of 8–160 inhabitants in Sweden. New sanitation concepts with resource recovery and reuse are being demonstrated worldwide and more and more experience is being gained.
    Energy and phosphorus recovery from black water
    Graaff, M.S. de; Temmink, B.G. ; Zeeman, G. ; Buisman, C.J.N. - \ 2011
    Water Science and Technology 63 (2011)11. - ISSN 0273-1223 - p. 2759 - 2765.
    afvalwaterbehandeling - urine - huishoudens - nieuwe sanitatie - energieterugwinning - fosfor - anaërobe behandeling - waste water treatment - urine - households - new sanitation - energy recovery - phosphorus - anaerobic treatment - nitrogen removal - waste-water - struvite - systems - precipitation - tank
    Source-separated black water (BW) (toilet water) containing 38% of the organic material and 68% of the phosphorus in the total household waste (water) stream including kitchen waste, is a potential source for energy and phosphorus recovery. The energy recovered, in the form of electricity and heat, is more than sufficient for anaerobic treatment, nitrogen removal and phosphorus recovery. The phosphorus balance of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating concentrated BW showed a phosphorus conservation of 61% in the anaerobic effluent. Precipitation of phosphate as struvite from this stream resulted in a recovery of 0.22 kgP/p/y, representing 10% of the artificial phosphorus fertiliser production in the world. The remaining part of the phosphorus ended up in the anaerobic sludge, mainly due to precipitation (39%). Low dilution and a high pH favour the accumulation of phosphorus in the anaerobic sludge and this sludge could be used as a phosphorus-enriched organic fertiliser, provided that it is safe regarding heavy metals, pathogens and micro-pollutants.
    Modelling anaerobic digestion of concentrated black water and faecal matter in accumulation system
    Elmitwalli, T. ; Zeeman, G. ; Otterpohl, R. - \ 2011
    Water Science and Technology 63 (2011)9. - ISSN 0273-1223 - p. 2039 - 2045.
    nieuwe sanitatie - afvalwaterbehandeling - anaërobe afbraak - dynamische modellen - feces - urine - huishoudens - biodegradatie - new sanitation - waste water treatment - anaerobic digestion - dynamic models - faeces - urine - households - biodegradation - decentralized sanitation - waste-water - grey water - urban - biodegradability - management - reuse - areas
    A dynamic mathematical model based on anaerobic digestion model no. 1 (ADM1) was developed for accumulation (AC) system treating concentrated black water and faecal matter at different temperatures. The AC system was investigated for the treatment of waste(water) produced from the following systems: vacuum toilet for black water (VBW), vacuum toilet for faeces with urine separation (VF), dry toilet (DT), dry toilets for faeces with urine separation (DF), separated faecal matter from conventional black water by filter bag (FB). For evaluation of the AC system treating the proposed waste(water) sources at 20 and 35°C, two options were studied: (1) The filling period of the AC system was constant for all waste(water) sources (either 1, 3 or 6 months) and for each period, the seed sludge volume was varied; (2) The volume of the AC system was constant for all proposed waste(water) sources. The results showed that the filling period of the AC system was the main parameter affecting the system performance, followed by operational temperature, while the increase of the seed sludge volume slightly enhanced the performance of the system. The model results indicated that the filling period of the AC system should be higher than 150 days for obtaining a stable performance. It was found that the hydrolysis of biodegradable particulate chemical oxygen demand (COD) is the rate limiting step, as volatile fatty acid concentration is very low in all experimental conditions (
    Removal of micropollutants from grey water : combining biological and physical/chemical processes
    Hernandez Leal, L. - \ 2010
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Cees Buisman, co-promotor(en): Grietje Zeeman; Hardy Temmink. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085857013 - 181
    afvalwaterbehandeling - verontreinigende stoffen - biodegradatie - anaërobe afbraak - biochemisch zuurstofverbruik - chemisch zuurstofverbruik - uitvlokking - desinfectie - nieuwe sanitatie - waste water treatment - pollutants - biodegradation - anaerobic digestion - biochemical oxygen demand - chemical oxygen demand - flocculation - disinfection - new sanitation
    Grey water consists of the discharges from kitchen sinks, showers, baths, washing machines and hand basins. The amount of grey water produced per person in The Netherlands is about 90 Ld-1, accounting for up to 75 % of the wastewater volume produced by households, and over 90 % if vacuum toilets are installed. Grey water is relatively low in pollution and therefore, after appropriate treatment, has great potential for reuse in non-potable applications such as infiltration, irrigation, toilet flushing, laundry water, etc. The goal of this thesis was to develop a treatment concept for grey water to exploit its reuse potential. A special focus of this thesis was set on the study of organic micropollutants from personal care and household chemicals. Grey water (from 32 houses in Sneek, The Netherlands) contains, on average, 724-150 mgL-1 of chemical oxygen demand (COD), 27-12 mgL-1 of total nitrogen, 7.2-4.2 mgL-1 of phosphorus and 41-12 mgL-1 of anionic surfactants. The high biodegradability of grey water (70-5 %) indicated the possibility of recovering COD as methane. Biological treatment of grey water was conducted in three systems, aerobic, anaerobic and combined anaerobic + aerobic, at a total hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 12-13 hours at 32 °C. Aerobic treatment in a sequencing batch reactor resulted in COD removal of 90 %, which was significantly higher than 51 % removal by anaerobic treatment in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. Grey water treatment in a combined anaerobic + aerobic system resulted in a COD removal efficiency of 89 %. The application of a UASB reactor for the pre-treatment of grey water yielded a small amount of energy. Therefore, the aerobic system was preferred for grey water treatment. Bioflocculation of grey water in a high loaded membrane bioreactor was tested as alternative to aerobic treatment. The concentrated grey water of this process can potentially increase the methane yield by 73 % within ‘new sanitation' concepts. Eighteen compounds of personal care products and household chemicals (UV- filters, fragrances, preservatives, biocides, surfactants) were measured in grey water at low gL-1 levels. During biological treatment most of these compounds were partially removed. In general, the treatment in the aerobic system lead to the highest removal efficiencies of these compounds, where biodegradation and adsorption to sludge were the most likely removal mechanisms. However, the UV-filters PBSA and EHMC and the fragrance tonalide were poorly removed in the tested biological systems. Although reuse standards for these compounds do not exist, the post-reatment of aerobically treated effluent was recommended prior to reuse. Adsorption on activated carbon and ozonation were proven effective as post-treatment options for grey water.
    Long term partial nitritation of anaerobically treated black water and the emission of nitrous oxide
    Graaff, M.S. de; Zeeman, G. ; Temmink, B.G. ; Loosdrecht, M.C.M. ; Buisman, C.J.N. - \ 2010
    Water Research 44 (2010)7. - ISSN 0043-1354 - p. 2171 - 2178.
    rioolafvalwater - rioolwater - excreten - huishoudens - afvoerwater - nieuwe sanitatie - afvalwaterbehandeling - nitrificatie - ammonium - anaërobe behandeling - sewage effluent - sewage - excreta - households - effluents - new sanitation - waste water treatment - nitrification - ammonium - anaerobic treatment - anammox reactor - waste-water - start-up - removal - ammonia - sharon - supernatant - management - digestion
    Black water (toilet water) contains half the load of organic material and the major fraction of the nutrients nitrogen and phosphorus in a household and is 25 times more concentrated, when collected with a vacuum toilet, than the total wastewater stream from a Dutch household. This research focuses on the partial nitritation of anaerobically treated black water to produce an effluent suitable to feed to the anammox process. Successful partial nitritation was achieved at 34 °C and 25 °C and for a long period (almost 400 days in the second period at 25 °C) without strict process control a stable effluent at a ratio of 1.3 NO2-N/NH4-N was produced which is suitable to feed to the anammox process. Nitrite oxidizers were successfully outcompeted due to inhibition by free ammonia and nitrous acid and due to fluctuating conditions in SRT (1.0–17 days) and pH (from 6.3 to 7.7) in the reactor. Microbial analysis of the sludge confirmed the presence of mainly ammonium oxidizers. The emission of nitrous oxide (N2O) is of growing concern and it corresponded to 0.6–2.6% (average 1.9%) of the total nitrogen load
    Resource recovery from black water
    Graaff, M.S. de - \ 2010
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Cees Buisman, co-promotor(en): Grietje Zeeman; Hardy Temmink. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085855484 - 192
    rioolafvalwater - nieuwe sanitatie - anaërobe afbraak - bio-energie - nitrificatie - verzamelen - riolering - urine - sewage effluent - new sanitation - anaerobic digestion - bioenergy - nitrification - collection - sewerage - urine
    New sanitation systems based on separation at source offer a large potential for resource recovery from wastewater, e.g. energy and nutrients from black water and irrigation water from grey water. This review focuses on the components in source separated black water. The treatment options for the key components are reviewed, focusing on recovery of organic compounds, nitrogen and phosphorus and removal of hormones, pharmaceutical residues and pathogens. A feasible treatment system for black water (faeces and urine), collected with vacuum toilets, would consist of anaerobic treatment followed by struvite precipitation for phosphorus recovery and autotrophic nitrogen removal. By applying these techniques, it is possible to produce 56 MJ/p/y of electricity, representing 40% of the energy that now is required for conventional WWTPs. Furthermore, the production of global artificial phosphorus fertilizer can be reduced by maximum 21%. As an alternative a higher degree of separation could be applied by separating the urine from the faeces, but this only would be feasible if the urine can be directly reused as a fertilizer. The issue of hormones, pharmaceuticals and pathogens in wastewater and their entry into the environment requires more research to determine to which extent additional treatment is necessary. Finally, the scope of this thesis is explained and the research questions which were addressed are presented.
    Praktijkervaringen met vacuümtechnologie voor toiletten [thema afvalwater]
    Telkamp, P. ; Mels, A.R. ; Bulk, J. van den - \ 2008
    H2O : tijdschrift voor watervoorziening en afvalwaterbehandeling 41 (2008)10. - ISSN 0166-8439 - p. 50 - 52.
    nieuwe sanitatie - aangepaste technologie - bouwconstructie - hygiëne - woningen - vacuümpompen - scheiding - verzamelen - afvalwater - milieutechnologie - new sanitation - appropriate technology - building construction - hygiene - dwellings - vacuum pumps - separation - collection - waste water - environmental technology
    Nieuwe sanitatiesystemen gebaseerd op scheiding van geconcentreerde en minder geconcentreerde huishoudelijke afvalstromen aan de bron komen zowel internationaal als nationaal steeds meer in de belangstelling. Verschillende uitvoeringsvormen zijn mogelijk. Dit artikel beschrijft het resultaat van onderzoek dat is uitgevoerd door Tauw en WUR/LeAF bij een appartementencomplex in Deventer dat voorzien is van vacuümtoiletten voor de inzameling van zwart water. Daarnaast is aanvullend onderzoek verricht bij het EET-project 'Lemmerweg-Oost' in Sneek. Dit project is een initiatief van Landustrie en Wageningen Universiteit en Researchcentrum
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