Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Can the presence of plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.) improve nitrogen cycling of dairy grassland systems on peat soils?
    Pijlman, Jeroen ; Berger, Stijn J. ; Lexmond, Fay ; Bloem, Jaap ; Groenigen, Jan Willem van; Visser, Eric J.W. ; Erisman, Jan Willem ; Eekeren, Nick van - \ 2020
    New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research 63 (2020)1. - ISSN 0028-8233 - p. 102 - 122.
    grassland - nitrification - nitrogen - nitrous oxide - peat - Plantain

    Reactive nitrogen (N) losses, and in particular nitrous oxide losses, from dairy grasslands on peat soils are generally high as a result of relative high soil organic matter contents, potential N mineralisation rates and shallow groundwater levels. Effects of the inclusion of the temperate forage species plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.) (PL), which produces secondary compounds with biological nitrification inhibition capacity, on the fate of soil mineral N were studied in a combined mesocosm and field experiment. The experiments comprised four treatments differing in intentional herbage share of plantain versus perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) (100%PL, 66%PL, 33%PL and 0%PL). Potential nitrification in the mesocosm experiment was significantly lower at 100%PL versus 0%PL (p = 0.018), but soil nitrate concentrations were not. Nitrous oxide fluxes reduced by 39% (p = 0.021) in the presence of plantain in the field experiment, without an obvious link to the quantity of plantain. N use efficiency of plantain tended to increase with the quantity of plantain in the sward in the mesocosm experiment (p = 0.098), but not in the field experiment. Our results suggest that the presence of plantain can affect the fate of soil mineral N of dairy grasslands on peat soils.

    Soil greenhouse gas emissions from inorganic fertilizers and recycled oil palm waste products from Indonesian oil palm plantations
    Rahman, Niharika ; Bruun, Thilde Bech ; Giller, Ken E. ; Magid, Jakob ; Ven, Gerrie W.J. van de; Neergaard, Andreas de - \ 2019
    Global change biology Bioenergy 11 (2019)9. - ISSN 1757-1693 - p. 1056 - 1074.
    methane - nitrogen fertilizer - nitrous oxide - nutrient management - organic amendment - plant residue

    A continuous rise in the global demand for palm oil has resulted in the large-scale expansion of oil palm plantations and generated environmental controversy. Efforts to increase the sustainability of oil palm cultivation include the recycling of oil mill and pruning residues in the field, but this may increase soil methane (CH4) emissions. This study reports the results of yearlong field-based measurements of soil nitrous oxide (N2O) and CH4 emissions from commercial plantations in North Sumatra, Indonesia. One experiment investigated the effects of soil-water saturation on N2O and CH4 emissions from inorganic fertilizers and organic amendments by simulating 25 mm rainfall per day for 21 days. Three additional experiments focused on emissions from (a) inorganic fertilizer (urea), (b) combination of enriched mulch with urea and (c) organic amendments (empty fruit bunches, enriched mulch and pruned oil palm fronds) applied in different doses and spatial layouts (placed in inter-row zones, piles, patches or bands) for a full year. The higher dose of urea led to a significantly higher N2O emissions with the emission factors ranging from 2.4% to 2.7% in the long-term experiment, which is considerably higher than the IPCC standard of 1%. Organic amendments were a significant source of both N2O and CH4emissions, but N2O emissions from organic amendments were 66%–86% lower than those from inorganic fertilizers. Organic amendments applied in piles emitted 63% and 71% more N2O and CH4, respectively, than when spread out. With twice the dose of organic amendments, cumulative emissions were up to three times greater. The (simulated) rainwater experiment showed that the increase in precipitation led to a significant increase in N2O emissions significantly, suggesting that the time of fertilization is a critical management option for reducing emissions. The results from this study could therefore help guide residue and nutrient management practices to reduce emissions while ensuring better nutrient recycling for sustainable oil palm production systems.

    Emissies naar lucht uit de landbouw in 2014 : berekeningen met het model NEMA
    Bruggen, C. van; Bannink, A. ; Groenestein, C.M. ; Huijsmans, J.F.M. ; Luesink, H.H. ; Oude Voshaar, S.V. ; Sluis, S.M. van der; Velthof, G.L. ; Vonk, J. - \ 2017
    Wageningen : Statutory Research Tasks Unit for Nature & the Environment (WOt-technical report 90) - 96
    ammoniak - landbouw - emissie - mest - distikstofmonoxide - dierhouderij - modellen - nederland - ammonia - agriculture - emission - manures - nitrous oxide - animal husbandry - models - netherlands
    Landbouwkundige activiteiten zijn in Nederland een belangrijke bron van ammoniak (NH3), stikstofoxide (NO), lachgas (N2O),methaan (CH4) en fijnstof (PM10 en PM2,5). De emissies in 2014 zijn berekend met het National Emission Model for Agriculture(NEMA). Tegelijk zijn enkele cijfers in de reeks 1990-2013 aangepast op basis van nieuwe inzichten. De rekenmethodiek gaatbij de berekening van de ammoniakemissie uit dierlijke mest uit van de hoeveelheid totaal ammoniakaal stikstof (TAN) in demest. De ammoniakemissie uit dierlijke mest, kunstmest en overige bronnen in 2014 bedroeg 121 miljoen kg NH3, bijna4 miljoen kg meer dan in 2013. De stijging komt voornamelijk door uitbreiding van de melkveestapel en een hogerstikstofgehalte van het ruwvoer. De N2O-emissie nam toe van 19,1 miljoen kg in 2013 naar 19,4 miljoen kg in 2014. De NOemissienam toe van 16,9 naar 17,2 miljoen kg. De methaanemissie nam iets toe van 499 tot 503 miljoen kg. De emissie vanfijnstof nam licht toe van 6,3 miljoen kg PM10 tot 6,4 miljoen kg, door een toename van het aantal stuks pluimvee. De emissievan PM2,5 bedroeg in beide jaren 0,6 miljoen kg. Sinds 1990 is de ammoniakemissie uit dierlijke mest en kunstmest mettweederde gedaald, vooral door een lagere stikstofuitscheiding door landbouwhuisdieren en emissiearme mesttoediening.Emissies van lachgas en stikstofoxide daalden in dezelfde periode eveneens, maar minder sterk (ca. 40%) omdat doorondergronds toedienen van mest de emissies hoger zijn geworden en door de omschakeling van stalsystemen met dunne naarvaste mest bij pluimvee. Tussen 1990 en 2014 daalde de emissie van methaan met 16% door een afname in de dieraantallenen een hogere voeropname en productiviteit van melkvee---Agricultural activities are in the Netherlands a major source of ammonia (NH3), nitrogen oxide (NO), nitrous oxide (N2O),methane (CH4) and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5). The emissions in 2014 were calculated using the National EmissionModel for Agriculture (NEMA). At the same time some figures in the time series 1990-2013 were revised. The method calculatesthe ammonia emission from livestock manure on the basis of the total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) content in manure. Ammoniaemissions from livestock manure, fertilizers and other sources in 2014 were 121 million kg, which was almost 4 million kghigher than in 2013, mainly due to expansion of the dairy herd and a higher N-content of roughage. N2O emissions increasedfrom 19.1 million kg in 2013 to 19.4 million kg in 2014. NO emission increased slightly from 16.9 to 17.2 million kg. Methaneemissions increased from 499 to 503 million kg. Emissions of particulate matter increased slightly from 6.3 to 6.4 million kgPM10 as a result of higher poultry numbers. Emission of PM2.5 in both years was 0.6 million kg. Ammonia emissions fromlivestock manure in the Netherlands dropped by almost two thirds since 1990, mainly as a result of lower nitrogen excretionrates by livestock and low-emission manure application. Nitrous oxide and nitrogen oxide also fell over the same period, butless steeply (by about 40%), due to higher emissions from manure injection into the soil and to the shift from poultry housingsystems based on liquid manure to solid manure systems. Methane emissions fell by 16% between 1990 and 2014 caused by adrop in livestock numbers and increased feed uptake and productivity of dairy cattle
    Referentieraming van emissies naar lucht uit de landbouw tot 2030 : achtergronddocument bij de Nationale Energieverkenning 2015, met emissies van ammoniak, methaan, lachgas, stikstofoxide en fijnstof uit de landbouw tot 2030
    Velthof, G.L. ; Bruggen, C. van; Groenestein, C.M. ; Huijsmans, J.F.M. ; Luesink, H.H. ; Sluis, S.M. van der; Kolk, J.W.H. van der; Oude Voshaar, S.V. ; Vonk, J. ; Schijndel, M.W. van - \ 2016
    Wageningen : Wageningen Environmental Research (Wageningen Environmental Research rapport 2746) - 75
    luchtverontreiniging - ammoniakemissie - methaan - distikstofmonoxide - stikstofoxide - fijn stof - landbouw - nederland - air pollution - ammonia emission - methane - nitrous oxide - nitric oxide - particulate matter - agriculture - netherlands
    Emissiefactoren mestbewerking : inschatting van emissiefactoren voor ammoniak en lachgas uit mestbewerking
    Melse, R.W. ; Groenestein, C.M. - \ 2016
    Wageningen UR, Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 962) - 19
    mest - emissie - distikstofmonoxide - ammoniakemissie - dierhouderij - manures - emission - nitrous oxide - ammonia emission - animal husbandry
    In deze studie wordt een aantal emissiefactoren voorgesteld voor de belangrijkste mestbewerkingstechnieken die in Nederland worden toegepast, voor wat betreft methaan (CH4), stikstofmonoxide (NO), lachgas (N2O) en ammoniak (NH3). De emissiefactoren zijn bepaald op basis van beschikbare literatuur voor de diercategorieën rundvee (excl. vleeskalveren), vleeskalveren, varkens en pluimvee. De belangrijkste emissiefactoren zouden nader onderzocht kunnen worden met als doel om deze preciezer vast te stellen en/of experimenteel te valideren. Hierbij kan bijvoorbeeld gedacht worden aan de lachgasemissie die plaatsvindt bij de behandeling van vleeskalverendrijfmest (nitrificatie/denitrificatie) of aan de methaanemissie die optreedt tijdens opslag van dunne en dikke fracties die geproduceerd worden uit scheiding van rundvee- en varkensdrijfmest
    Future scenarios for N2O emissions from biodiesel production in Europe
    Wijnen, Jikke van; Kroeze, Carolien ; Ivens, W.P.M.F. ; Löhr, A.J. - \ 2015
    Journal of integrative Environmental Sciences 12 (2015)suppl. 1. - ISSN 1943-815X - p. 17 - 30.
    biodiesel - Energy crop - Europe - nitrogen - nitrous oxide - river basins

    Biodiesel is increasingly used as a fuel in transportation. It is generally considered an environmentally friendly alternative for diesel from fossil oil, because of lower emissions of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2). However, nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions during the growth of energy crops can be considerable. N2O is emitted as a result of fertiliser use, needed to cultivate the energy crops. Fertiliser use not only increases the direct agricultural soil emissions, but also the indirect N2O emissions from aquatic systems, after leaching and runoff of nitrogen from fertilised soils. The aim of this study is to quantify future N2O emissions associated with the cultivation of energy crops in European river basins. We analyse three future scenarios for biodiesel production in Europe, and the associated N2O emissions from fertilised fields. Our focus is on biodiesel produced from first generation energy crops. The scenarios assume that by the year 2050, 15–30% of the demand for fossil diesel is replaced by biodiesel. This would change the European fertiliser needs and, as a result, N2O emissions from fertilised soils. Our results indicate that increased biodiesel production may increase N2O emissions in Europe by about 25–45% relative to a scenario without a growth in biodiesel production, but not equally in all regions and all scenarios. The rate of change depends on where energy crops are grown, and whether or not they replace agricultural crops, or natural vegetation.

    Effect van snijmaissilage als strooiselmateriaal in vleeskuikenstallen op de emissies van ammoniak, geur en fijnstof
    Harn, J. van; Nijeboer, G.M. ; Ogink, N.W.M. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock Research rapport 845) - 49
    emissie - ammoniak - stankemissie - fijn stof - methaan - distikstofmonoxide - vleeskuikens - huisvesting van kippen - pluimveehouderij - maïskuilvoer - emissiereductie - luchtkwaliteit - duurzame veehouderij - emission - ammonia - odour emission - particulate matter - methane - nitrous oxide - broilers - chicken housing - poultry farming - maize silage - emission reduction - air quality - sustainable animal husbandry
    This report describes the results of emission measurements of ammonia, odour, PM10, methane and nitrous oxide from broiler houses bedded with white wood shavings (=control), fresh silage maize or pre-dried silage maize.
    Effect van het Aeromix systeem op ammoniakemissie in een melkveestal : verkennend onderzoek op Dairy Campus
    Dooren, H.J.C. van; Bokma, S. ; Zonderland, J.L. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Livestock research rapport 850) - 25
    melkvee - melkveehouderij - ammoniakemissie - stallen - landbouwschuren - emissiereductie - mestvergisting - mestverwerking - rundveemest - distikstofmonoxide - gevalsanalyse - dairy cattle - dairy farming - ammonia emission - stalls - barns - emission reduction - manure fermentation - manure treatment - cattle manure - nitrous oxide - case studies
    During a case-control trial with Aeromix manure mixing system a sharp reduction of the ammonia emission from the dairy barn was established. In comparison to the reference barn the reduction was on average 50 %. No increase in laughing gas (N2O) was found.
    Emissies van stof en ziektekiemen uit melkgeitenstallen: aanvullende metingen = Emissions of dust and pathogens from goat houses: additional measurements
    Aarnink, A.J.A. ; Roest, H.I.J. ; Huis in 'T Veld, J.W.H. ; Arkel, M.C. van; Hol, J.M.G. ; Mosquera Losada, J. ; Ogink, N.W.M. - \ 2014
    Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 712) - 34
    geiten - geitenhouderij - huisvesting, geiten - stof - bacteriën - q-koorts - coxiella burnetii - ammoniakemissie - stankemissie - methaan - distikstofmonoxide - emissie - goats - goat keeping - goat housing - dust - bacteria - q fever - coxiella burnetii - ammonia emission - odour emission - methane - nitrous oxide - emission
    Emissions of dust, pathogens and gases have been measured in two goat houses during the summer and autumn. Coxiella burnetii, the bacteria responsible for Q-fever, could be detected in a number of dust samples.
    Emissies uit een vleesvarkensstal voorzien van een V-vormige mestband voor het gescheiden afvoeren van mest en urine = Emissions from a housing system for fattening pigs with a V-shaped manure belt for separated removal of faeces and urine
    Ellen, H.H. ; Hol, J.M.G. ; Mosquera, J. ; Aarnink, A.J.A. - \ 2013
    Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 620) - 37
    varkenshouderij - vleesproductie - vleesvee - varkensmest - drijfmest - scheidingstechnologie - urine - emissie - reductie - stankemissie - fijn stof - methaan - distikstofmonoxide - ammoniakemissie - mestverwerking - meting - pig farming - meat production - beef cattle - pig manure - slurries - separation technology - urine - emission - reduction - odour emission - particulate matter - methane - nitrous oxide - ammonia emission - manure treatment - measurement
    This study reports the emissions of ammonia, odour, fine dust (PM10 and PM2.5), methane and nitrous oxide from an animal house for fattening pigs provided with V-shaped manure belts for separated removal of faeces and urine (the Kempfarm system).
    Emissies uit een vleeskuikenstal met strooiselbeluchting en warmtewisselaar : Meetprogramma Integraal Duurzame Stallen
    Mosquera Losada, J. ; Ellen, H.H. ; Hol, J.M.G. ; Huis in 'T Veld, J.W.H. ; Nijeboer, G.M. ; Ploegaert, J.P.M. ; Ogink, N.W.M. - \ 2013
    Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 657) - 30
    pluimveehouderij - vleeskuikens - ammoniakemissie - stankemissie - fijn stof - emissie - warmtewisselaars - methaan - distikstofmonoxide - poultry farming - broilers - ammonia emission - odour emission - particulate matter - emission - heat exchangers - methane - nitrous oxide
    This study reports the emissions of ammonia, odour, fine dust (PM10 and PM2.5), methane and nitrous oxide from a broiler house with litter drying and a heat exchanger.
    Emissies uit vleesvarkensstallen voorzien van een v-vormige mestband voor het gescheiden afvoeren van mest en urine = Emissions from a housing system for fattening pigs with a v-shaped manure belt for separated removal of faeces and urine
    Ellen, H.H. ; Hol, J.M.G. ; Mosquera Losada, J. ; Aarnink, A.J.A. - \ 2013
    Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 620) - 25
    varkenshouderij - vleesproductie - varkensmest - varkensstallen - drijfmest - scheiding - urine - meting - stankemissie - ammoniakemissie - methaan - fijn stof - distikstofmonoxide - pig farming - meat production - pig manure - pig housing - slurries - separation - urine - measurement - odour emission - ammonia emission - methane - particulate matter - nitrous oxide
    This study reports the emissions of ammonia, odour, fine dust (PM10 and PM2.5), methane and nitrous oxide from an animal house for fattening pigs provided with the Kempfarm system.
    Factsheet broeikasgassen: lachgas
    LEI, - \ 2012
    intensieve veehouderij - distikstofmonoxide - broeikasgassen - broeikaseffect - intensive livestock farming - nitrous oxide - greenhouse gases - greenhouse effect
    In de dampkring rond de aarde zitten broeikasgassen die ervoor zorgen dat een deel van de warmtestraling van de grond wordt vastgehouden. De opwarmende werking hiervan noemen we het broeikaseffect. De veehouderij produceert kooldioxide, methaan en lachgas. Deze factsheet beschrijft lachgas.
    Broeikasgas metingen Energieboerderij en proef Attero 2011
    Wijk, C.A.P. van; Berg, W. van den; Uijthoven, W. ; Verstegen, H.A.G. ; Voort, M.P.J. van der - \ 2012
    Lelystad : PPO AGV - 28
    broeikasgassen - meting - berekening - vergelijkingen - distikstofmonoxide - suikerbieten - akkerbouw - brandstofgewassen - biobased economy - greenhouse gases - measurement - calculation - comparisons - nitrous oxide - sugarbeet - arable farming - fuel crops - biobased economy
    In project Energieboerderij zijn in 2011 zijn op 3 deelnemende bedrijven en op het proefveld met verschillende bemesting – compost varianten broeikaskasmissies gemeten in een suikerbietenteelt gedurende het hele seizoen. Alle meetlocaties liggen op zandgrond in Noord-Limburg. Daarnaast zijn voor deze locaties ook de directe lachgas emissies berekend. De vergelijking van de resultaten laat zien, dat er grote verschillen zitten tussen de gemeten emissies van lachgas en de berekende directe emissies op basis van de kg N in de grond.
    Emissies uit een ligboxenstal voor melkvee met roostervloer voorzien van cassettes in de roosterspleten : meetprogramma Integraal Duurzame Stallen
    Mosquera, J. ; Hol, J.M.G. ; Huis in 't Veld, J.W.H. ; Ploegaert, J.P.M. ; Ogink, N.W.M. - \ 2012
    Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 653)
    ligboxen - stallen - huisvesting van rundvee - melkvee - melkveehouderij - emissie - ammoniakemissie - stankemissie - fijn stof - methaan - distikstofmonoxide - roostervloeren - cubicles - stalls - cattle housing - dairy cattle - dairy farming - emission - ammonia emission - odour emission - particulate matter - methane - nitrous oxide - grid floors
    This study reports the emissions of ammonia, odour, fine dust (PM10 and PM2.5), methane and nitrous oxide from a loose housing dairy cattle barn with cubicles provided with a slatted floor with cassettes with rubber flaps between the slats.
    Ammoniak en broeikasgassen : Verdere reductie mogelijk?
    Groenestein, Karin - \ 2012
    ammonia - methane - nitrous oxide - greenhouse gases - greenhouse effect - intensive livestock farming - dairy farming - sustainable animal husbandry - animal manures - emission - reduction
    Metingen aan een experimentele biologische luchtwasser met denitrificatie bij een vleesvarkenstal = Measurements on a bioscrubber system with denitrification at a fattening pig house
    Melse, R.W. ; Hol, J.M.G. ; Nijeboer, G.M. - \ 2012
    Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 554)
    varkenshouderij - varkensstallen - ammoniak - stankemissie - fijn stof - distikstofmonoxide - luchtreinigers - filters - denitrificatie - veehouderij - pig farming - pig housing - ammonia - odour emission - particulate matter - nitrous oxide - air cleaners - filters - denitrification - livestock farming
    The performance of an experimental biotrickling filter with denitrification unit was investigated during 18 months on a fattening pig house. In this report the removal efficiencies of the scrubber are reported for ammonia, odour and fine dust (PM10 and PM2.5). Also measurements of N2O, CH4 and CO2 are reported. Finally a nitrogen balance of the system is performed.
    Emissies uit de biologische veehouderij : processen en factoren
    Mosquera Losada, J. ; Hol, J.M.G. ; Groenestein, C.M. - \ 2012
    Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 584) - 31
    veehouderij - duurzame veehouderij - biologische landbouw - emissie - ammoniakemissie - methaan - distikstofmonoxide - fijn stof - stankemissie - milieueffect - rundveehouderij - varkenshouderij - pluimveehouderij - schapenhouderij - geitenhouderij - dierlijke productie - huisvesting, dieren - dierenwelzijn - livestock farming - sustainable animal husbandry - organic farming - emission - ammonia emission - methane - nitrous oxide - particulate matter - odour emission - environmental impact - cattle husbandry - pig farming - poultry farming - sheep farming - goat keeping - animal production - animal housing - animal welfare
    Organic farming places greater demands on animal welfare, for example by requiring the use of straw and more space available to the animals in the animal house as well as outdoors. There is still little known on the environmental impacts of the organic livestock production. The aim of this research was to make an inventory of the processes and factors that might play a role in the emissions of ammonia, methane, nitrous oxide, smell and fine dust from the organic-production livestock.
    Monitoring methane and nitrous oxide reduction by manure treatment
    Hoeksma, P. ; Mosquera Losada, J. ; Melse, R.W. - \ 2012
    Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 627) - 37
    intensieve veehouderij - mestverwerking - broeikasgassen - methaan - distikstofmonoxide - emissie - intensive livestock farming - manure treatment - greenhouse gases - methane - nitrous oxide - emission
    Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions (CH4 and N2O) by manure treatment should be accounted for in the National Inventory Report (NIR). At the moment reliable activity data and emission factors from manure treatment are hardly available. This is the outcome of a national and international literature review. It is recommended to use a model approach to estimate greenhouse gas emissions from manure treatment.
    Emissies uit een opfokleghennenstal met chemische wasser en bypass. : Meetprogramma Integraal Duurzame Stallen
    Mosquera Losada, J. ; Hol, J.M.G. ; Huis in 'T Veld, J.W.H. ; Ploegaert, J.P.M. ; Lovink, E. ; Ogink, N.W.M. - \ 2012
    Lelystad : Wageningen UR Livestock Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Livestock Research 609) - 39
    hennen - pluimveehouderij - huisvesting van kippen - reinigers - ammoniak - ammoniakemissie - stankemissie - fijn stof - methaan - distikstofmonoxide - emissie - hens - poultry farming - chicken housing - scrubbers - ammonia - ammonia emission - odour emission - particulate matter - methane - nitrous oxide - emission
    This study reports the emissions of ammonia, odour, fine dust (PM10 and PM2.5), methane and nitrous oxide from a pullet rearing housing system with a chemical air scrubber and bypass.
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