Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    KringloopToets: sluiten van de nutriëntenkringloop op het niveau van Noordwest-Europa : inhoudelijke en procesmatige rapportage
    Leenstra, Ferry ; Vellinga, Theun ; Bremmer, Bart - \ 2017
    Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Wageningen Livestock Research rapport 1019) - 47
    nutriëntenstromen - voer - diervoedering - diervoeding - recycling - noordwest-europa - nutrient flows - feeds - animal feeding - animal nutrition - recycling - northwestern europe
    The Nutrient Cycle Assessment aims at visualizing nutrient flows. In policy documents closing of nutrient cycles at the level of North Western Europe is often mentioned. Province North Brabant, farmers organisation ZLTO and NGO BMF examined together with Wageningen University & Research the effects of closing the borders of North West Europe (Benelux, France, Germany, UK) for feed ingredients and animal products. The results of this exercise were discussed in a separate session with representatives of the feed industry. This report describes the conclusions of the analysis and the lessons that can be learned from this exercise for future work with the Nutrient Cycle Assessment.
    Concealed diversity : taxonomical, phytogeographical and phytosociological notes on brambles (Rubus L. subgen. Rubus) in north-west Europe
    Haveman, Rense - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Joop Schaminee, co-promotor(en): Rienk Jan Bijlsma. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431019 - 200
    rubus - diversity - taxonomy - phytogeography - geographical distribution - biogeography - apomixis - northwestern europe - rubus - diversiteit - taxonomie - plantengeografie - geografische verdeling - biogeografie - apomixis - noordwest-europa

    Rubus subgen. Rubus (bramble) is one of the large plant genera in Europe, consisting of only a few sexual biological species and at least 700 apomictic lineages. In this thesis, it is argued that the stabilised apomict lineages should best be regarded species, even if their distribution area doesn’t meet the requirements of a regional species as defined in several publications by Weber. Included is a checklist of Dutch bramble species, comprising 191 species belonging to Rubus subgen. Rubus. In the Netherlands, 97 of the 191 species are classified as regional species, with a distribution area diameter under 500 km. On the basis of distribution data of bramble species in Ireland, the UK, Denmark, Germany, and the Netherlands, 12 phytogeographical bramble-regions are distinguished. Although ecological factors play a role in the realisation of these regions, it is argued that the found patterns are primarily the result of evolutionary processes. The density and species composition of Rubus scrubs in the Netherlands is studied using landscape transects. At landscape scale, the bramble species in the scrubs are not randomly distributed, causing a spatial clustering of floristically similar bramble scrubs. It was concluded that only a part of the diversity of Rubus scrubs was accounted for in the Dutch national vegetation classification, and a new scrub type (the Rubetum taxandriae) was described on the basis of these findings. Rubus scrubs are an important biotope for rare shrub species and endemic Rubus species. Additionally, scrubs rich in bramble species are important because they provide foraging and nesting habitats for numerous vertebrates and invertebrates. It is recommended to include the apomict Rubus species in biodiversity accounts, for instance in the national standard list of plant species, as well as the Red List.

    Verkenning regionale kringlopen : sluiten van nutriëntenkringloop op het niveau van Noordwest-Europa
    Leenstra, Ferry ; Vellinga, Theun - \ 2017
    Wageningen : Wageningen Livestock Research (Wageningen Livestock Research rapport 987) - 34
    voer - voedingsstoffen - dierlijke producten - kringlopen - dierhouderij - dierlijke meststoffen - noord-brabant - noordwest-europa - feeds - nutrients - animal products - cycling - animal husbandry - animal manures - noord-brabant - northwestern europe
    10 recommendations for stimulating bio-based builing materials
    Mey, V. De; Verhoeven, J.T.W. ; Thoelen, P. ; Dam, J.E.G. van; Meyskens, S. ; Schik, W. - \ 2016
    [Belgium] : Grow2Build - 17
    building materials - flax - hemp - biobased materials - biobased economy - stimulation - guidelines - northwestern europe - bouwmaterialen - vlas - hennep - materialen uit biologische grondstoffen - biobased economy - stimulatie - richtlijnen (guidelines) - noordwest-europa
    The objective of the Northwest European project Grow2build is to support the supply chain of flax and hemp building materials from production of raw material to the production and implementation of end products. Up until now, 11 organisations from Belgium, France, the UK, Germany and the Netherlands have formed a consortium with a wealth of expertise in construction and bio-based building materials. The consortium aims to contribute to the integration of bio-based materials eg. hemp and flax in the construction industry and to improve the product value chain. This note “10 recommendations for stimulating biobased building materials (based on hemp and flax)” is one of the instruments to reach the aim.
    NW European Policy-Science Working Group on Reducing Nutrient Emissions : mitigation options: Evaluating the impact of implementing nutrient management strategies on reducing nutrient emissions from agriculture in NW Europe
    Boekel, E.M.P.M. van - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra-report 2670) - 113
    water quality - water management - water policy - nutrients - nutrient management - emission - agriculture - mitigation - northwestern europe - waterkwaliteit - waterbeheer - waterbeleid - voedingsstoffen - nutrientenbeheer - emissie - landbouw - mitigatie - noordwest-europa
    In the northwestern part of Europe, many surface waters suffer from eutrophication through diffuse losses of nutrients from agriculture to surface water and relatively high nitrate concentrations in groundwater in nitrate vulnerable zones. A lot of research and policy has been devised to decrease these losses. The northwestern European countries (Denmark, NW Germany, Belgium (Flanders), United Kingdom, Ireland and the Netherlands) are working together in an active policy-science working group to improve water quality by evaluating the impact of implemented nutrient management strategies. More insight into the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of different mitigation options under specific circumstances is needed. Therefore, each country has prepared factsheets with specific information for the top six mitigation options. Based on this information, general factsheets were made to compare the effects and cost-effectiveness of mitigation options between the NW European countries. The results are presented in this report.
    Pyrolysis in the Countries of the North Sea Region: Potentially available quantities of biomass waste for biochar production
    Kolk, J.W.H. van der; Zwart, K.B. - \ 2013
    Groningen, the Netherlands : Interreg IVB project Biochar - 24
    afvalverwerking - pyrolyse - biochar - biomassa - organisch afval - inventarisaties - noordwest-europa - biobased economy - waste treatment - pyrolysis - biochar - biomass - organic wastes - inventories - northwestern europe - biobased economy
    One of the objectives of the Interreg IVB project Biochar: Climate Saving Soils is to assess the amount of available biomass that could be used for the production of biochar. In this publication the authors give an impression of the amounts of biomass available for pyrolysis.
    Options for closing the phosphorus cycle in agriculture : assessment of options for Northwest Europe and the Netherlands
    Lesschen, J.P. ; Kolk, J.W.H. van der; Dijk, K.C. van; Willemse, J. - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-werkdocument 353) - 47
    veehouderij - dierhouderij - veevoeder - dierlijke meststoffen - fosfor - nutrientenbeheer - kringlopen - mestoverschotten - gesloten systemen - landbouwbeleid - regionaal landbouwbeleid - noordwest-europa - livestock farming - animal husbandry - fodder - animal manures - phosphorus - nutrient management - cycling - manure surpluses - closed systems - agricultural policy - regional agricultural policy - northwestern europe
    This study assessed which options are available for closing the feed-manure phosphorus cycle in agriculture and their contribution to the reduction of the P surplus and P use efficiency. This was assessed at a national scale for the Netherlands as well as a regional scale for Northwest Europe. No export of animal products, with as a consequence the reduction in livestock numbers, is most effective in reducing external P inputs. An effective option that is easier to implement is the reduction in P excretion through changes in the feed intake. For Nortwest Europe the combination of all five options can lead to a reduction of external P inputs of about 50%. For the Netherlands the combination of the options result in a reduction in external P inputs of 35% and a reduction of the manure export of 26%. The effectiveness of large scale manure treatment in the Netherlands is limited
    Population genetics and disease ecology of European wild boar
    Goedbloed, D.J. - \ 2013
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Herbert Prins; Ron Ydenberg, co-promotor(en): Pim van Hooft. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461737236 - 123
    wilde varkens - sus scrofa - infectieziekten - populatiegenetica - ecologie - mycoplasma hyopneumoniae - varkenscircovirus-1 - ziekteoverdracht - fauna - noordwest-europa - wild pigs - sus scrofa - infectious diseases - population genetics - ecology - mycoplasma hyopneumoniae - porcine circovirus-1 - disease transmission - fauna - northwestern europe
    Welke factoren beïnvloeden de frequentie van de ziekten in wilde populaties? Het promotieonderzoek van Daniel Goedbloed beoordeelde de invloed van demografische, genetische en omgevingsfactoren op de frequentie van twee infectieziekten in Noordwest-Europese wilde zwijnen populaties.
    Grazing dairy cows in North-West Europe : Economic farm performance and future developments with emphasis on the Dutch situation
    Reijs, J.W. ; Daatselaar, C.H.G. ; Helming, J.F.M. ; Jager, J.H. ; Beldman, A.C.G. - \ 2013
    The Hague : LEI Wageningen UR (Report / LEI : Research area Agriculture & entrepreneurship ) - ISBN 9789086156375 - 124
    melkveehouderij - melkkoeien - begrazing - beweidingssystemen - weiden - graslandbeheer - melkveevoeding - bedrijfsresultaten in de landbouw - rendement - bedrijfsstructuur in de landbouw - toekomst - noordwest-europa - landen van de europese unie - nederland - dierenwelzijn - dierlijke productie - melkvee - dairy farming - dairy cows - grazing - grazing systems - pastures - grassland management - dairy cattle nutrition - farm results - returns - farm structure - future - northwestern europe - european union countries - netherlands - animal welfare - animal production - dairy cattle
    The dairy sector is an important contributor to food production, economic activity and land use in the European Union. Grazing has long been a traditional element of dairy farming in the EU. Current developments in the dairy sector appear to result in a decline in grazing. The World Society for the Protection of Animals (WSPA) is concerned about this decline, particularly because of consequences for animal welfare, and has commissioned this analysis. This study gives an overview of the current state-of-the-art and expected future developments with respect to grazing in six key target EU countries of WSPA. The study builds to a large extent on local expertise and focuses on economic aspects and farm management issues.
    Food supply, demand and trade. Aspects of the economic relationship between town and countryside (Middle ages - 19th century)
    Cruyningen, P.J. van; Thoen, E. - \ 2012
    Turnhout, Belgium : Brepols Publishers (CORN publication series 14) - ISBN 9782503512839 - 215
    voedselvoorziening - economisch gedrag - agrarische handel - platteland - stedelijke gebieden - geschiedenis - agrarische geschiedenis - europa - noordwest-europa - food supply - economic behaviour - agricultural trade - rural areas - urban areas - history - agricultural history - europe - northwestern europe
    Ierland en Frankrijk: wat doen ze er anders?
    Aarts, H.F.M. ; Haan, M.H.A. de - \ 2011
    V-focus 8 (2011)4. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 36 - 37.
    melkveehouderij - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - bedrijfsvergelijking in de landbouw - ierse republiek - frankrijk - noordwest-europa - dairy farming - farm management - farm comparisons - irish republic - france - northwestern europe
    In het Europese project Dairyman werken belangrijke melkveegebieden in Noordwest-Europa samen aan de gewenste ontwikkeling van hun melkveebedrijven. Dit gebeurt op een vergelijkbare manier als in het mineralenproject Koeien & Kansen. Door deze samenwerking komt extra kennis beschikbaar en is vergelijking mogelijk, wat leerzaam is. Wat doen ze in het buitenland anders dan wij en waarom? Een kijkje op het melkveebedrijf in Ierland en West-Frankrijk.
    Humans and nature : public visions on their interrelationship
    Groot, M. de - \ 2010
    Radboud University Nijmegen. Promotor(en): W.T. de Groot; Bas Arts. - [S.l.] : s.n. - ISBN 9789090255910 - 168
    rivieren - perceptie - waarden - taxatie - attitudes - waterbeheer - inundatie - ruimtelijke ordening - religie - ethiek - nederland - canada - natuur - omgevingspsychologie - milieufilosofie - noordwest-europa - rivers - perception - values - valuation - attitudes - water management - flooding - physical planning - religion - ethics - netherlands - canada - nature - environmental psychology - environmental philosophy - northwestern europe
    This thesis empirically studies what lay people living in Western countries regard the appropriate way to relate to nature. Their environmental ethic might be in line with Mastery over nature, Stewardship of nature, Partnership with nature or Participation in nature. Not only will the ethics of the public be elicited but also the two other components of the ‘Visions of Nature’ umbrella: the image of nature (What is nature?) and the valuation of nature. Based upon interviews and surveys among the population in North Western Europe and Canada, this thesis will test whether the public distinguishes the same images of the human/nature relationship as philosophers do and to which image they adhere most. The study will then search for links between lay people’s environmental ethics and other background variables such as religion. Further, by searching for correlations between Visions of Nature and public adherence to river management, this study aims to contribute to the practice of river landscape planning. This contribution is twofold; it gives recommendations on communication and it elaborates on the possibilities of incorporating public values in one of the first stages of planning, called visioning.
    Dispersal failure contributes to plant losses in NW Europe
    Ozinga, W.A. ; Römermann, C. ; Bekker, R.M. ; Prinzing, A. ; Tamis, W.L.M. ; Schaminée, J.H.J. ; Hennekens, S.M. ; Thompson, K. ; Poschlod, P. ; Kleyer, M. ; Bakker, J.P. ; Groenendael, J.M. van - \ 2009
    Ecology Letters 12 (2009)1. - ISSN 1461-023X - p. 66 - 74.
    vegetatietypen - dispersie - plantengemeenschappen - noordwest-europa - vegetation types - dispersion - plant communities - northwestern europe - life-history traits - species richness - environmental-conditions - conservation - diversity - communities - extinction - landscape - ecology - fragmentation
    The ongoing decline of many plant species in Northwest Europe indicates that traditional conservation measures to improve the habitat quality, although useful, are not enough to halt diversity losses. Using recent databases, we show for the first time that differences between species in adaptations to various dispersal vectors, in combination with changes in the availability of these vectors, contribute significantly to explaining losses in plant diversity in Northwest Europe in the 20th century. Species with water- or fur-assisted dispersal are over-represented among declining species, while others (wind- or bird-assisted dispersal) are under-represented. Our analysis indicates that the 'colonization deficit' due to a degraded dispersal infrastructure is no less important in explaining plant diversity losses than the more commonly accepted effect of eutrophication and associated niche-based processes. Our findings call for measures that aim to restore the dispersal infrastructure across entire regions and that go beyond current conservation practices
    Opfok van biologische leghennen in verschillende Europese landen
    Bestman, M.W.P. - \ 2008
    Driebergen : Louis Bolk Instituut - 25 p.
    biologische landbouw - pluimveehouderij - hennen - richtlijnen (directives) - eierproductie - dierhouderij - pluimvee - noordwest-europa - organic farming - poultry farming - hens - directives - egg production - animal husbandry - poultry - northwestern europe
    At EU-level there are no specific regulations for organic rearing hens. Therefore the different countries use different interpretations of the rules that do exist. However, not only the rules vary per country, but also the way the rearing is being organised in the different countries. From a study group of Dutch organic pullet rearers the question came about the rules and the organisational structure of the rearing in the countries surrounding the Netherlands. A questionnaire was made and send to some members of the international network of the author in 7 countries: Belgium, Denmark, Germany, England, France, Austria and Switzerland
    Landscape and leisure in Europe: parasitism and symbiosis
    Brinkhuijsen, M. ; Jong, H. de; Jonge, C.S.J. - \ 2007
    Den Haag : Kenniscentrum Recreatie - 26
    vrije tijd - landschap - toerisme - ontwikkeling - noordwest-europa - leisure - landscape - tourism - development - northwestern europe
    In the early nineteenth century, many people worked themselves to death, eighteen hours a day, six days a week, with no days off. Leisure time was scarce. Only few people had the time and means to repose, divert and travel. Leisure and tourism were the privilege of a small elite. But times have changed. In Europe, the average amount of free time has gradually increased to 4-6 hours a day and a wide range of leisure and tourist opportunities have come within reach in contemporary society. This essay was based on some introductory reports of the project Landscape and leisure, describing trends and impacts, facts and figures concerning leisure and landscape in Europe
    Creation and restoration of coastal and estuarine habitats, a review of practical examples and a description of sequential guidelines for habitat creation and restoration in port areas
    Bracke, S. ; Bucx, T. ; Frost, N. ; Jaspers, H. ; Groot, J. de; Quemeneur, G. ; Sahin, F. ; Slim, P.A. ; Slootweg, H. ; Smit, C.J. ; Swart, E. de; Tessier, T. ; Vermeersch, L. ; Vanoutrive, T. - \ 2007
    [S.l.] : NEW! Delta (New Delta thema 3 ) - 186
    kustgebieden - estuaria - habitats - natuurbescherming - havens - belgië - nederland - natura 2000 - noordwest-europa - ecologisch herstel - coastal areas - estuaries - habitats - nature conservation - harbours - belgium - netherlands - natura 2000 - northwestern europe - ecological restoration
    One of the themes of the NEW! Delta project is theme 3 "Creation and restoration of coastal and estuarine habitats" Within this theme two demonstration projects of habitat creation and restoration schemes have been implemented: one in the port of Antwerp and the other in the dune area "De Zilk" along the Dutch coast. The contributers of this study are from: ABP MER (United Kingdom), Alterra, Vlaamse overheid Afdeling Kust, DIREN Haute-Normandie, Grontmij, IMIEU Brussel, Haven van Antwerpen, Haven van Rotterdam, provincie Zuid-Holland
    Epidemiological analysis of the 2006 blue tongue virus serotype 8 epidemic in north-western Europe. Distribution and dynamics of vector species
    Meiswinkel, R. ; Baldet, T. ; Deken, R. de; Takken, W. ; Delécolle, J.C. ; Mellor, Ph. - \ 2007
    Institute for Animal Health, UK : CIDC-Lelystad, the Netherlands, CIRAD, France, ITM, Belgium, WUR, the Netherlands, Université Louis Pasteur, France. - 88
    epidemiologie - bluetonguevirus - orbivirus - vectoren, ziekten - noord-europa - west-europa - noordwest-europa - epidemiology - bluetongue virus - orbivirus - disease vectors - northern europe - western europe - northwestern europe
    Epidemiological analysis of the 2006 bluetongue virus serotype 8 epidemic in north-western Europe, A risk map for epidemic potential in the Netherlands
    Koeijer, A. de; Hartemink, N. ; Boender, G.J. ; Elbers, A.R.W. ; Hesterbeek, J.A.P. - \ 2007
    niet bekend : EFSA - 18
    bluetonguevirus - epidemieën - epidemiologie - risicoschatting - virusziekten - ziekten overgebracht door vectoren - ziekteoverdracht - nederland - noordwest-europa - bluetongue virus - epidemics - epidemiology - risk assessment - viral diseases - vector-borne diseases - disease transmission - netherlands - northwestern europe
    One of the most important aspects of vector-borne infections is the strong influence of weather and climate on the transmission. In response to the major epidemic of bluetongue in north western Europe between summer and autumn 2006, an interest in BTV control issues developed. In this context, a map indicating the spatial variation in BTV risk in the north western European region would be very useful. To this end, a new approach is used in which they combine a mathematical epidemiological model and a geographical information system to obtain a spatially explicit measure for the risk of an outbreak of BTV when the virus is introduced in an area
    Fire ecology of Scots pine in Northwest Europe
    Hille, M.G. - \ 2006
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Frits Mohren; J.G. Goldammer. - [S.l. ] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085042839 - 179
    pinus sylvestris - brandecologie - bosbranden - biodiversiteit - bosecologie - plantensuccessie - europa - noordwest-europa - pinus sylvestris - fire ecology - forest fires - biodiversity - forest ecology - plant succession - europe - northwestern europe

    Keywords: biodiversity, fire ecology, fuel modelling, succession, tree regeneration

    In this thesis the ecological consequences of forest fire are studied in North-west European Scots pine {Pinus sylvestris) forests. The focus is on post-fire succession, and the factors and mechanisms that influence the successional pathways after fire. Fuel load and fuel moisture determine the intensity of forest fire and thus the degree of humus consumption. In a controlled laboratory' experiment humus consumption was determined for different moisture levels. Experimental fires showed evidence that variation in precipitation throughfall causes spatial variation in humus consumption in the stand through differences in humus moisture with respect to tree crowns. Humus consumption influences tree mortality, growth of remaining trees and re-colonization. Surface fires in Scots pine plantations caused a partial reduction of the litter and humus layers and a high mortality in the smaller trees. Reduction in radial growth after surface fire was variable, and was less in large diameter trees and in trees that experienced less humus consumption around their stem bases. Experimental burning of the humus layer showed that increased removal of organic material by fire resulted in an increase in seedling numbers. Earlier studies have suggested that the charcoal produced by fire improves germination conditions by absorbing phytotoxins produced by ericaceous species. All such studies have used activated carbon as a standardized model for charcoal. Bioassays with pine seeds in aqueous extracts of Vaccinium myrtillus and Calluna vulgaris showed toxic effects of the two species, but charcoal reduced toxicity less than activated carbon. Therefore, those previous studies have overestimated the effect of charcoal on germination, likely because of the considerably higher active surface area of activated carbon. The post-fire tree cohort after severe but small-scaled fires in Scots pine stands mainly consisted of Scots pine, but also birch and aspen. Compared to succession after other disturbance types in Scots pine stands, such as windthrow or soil scarification, seedling numbers are higher after small-scale fires by a magnitude often.

    Based on the good regeneration and for the purpose of fuel load reduction in areas with increased fire hazard, the prescribed burning of Scots pine stands should be reconsidered. Controlled forest fires could be used as an additional silvicultural technique to regenerate and transform single-species pine stands into mixed and more natural forests.

    Agriculture in the Northwest-European delta metropolis
    Smeets, P.J.A.M. - \ 2004
    In: The new dimensions of the European landscape. - Dordrecht : Springer - ISBN 9781402029097 - p. 59 - 71.
    ruimtelijke ordening - platteland - urbanisatie - landbouw - landschap - landbouwproductie - meervoudig landgebruik - noordwest-europa - physical planning - multiple land use - rural areas - urbanization - agriculture - landscape - agricultural production - northwestern europe
    The southern and central regions of The Netherlands are part of the Northwest- European Delta Metropolis. The demands placed by modern, urban society on the agricultural sector are numerous. Not only are the environment, animal welfare, and food hygiene and quality at stake here, but also must these demands be met in a period of a structural decline in economic yields and under the permanent pressure of a shortage of available land. Intensification and increase of scale, which have characterized European agriculture for a long time, are set to continue in the future. As a direct consequence of these developments five perspectives can be described that together have considerable implications for spatial planning in the rural areas. These perspectives are: (1) The development of knowledge for the benefit of the agro-food sector. (2) The development of agro-production parks based on the principles of industrial ecology. (3) Large-scale, intensive, heavily specialized land-based agriculture. (4) `Dreams and folk stories¿ that either relate to traditional production methods or are the product of modern marketing. (5) Specialized management of nature and landscape. The pressure on the agrarian cultural landscape, for centuries a by-product of traditional agriculture, is rapidly increasing as a result of these developments. In this paper it is argued that the problems of the future of the landscape in Northwestern Europe should be tackled outside the traditional framework of the agrarian production.
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