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Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    High-Resolution Mapping of Nitrogen Dioxide With TROPOMI : First Results and Validation Over the Canadian Oil Sands
    Griffin, Debora ; Zhao, Xiaoyi ; McLinden, Chris A. ; Boersma, Folkert ; Bourassa, Adam ; Dammers, Enrico ; Degenstein, Doug ; Eskes, Henk ; Fehr, Lukas ; Fioletov, Vitali ; Hayden, Katherine ; Kharol, Shailesh K. ; Li, Shao Meng ; Makar, Paul ; Martin, Randall V. ; Mihele, Cristian ; Mittermeier, Richard L. ; Krotkov, Nickolay ; Sneep, Maarten ; Lamsal, Lok N. ; Linden, Mark ter; Geffen, Jos van; Veefkind, Pepijn ; Wolde, Mengistu - \ 2019
    Geophysical Research Letters 46 (2019)2. - ISSN 0094-8276 - p. 1049 - 1060.
    nitrogen dioxide - OMI - TROPOMI

    TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI), on-board the Sentinel-5 Precurser satellite, is a nadir-viewing spectrometer measuring reflected sunlight in the ultraviolet, visible, near-infrared, and shortwave infrared. From these spectra several important air quality and climate-related atmospheric constituents are retrieved, including nitrogen dioxide (NO2) at unprecedented spatial resolution from a satellite platform. We present the first retrievals of TROPOMI NO2 over the Canadian Oil Sands, contrasting them with observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument satellite instrument, and demonstrate TROPOMI's ability to resolve individual plumes and highlight its potential for deriving emissions from individual mining facilities. Further, the first TROPOMI NO2 validation is presented, consisting of aircraft and surface in situ NO2 observations, and ground-based remote-sensing measurements between March and May 2018. Our comparisons show that the TROPOMI NO2 vertical column densities are highly correlated with the aircraft and surface in situ NO2 observations, and the ground-based remote-sensing measurements with a low bias (15–30 %); this bias can be reduced by improved air mass factors.

    Monitoring en PAS : de les van het verleden
    Haveman, R. - \ 2015
    De Levende Natuur 116 (2015)2. - ISSN 0024-1520 - p. 49 - 50.
    natuurgebieden - luchtverontreiniging - stikstofdioxide - emissiereductie - monitoring - beleidsevaluatie - natural areas - air pollution - nitrogen dioxide - emission reduction - monitoring - policy evaluation
    Nadenkend over monitoring ten behoeve van natuurbeleid komt Haveman (adviseur ecologie bij vastgoedbeheer) met drie adviezen. Stop uniformeringsdrang; verschillende typen monitoring niet met elkaar verwarren; bij PAS ligt verantwoordelijkheid waar die hoort: bij de beleidsmaker, niet bij beheerder.
    Beplanting en Luchtkwaliteit. Publicatiereeks: Luchtkwaliteit en verkeer
    Pronk, A.A. - \ 2012
    Ede : CROW (Publicatie / CROW 218t) - ISBN 9789066286009 - 72
    luchtkwaliteit - luchtverontreiniging - beplantingen - openbaar groen - emissie - bomen - stedelijke gebieden - verkeer - stikstofdioxide - fijn stof - air quality - air pollution - plantations - public green areas - emission - trees - urban areas - traffic - nitrogen dioxide - particulate matter
    Bomen en beplanting bieden vele voordelen voor stadsbewoners en -bezoekers: schaduw, verkoeling, verfraaiing van het straatbeeld, etc. Maar kunnen ze ook een wezenlijke bijdrage leveren aan het verbeteren van de luchtkwaliteit? Met name op plaatsen waar die niet aan de eisen voldoet? Die vragen zijn actueel in het kader van de Europese richtlijn die grenswaarden stelt voor fijn stof (PM10) en stikstofdioxide (NO2). Veel lokale overheden vinden het gebruik van beplanting voor het verminderen van de luchtvervuiling een interessante gedachte. Door de tegenstrijdige berichten worstelen zij echter met de vraag of zij er verstandig aan doen om, specifiek voor dit doel, bomen of ander groen in te zetten. Deze uitgave geeft gerichte antwoorden op 64 vragen en is bedoeld voor medewerkers, bestuurders en adviseurs van decentrale overheden binnen de vakgebieden milieu, groen en ontwerp en beheer van de openbare ruimte.
    Effects of measures on nitrous oxide emissions from agriculture : using INITIATOR and IPCC methods
    Vries, W. de; Kros, J. - \ 2011
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 2268)
    klimaatverandering - emissie - stikstofdioxide - climatic change - emission - nitrogen dioxide
    The mandatory national reporting of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions under the UN Climate Change Convention is usually done with the IPCC inventory approach using default emission factors for N2O emissions from different sources. Although simple and transparent, the drawback is that emissions will change with management and these effects cannot be included. Here we compare results of calculated national N2O emissions with the model INITIATOR and IPCC methods for the year 2000 before and after inclusion of various measures. Although results on a national basis appear to be quite comparable (within 20%), deviations can be large for peat soils and INITIATOR calculates larger reductions in N2O emissions from various emission reduction measures than the IPCC methods. This is logical since changes in the efficiency of use of nitrogen is not included in the IPCC factors. To adequately account for these impacts, the standard IPCC methodology should be updated
    The European Nitrogen Assessment. Bevindingen en lessen uit eerste Europese stikstofanalyse
    Grinsven, H. van; Erisman, J.W. ; Oenema, O. ; Bouwman, L.A. ; Vries, W. de; Westhoek, H. ; Bleeker, A. - \ 2011
    Milieu dossier 3 (2011). - p. 17 - 22.
    milieubeheer - stikstofbalans - stikstofdioxide - ammoniak - verontreiniging - luchtverontreiniging - bodemverontreiniging - environmental management - nitrogen balance - nitrogen dioxide - ammonia - pollution - air pollution - soil pollution
    Stikstof is een belangrijke voorwaarde voor productieve landbouw en daarmee voor de voeding van de wereldbevolking. Stikstof uit de landbouw, de industrie en het verkeer veroorzaakt echter schade aan volksgezondheid en natuur. De totale jaarlijkse maatschappelijke schade in de EU27 wordt geschat op 70-320 miljard euro, of 150-750 euro per inwoner. Er is waarschijnlijk welvaartswinst te boeken door de emissies te beperken en de efficiëntie in de landbouw te verhogen. De vraag is alleen hoe: stap voor stap en stof voor stof is een meer integrale aanpak beter?
    Planten en luchtkwaliteit
    Hoffman, M.H.A. - \ 2011
    luchtverontreiniging - zuiveren - planten - fijn stof - openbaar groen - stikstofdioxide - onderzoek - air pollution - purification - plants - particulate matter - public green areas - nitrogen dioxide - research
    Poster met onderzoeksinformatie.
    Stadsbomen voor een goede luchtkwaliteit
    Tonneijck, A.E.G. ; Kuypers, V.H.M. - \ 2006
    Bomennieuws 31 (2006)1. - ISSN 0166-784X - p. 8 - 10.
    bomen - straatbomen - stadsparken - stedelijke gebieden - luchtkwaliteit - luchtverontreiniging - zuiveren - ozon - stikstofdioxide - organische stof - openbaar groen - fijn stof - trees - street trees - urban parks - urban areas - air quality - air pollution - purification - ozone - nitrogen dioxide - organic matter - public green areas - particulate matter
    Aangegeven wordt welke bomen geschikt zijn om de ozonniveaus te verminderen; welke de stikstofdioxide goed kunnen opnemen; welke zeer veel of weinig vluchtige organische stoffen kunnen emitteren en welke het fijn stof kunnen vastleggen
    Reductie van broeikasgasemissies door vergisting van drijfmest
    Boer, H. de; Schils, R. - \ 2002
    Praktijkkompas. Rundvee 16 (2002)3. - ISSN 1570-8586 - p. 24 - 25.
    mest - dierlijke meststoffen - rundveemest - rundveedrijfmest - fermentatie - biogasmest - biogas - methaan - methaanproductie - afvalhergebruik - verwerking - milieubescherming - broeikaseffect - luchtverontreiniging - stikstofdioxide - distikstofmonoxide - verontreinigingsbeheersing - emissie - mestverwerking - mestvergisting - biobased economy - manures - animal manures - cattle manure - cattle slurry - fermentation - biogas slurry - biogas - methane - methane production - waste utilization - processing - environmental protection - greenhouse effect - air pollution - nitrogen dioxide - nitrous oxide - pollution control - emission - manure treatment - manure fermentation - biobased economy
    Het Praktijkonderzoek Veehouderij (PV) onderzocht in opdracht van de Nederlandse Onderneming voor Energie en Milieu (NOVEM) het effect van toediening van vergiste runderdrijfmest aan grasland.
    Gasvormige stikstofverliezen bij de teelt van sla op een zandbed onder glas.
    Postma, R. ; Oenema, O. ; Bussink, D.W. ; Heinen, M. - \ 1994
    Meststoffen : Dutch/English annual on fertilizers and fertilization (1994). - ISSN 0169-2267 - p. 28 - 34.
    ammoniak - watervrije ammoniak - lactuca sativa - slasoorten - hydrocultuur - chemische reacties - mineralen - boekhouding - stikstofdioxide - glastuinbouw - ammonia - anhydrous ammonia - lactuca sativa - lettuces - hydroponics - chemical reactions - minerals - accounting - nitrogen dioxide - greenhouse horticulture
    Uit mineralenbalansen van teelten op kunstmatige substraten in de glastuinbouw is gebleken dat de aanvoer van stikstof (N) via recirculerende voedingsoplossingen wat hoger is dan de afvoer van N via oogstprodukten en gewasresten. In deze studie zijn de ammoniak-vervluchtiging, denitrificatie en lachgas-emissie bij de teelt van sla gekwantificeerd
    Groter stikstofoverschot bij meer jongvee
    Mandersloot, F. - \ 1993
    Praktijkonderzoek / Praktijkonderzoek Rundvee, Schapen en Paarden (PR), Waiboerhoeve 6 (1993)2. - ISSN 0921-8874 - p. 8 - 11.
    kalveren - luchtverontreiniging - ammoniak - emissie - vervluchtiging - stikstofdioxide - mineralen - boekhouding - rekeningen van landbouwbedrijf - boekhouding van landbouwbedrijf - calves - air pollution - ammonia - emission - volatilization - nitrogen dioxide - minerals - accounting - farm accounts - farm accounting
    Het aanhouden van meer jongvee bleek gepaard te gaan met een toename van het stikstofoverschot op de mineralenbalans.
    De ontwikkeling van de luchtwegen van kinderen : de gevolgen van blootstelling aan stikstofdioxyde en tabaksrook binnenshuis
    Dijkstra, L. ; Houthuijs, D.J.M. ; Akkerman, I. ; Brunekreef, B. - \ 1988
    Breda : Papieren Tijger - ISBN 9789067280266 - 164
    ademhalingssysteem - blootstelling - passief roken - stikstofdioxide - gezondheidsgevaren - kinderen - respiratory system - exposure - passive smoking - nitrogen dioxide - health hazards - children
    Bodemkundige informatie voor een globaal vermestingsmodel
    Breeuwsma, A. ; Schoumans, O.F. ; Vries, W. De - \ 1987
    Wageningen : STIBOKA (Rapport / Stichting voor Bodemkartering nr. 2007) - 30
    stalmest - uitspoelen - modellen - stikstofdioxide - fosfor - onderzoek - bodem - farmyard manure - leaching - models - nitrogen dioxide - phosphorus - research - soil
    Ozone and nitrogen dioxide : a study on mechanisms of toxic action and cellular defense
    Rietjens, I.M.C.M. - \ 1986
    Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen. Promotor(en): J.H. Koeman; G.M. Alink. - Wageningen : Rietjens - 200
    toxicologie - ozon - stikstofdioxide - atmosfeer - aërosolen - samenstelling - stof - luchtverontreiniging - luchtkwaliteit - werkwijze - toxicology - ozone - nitrogen dioxide - atmosphere - aerosols - composition - dust - air pollution - air quality - mode of action

    Ozone and nitrogen dioxide are major toxic components of photochemical smog. They arise from the combustion of fossil fuels (traffic, industrial processes) and from solar radiation-catalyzed reactions in polluted atmospheres.

    The morphological, physiological and biochemical effects of ozone and nitrogen dioxide on the respiratory system of man and experimental animals have been investigated over the last decades.

    More recently the development of i) isolation and cell culture procedures for different types of lung cells and ii) model systems for invitro exposure of cells to gaseous compounds, offers new possibilities to study the mechanism of toxic action of ozone and nitrogen dioxide. An advantage of the cell model is that changes in homogeneous cell populations can be studied, although it is recognized that effects found in isolated cell cultures always need invivo validation.

    The experiments described in this thesis were undertaken to further elucidate i) the mechanisms of action of ozone and nitrogen dioxide, as well as ii) the mechanisms of cellular protection against both gaseous compounds.

    Invitro exposure of cells: was achieved by using a system in which cells are grown on a thin teflon membrane and exposed by means cif gas diffusion through this membrane.

    Experiments were carried out using either cells from the A549 cell line or primary cultures of alveolar macrophages or alveolar type II pneumocytes, isolated from the lungs of control and in some cases (chapter 6a + b) from ozone or nitrogen dioxide exposed rats.

    Part I of this thesis starts with a review of literature data on historical backgrounds, physical characteristics, concentrations encountered in the environment and toxic effects of ozone and nitrogen dioxide (chapter 1).

    This is followed by a review on the current theories with regard to the mode of toxic action of ozone and nitrogen dioxide as well as to the mechanisms of cellular protection against these compounds (chapter 2).

    Finally a review of invitro exposure models is presented, including a description of the gas diffusion mediated exposure model applied in this thesis (chapter 3).

    Part II of this thesis deals with the experiments carried out to obtain additional insight into i) the mode of toxic action of ozone and nitrogen dioxide and ii) the mechanisms providing protection against both gases in an intact cell system.

    First experiments are described in which the mechanisms of toxic action of ozone and nitrogen dioxide were compared (chapter 4). In the invitro exposure model applied ozone appeared to be 10 times more toxic than nitrogen dioxide. This difference is comparable with the difference in toxicity reported for invivo exposures.

    In addition it was demonstrated that the cellular antioxidant compounds, vitamin E ( α-tocopherol), vitamin C (ascorbic acid) and glutathione, are all involved in the protection of cells against ozone or nitrogen dioxide.

    The protection of α-tocopherol was shown to be dependent on its 6-hydroxyl group and not to be mediated by a structural stabilizing membrane effect of the compound arising from its strong physicochemical association with for example sensitive arachidonyl fatty acid residues. This could be concluded from the observations that i) α-tocopherol, at concentrations that provided optimal protection against the oxidative compounds, did not influence cell membrane fluidity and that ii) phytol and the methyl ether of α-tocopherol, two structural α-tocopherol analogues, could not provide protection against ozone or nitrogen dioxide comparable to the α-tocopherol protection.

    Furthermore chapter 4 presents invitro data which clearly demonstrate that the reaction pathways involved in ozone and nitrogen dioxide induced cell damage must be different. This conclusion is based on the observations that i) vitamin C enrichment of cells provided significantly better protection against nitrogen dioxide than against an equally toxic amount of ozone, that ii) glutathione depletion increased the cellular sensitivity towards ozone to a greater extent than the sensitivity towards nitrogen dioxide and that iii) α-tocopherol dependent protection of the cells was accompanied by a significantly greater reduction in cellular α-tocopherol upon nitrogen dioxide than upon ozone exposure.

    The observations referred to above are compatible with the hypothesis that ozone damage proceeds by the ionalr mechanism for ozonide formation, whereas nitrogen dioxide induced cell damage is induced by a radical mediated lipid peroxidative pathway.

    This hypothesis includes the involvement of oxidation of unsaturated membrane lipids in the mechanisms of ozone or nitrogen dioxide induced cell damage.

    Evidence for the involvement of lipid oxidation in the mechanism of ozone or nitrogen dioxide induced cell damage is presented in the next chapter, (chapter 5), in which experiments are described that investigated the influence of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) supplementation on the sensitivity of cells towards ozone and nitrogen dioxide.

    The results showed that cells enriched in their PUFA content demonstrate an increased sensitivity towards both ozone and nitrogen dioxide. It was also shown that this increased sensitivity was not caused by an increased membrane fluidity but really by the increased number of unsaturated fatty acids. Therefore these results clearly point to the involvement of lipid oxidation in the mechanism of action of both ozone and nitrogen dioxide.

    In addition to the evidence for a difference in the mechanisms of toxic action of ozone and nitrogen dioxide observed in the invitro experiments, evidence suggesting a difference in their toxicity was also obtained in invivo experiments (chapter 6a + b). Exposure of rats to doses of both gaseous compounds that equally induced glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in whole lung homogenates and in isolated alveolar macrophages and type II pneumocytes, resulted in a greater increase in the activity of glutathione peroxidase in cell material derived from ozone than from nitrogen dioxide exposed rats.

    In addition it was shown that the increased activities of the enzymes of the glutathione peroxidase system, observed in lung homogenates of ozone or nitrogen dioxide exposed rats were caused by cell proliferation as well as by the increase of enzyme activities within individual cells.

    In the literature these inductions have often been coupled to a glutathione dependent mechanism of cellular defense. To test this hypothesis alveolar macrophages and type II pneumocytes isolated from exposed rats were exposed to ozone or nitrogen dioxide invitro . From these studies it appeared that cells derived from exposed animals revealed no increased resistance to the oxidative compounds as compared to the cells isolated from non-exposed animals. This in spite of a significantly increased glutathione peroxidase activity in the cells derived from exposed animals. Hence it can be concluded that an increased cellular glutathione peroxidase activity is not related to an increased cellular resistance towards ozone or nitrogen dioxide.

    Data presented in the next chapter (chapter 7) demonstrated even more clearly that the glutathione dependent protection of cells against ozone is not mediated by the glutathione peroxidase catalyzed detoxification of fatty acid hydroperoxides. A549 cells showed a significantly increased sensitivity towards ozone upon depletion of their cellular glutathione content, which clearly points to a glutathione dependent mechanism of cellular protection, although these cells do not contain a detectable glutathione peroxidase activity. This observation obviously excludes the glutathione peroxidase catalyzed detoxification of lipid hydroperoxides as a main mechanism for glutathione dependent cellular protection against ozone.

    Additional results demonstrated the loss of glutathione from the cytoplasm of ozone exposed cells. This loss of glutathione from the cytoplasm of exposed cells was caused by leakage and/or active transport of glutathione out of exposed cells to the surrounding medium. The loss could not be ascribed to incorporation of a substantial amount of glutathione into mixed disulfides. This observation excludes a second hypothesis for the glutathione dependent protection of cells against ozone, viz. its incorporation into mixed disulfides, thus protecting cellular thiol groups from irreversible oxidation by ozone or its reactive intermediates.

    The results presented in the next chapter (chapter 8), indicate that the increased ozone sensitivity of glutathione depleted cells is not caused by an impaired regeneration of α-tocopherol in these cells. This follows from the observations that i) glutathione depleted, ozone exposed cells did not contain decreased levels of α-tocopherol and that ii) vitamin E supplementation could not diminish the increased ozone sensitivity of the glutathione depleted cells.

    So far all three hypotheses mentioned in the literature for a glutathione dependent cellular protection against ozone, had been excluded. From this, and from the observation that vitamin C supplementation abolished part of the increased ozone sensitivity of glutathione depleted cells, it is concluded that the most likely mechanism for a glutathione dependent protection of cells against ozone is provided by its action as a direct scavenger of reactive initial and/or intermediate species.

    Experiments described in the final chapter of part II (chapter 9), actually demonstrate the ability of glutathione to detoxify a possible ozone intermediate; the ozonide derived from methyl linoleate. Methyl linoleate ozonide appeared to be toxic towards alveolar macrophages at concentrations between 10 to 100 μM, and showed characteristics with regard to cellular antioxidant protection that were similar to those for ozone itself.

    In addition the detoxification of methyl linoleate ozonide by glutathione appeared to be even more pronounced when c atalyzed by glutathione S-transferase.

    Hence the glutathione S-transferase catalyzed detoxification of fatty acid ozonides provides a new point of view on the protective role of glutathione in ozone exposed cells.

    On the atmospheric chemistry of NO2 - O3 systems : a laboratory study
    Verhees, P.W.C. - \ 1986
    Landbouwhogeschool Wageningen. Promotor(en): E.H. Adema; H.M. ten Brink. - S.l. : S.n. - 153
    atmosfeer - samenstelling - chemische samenstelling - aërosolen - stof - luchtverontreiniging - luchtkwaliteit - neerslag - chemische eigenschappen - zuurgraad - zure regen - ozon - stikstofdioxide - laboratoriummethoden - onderzoek - atmosphere - composition - chemical composition - aerosols - dust - air pollution - air quality - precipitation - chemical properties - acidity - acid rain - ozone - nitrogen dioxide - laboratory methods - research

    In this dissertation a laboratory study dealing with the atmospheric chemistry of NO 2 -O 3 systems is described. Knowledge of this system is relevant for a better understanding of a number of air pollution problems, particularly that of acid deposition.

    In chapter 1 a short overview of atmospheric chemistry is given, in which the formation of oxidants, the SO 2 chemistry and the NO X chemistry are considered.

    It appears that, in absence of light, interactions between NO 2 and O 3 may lead to the formation of nitric acid. After oxidation of NO 2 by O 3 , the NO 3 radical is formed. Next, this radical can react in several ways. one of the possibilities is the reaction with NO 2 resulting in N 2 O 5 . The actual nitric acid formation is the N 2 O 5 hydrolysis. In theory, this process can substantially contribute to the nitric acid formation In the atmosphere. Some gaps in the present knowledge are the exact mechanism and kinetics of the N 2 O 5 hydrolysis and the NO 3 reactivity.

    Chapter 2 contains a review of the recent literature. Subsequently, laboratory, field and model studies are considered. Without doubt, it can be concluded that the non-photochemical nitrate formation by the NO 2 -O 3 system is recognized as an important atmospheric chemical process. The above-mentioned knowledge gaps are confirmed which, among other things. follows from measurements of the ambient NO 3 radical concentration profile. Regularly, it is suggested that heterogeneous processes of NO 3 or N 2 O 5 removal are involved. The parameters needed to quantify such processes are currently unavailable.

    After the general Introduction and the literature review, the experimental methods applied in the present investigation are described. The construction of the employed laboratory equipment is given. The basic principles of the techniques used for the generation and analysis of the reactants are listed.

    In the chapters 4 to 7 the results are described and discussed. Chapter 4 treates the results of a study on the NO 2 -O 3 chemistry at sub-ppm concentrations as well as the influence of temperature and relative humidity (R.H.). The experiments are performed using the standard techniques for measurement and calibration of NO 2 and O 3 .

    If we consider the stoichiometry of the reaction system at R.H. < 0.1%, It appears that it deviates from the theoretical value of two. Obviously a side-reaction, that regenerates NO 2 , consumes extra O 3 or both, is involved. Since the stoichiometry significantly differs in reaction vessels of different size (other variables constant), we have to deal with a wall reaction. Further analysis of the results combined with literature data leads to the interpretation that the low stoichiometry is caused by the heterogeneous NO 3 decay on the vessel wall with regeneration of NO 2 , With this reaction mechanism, kinetic parameters can be obtained from the massbalance of every component. The rate constant of the NO 2 -O 3 reaction appears to agree reasonably well with literature values.

    The influence of R.H. results in an increase of the stoichiometry caused by N 2 O 5 hydrolysis. The kinetics of the NO 2 -O 3 reaction remains unchanged. The kinetics of the N 2 O 5 hydrolysis can be described with Its pseudo-first-order rate constant. This rate constant Is not directly proportional to the R. H. , which is an indication that the N 2 O 5 hydrolysis -at least in part- occurs heterogeneously at the wall of the reaction vessel.

    In the atmosphere, aerosol particles are involved in these heterogeneous processes. Before studying the NO 2 -O 3 -aerosol chemistry, the dynamical behaviour of aerosol particles in the reaction vessels is considered. The results are given in chapter 5. The differences in the particle number concentration and in the particle size distribution of the feed and steady state aerosol have been measured. It appears that these differences are caused by coagulation and wall deposition processes.

    The influence of aerosol particles on the NO 2 -O 3 chemistry is the subject of chapter 6. 'Dry' aerosol (NaCl; R.H.=15%) and 'wet' aerosol (MgCl 2 ; R.H.=78%) are distinguished. In case of a 'dry' aerosol a small decrease in the stoichiometry is observed. This can be interpreted as a NO 3 decay on the aerosol surface. In case of 'wet' aerosol NO 3 decay as well as N 2 O 5 hydrolysis is important. This follows from the nearly constant stoichiometry and the nitrate formation in the aerosol.

    The kinetics of the NO 2 -O 3 reaction do not change in the presence of aerosol particles. Moreover, the rate constants of the heterogeneous reactions can be obtained. From these the so- called 'accommodation coefficient' can be deduced. This coefficient Indicates what part of the gas- aerosol collisions really leads to reaction and characterizes the rate of the heterogeneous reaction. The heterogeneous N 2 O 5 hydrolysis can also be understood as a bulk aqueous phase process. The product of Henry's law constant and the rate constant of the aqueous phase hydrolysis can be found. It appears that for N 2 O 5 this product is in fairly good agreement with the product for N 2 O 3 and N 2 O 4 .

    In chapter 7 the aqueous phase chemistry of NO 2 and O 3 is considered. It is investigated using a gas-liquid contact reactor and analysis of the nitrite and nitrate formation. The results of the Interaction between NO 2 and liquid water are in agreement with the current literature. The influence of O 3 is restricted to the oxidation of nitrite. From the results it can be deduced that aqueous phase NO 2 -O 3 reactions do not significantly contribute to atmospheric nitrate formation.

    Finally, a general evaluation is given in chapter 8. It can be concluded that this investigation confirms the present insights in the atmospheric chemistry of NO 2 and O 3 and that new insights in the reactivity of NO 3 and N 2 O 5 are obtained.

    Stikstofdioxide in Nederlandse woningen
    Noy, D. ; Lebret, E. - \ 1983
    's-Gravenhage : Staatsdrukkerij - ISBN 9789034601643 - 16
    lucht - luchtverontreiniging - verwarming - hygiëne - nederland - stikstofdioxide - ventilatie - binnenklimaat - air - air pollution - heating - hygiene - netherlands - nitrogen dioxide - ventilation - indoor climate
    Biochemisch onderzoek naar de invloed van NO2 op planten, 1970 - 1974 : eindverslag
    Zeevaart, A.J. - \ 1974
    Wageningen : I.P.O. - 50
    stikstofdioxide - plantenfysiologie - nitrogen dioxide - plant physiology
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