Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Winter hydrology and soil erosion processes in an agricultural catchment in Norway
    Starkloff, Torsten - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): C.J. Ritsema, co-promotor(en): J. Stolte; R. Hessel. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463432207 - 154
    catchment hydrology - erosion - winter - snow - norway - hydrologie van stroomgebieden - erosie - winter - sneeuw - noorwegen

    In regions with a Nordic climate, soil erosion rates in winter and early spring can exceed those occurring during other seasons of the year. In this context, this study was initiated to improve our understanding of the interaction between agricultural soils and occurring winter conditions. The main objective was to better understand how hydrological processes in a catchment are influenced by snow, ice, and freeze-thaw cycles of soils, leading to runoff and soil erosion in winter and spring conditions.

    For this purpose, detailed spatially and temporally distributed measurements and observations in a small catchment in Norway were executed during three consecutive winter/spring periods. During the winter/spring periods of 2013-2014, 2014-2015 and 2015-2016, soil water content, soil temperature, and snow cover properties were measured. In addition, numerous soil samples were taken to determine the soil hydraulic characteristics of the investigated soils and to quantify the changes in their macropore networks due to freeze-thaw events, using X-ray imaging.

    With the collected data and deduced process understanding, it was possible to model and quantify the spatial and temporal development of snow packs. Furthermore, the field observations revealed how the interaction of tillage, state of the soils and snow cover at a certain time can lead to none or extensive surface runoff and soil erosion.

    Integrating acquired data, observations and process knowledge facilitated advances in simulating and quantifying surface runoff and soil erosion rates across the catchment under investigation. The models applied and the maps and output derived are crucial elements for presenting current state and problems in the catchment to stakeholders (such as farmers), providing a starting point for discussing ways to prevent and reduce further runoff and erosion. For model calibration and validation, including interpretation of modelling results, good knowledge of the area and availability of detailed data are essential, especially when processes such as freezing-thawing of soils and ice layer and snow-pack dynamics have to be considered also.

    In order to reduce runoff and soil erosion during winter and snowmelt conditions in the future, more targeted research is required in order to address the full range of existing knowledge gaps in this field, as identified in this particular study also.

    Conceptual basis and spatial modelling to account for and conserve multiple ecosystem services in Telemark County, Norway
    Schröter, M. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Rik Leemans; Lars Hein, co-promotor(en): D.N. Barton. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462573123 - 197
    ecosysteemdiensten - ecologie - ruimtelijke modellen - modelleren - natuurbescherming - ecosystemen - noorwegen - ecosystem services - ecology - spatial models - modeling - nature conservation - ecosystems - norway
    Summary

    Ecosystem services are defined as the contributions that ecosystems make to human well-being and they are increasingly being used as an approach to analyse the relationship between humans and ecosystems. While ecosystem services are mainstreamed, operationalization of the ecosystem service concept for different policy purposes has to be further advanced. Among others, interest increases in integrating ecosystems and the services they provide into accounting schemes and into conservation planning. In this thesis, I address three challenges to operationalize the ecosystem service concept for accounting and conservation. These are first shortly described and addressed later on in the different chapters of this thesis.

    The first challenge relates to controversies around the conceptual basis of the ecosystem service concept. Ecosystem services is a normative concept and such concepts lead to controversies. These need to be clarified and addressed because contesting a concept likely reduces its acceptance and applicability. The second challenge relates to capturing the heterogeneous spatial distribution across an area of both the potential of ecosystems to provide ecosystem services (i.e. capacity) and of the actual use of ecosystem services (i.e. flow). The operationalization of ecosystem services thus requires geographic analysis. This spatial information on ecosystem services can feed into different policy purposes. Applying the ecosystem service concept in conservation planning is an evolving new practice. The third challenge is to develop appropriate methods to incorporate spatial information on ecosystem services into conservation planning.

    This thesis aims to explore and further develop the conceptual basis of ecosystem services, and to create and apply spatial models of multiple ecosystem services for accounting, management and conservation. These interdisciplinary objectives are addressed by critically reflecting on ecosystem services, conceptual reasoning, further methodological development of spatial modelling, as well as applying the resulting spatial models in plausible conservation scenarios.

    In Chapter 2, I explore the conceptual basis of ecosystem services and describe and reflect on seven recurring critiques of the concept and respective counter-arguments. Critical arguments and counter-arguments are summarised from a literature review and they are contrasted. The seven chosen critiques are as follows. First, the concept is criticized for being too anthropocentric, whereas others argue that the concept goes beyond instrumental values and includes elements of intrinsic values that relate to ecosystem being valued for their own sake. Second, some argue that the concept promotes an exploitative human-nature relationship, whereas others state that it re-connects society to ecosystems and emphasizes humanity’s dependence on ecosystems. Third, concerns exist that the concept conflicts with biodiversity conservation objectives, whereas others emphasize complementarity between the concepts of biodiversity and ecosystem services and the practical application of both concepts in planning. Fourth, the concept is questioned because of its supposed focus on economic valuation, whereas others argue that ecosystem-services science includes various types of value systems. Fifth, the concept is criticized for promoting commodification of nature, whereas others point out that most ecosystem services are not (directly) connected to market-based instruments. Sixth, vagueness of definitions and classifications of ecosystem services are stated as a weakness, whereas others argue that vagueness enhances creativity and transdisciplinary collaboration. Seventh, some criticize the normative nature of the concept, implying that all outcomes of ecosystems and their processes are desirable. The normative nature is indeed typical for the concept, but should not be problematic when adequately acknowledged. Disentangling and contrasting different arguments contributes to a more structured debate between opponents and proponents of the ecosystem services concept and helps to further conceptualize the ecosystem service concept.

    In Chapter 3, I develop and test a framework to analyse ecosystem service capacity and flow in a spatially explicit way. This study was conducted in the overall context of ecosystem accounting. Ecosystem accounting aims to monitor extent, condition and properties of ecosystems that deliver ecosystem services over time. Guidelines and standards for ecosystem accounting are currently being developed under the auspices of the United Nations and this chapter is closely aligned to the recent System of Environmental-Economic Accounting Experimental Ecosystem Accounting (SEEA) guidelines.

    Understanding the capacity of ecosystems to generate these services and the resulting flow of ecosystem services is an essential element for understanding the sustainability of ecosystem use as well as developing ecosystem accounts. I conduct spatially explicit assessments of nine ecosystem services in Telemark county, Southern Norway. The modelled ecosystem services are moose hunting, sheep grazing, timber harvest, forest carbon sequestration and storage, snow slide prevention, recreational residential amenity, recreational hiking and existence of areas without technical interference. I conceptually distinguish capacity to provide ecosystem services from the actual flow of services and empirically assess both. This is done by means of different spatial models, developed with various available datasets and methods, including (multiple layer) look-up tables, causal relations between datasets (including satellite images), environmental regression and indicators derived from direct measurements. Capacity and flow differ both in spatial extent and in quantities. The distinction of capacity and flow of ecosystem services provides a parsimonious estimation of over- or underuse of the respective service. Assessment of capacity and flow in a spatially explicit way can thus support monitoring sustainability of ecosystem use, and this is an essential element of ecosystem accounting.

    In Chapters 4 and 5, I explore methods to operationalize the ecosystem service concept for conservation planning. These chapters are based on the models for regulating and cultural services that were developed in Chapter 3. The variation in spatial distribution between ecosystem services can be high. Hence, spatial identification of important sites for conservation planning is required. The term ‘ecosystem service hotspot’ has often been used for this purpose, but this term is defined ambiguously. An ecosystem service hotspot can refer to either areas containing high values of one service or areas with multiple services. In Chapter 4, I review and classify methods to spatially delineate hotspots. I test how spatial configuration of hotspots for a set of ecosystem services differs depending on the applied method. The outcomes are compared to a heuristic site prioritisation approach (Marxan). The four tested hotspot methods are the threshold value approach, Gi* statistic, intensity, and richness. In a conservation scenario, I set a target of conserving 10% of the quantity of five regulating and cultural services for the forest area of Telemark. Spatial configuration of selected areas as retrieved by the four hotspots and Marxan differed considerably. Pairwise comparisons were at the lower end of the scale of the Kappa statistic (-0.003 – 0.24). The outcomes also differed considerably in mean target achievement ranging from 7.7% (richness approach) to 24.9% (threshold value approach), cost-effectiveness in terms of land-area needed per unit target achievement and compactness in terms of edge-to-area ratio. Differences in spatial configuration among different hotspot methods probably lead to uncertainties for decision-making. These differences also have consequences for analysing the spatial co-occurrence of hotspots of multiple services and of services and biodiversity. While determining hotspots according to one approach might lead to high degrees of spatial overlap with another ecosystem service or biodiversity, other delineation methods might lead to considerably lower degrees of overlap.

    In Chapter 5, I analyse how the incorporation of ecosystem services as conservation features affect conservation of forest biodiversity and how different opportunity cost constraints change spatial priorities for conservation. In this study, spatially explicit cost-effective conservation scenarios for 59 forest biodiversity features and five ecosystem services in Telemark County were created with the help of the heuristic optimisation planning software Marxan with Zones. A mix of conservation instruments where forestry is either completely (non-use zone) or partially restricted (partial use zone) were combined. Opportunity costs were measured in terms of foregone timber harvest, an important provisioning service in Telemark. Including a number of ecosystem services shifted priority conservation sites compared to a case where only biodiversity was considered, and increased the area of both the partial (+36.2%) and the non-use zone (+3.2%). Furthermore, opportunity costs increased (+6.6%), which suggests that ecosystem services are not a side-benefit of biodiversity conservation in this area. Opportunity-cost levels were systematically changed to analyse their effect on spatial conservation priorities. Conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem services trades off against timber harvest. Currently designated nature reserves and landscape protection areas achieve a very low proportion (9.1%) of the conservation targets scenario, which illustrates the high importance given to timber production at present. A trade-off curve indicated that large marginal increases in conservation target achievement are possible when the budget for conservation is increased. Forty percent of the maximum hypothetical opportunity costs would yield an average conservation target achievement of 79%. This study shows how a heuristic optimisation approach can aid conservation planning for a number of ecosystem services and biodiversity.

    Based on the critiques on the ecosystem service concept, their respective counter-arguments and the conclusions from the chapters of this thesis, I suggest to further clarify, describe and develop a thick, rich and vague concept of ecosystem services. The ecosystem service concept is a thick concept as it is both descriptive, referring to flows of energy, matter and information from ecosystems to society, and normative, referring to ecosystem services being valuable and preferable to conserve. A rich ecosystem service concept envisions the concept as a platform for plural values emphasising multi-functionality of ecosystems. A rich conceptualization of ESs also includes sustainability principles, such as for instance renewability and aspects of intra- and intergenerational justice. For the purpose of interdisciplinary collaboration, the concept needs to be both vague enough to be flexibly adopted by different disciplines, and at the same time rich enough to ensure that researchers from different disciplines know they are working with the same phenomenon.

    My thesis shows that conceptual and empirically testable ways to address the critique on the ecosystem service concept exist. I conclude that a thick, rich and vague conceptualization of ecosystem services is a way forward and an adequate foundation for science that builds on the ecosystem service concept. I have proposed and empirically tested methods to spatially model ecosystem service capacity and flow and that capacity and flow differ in distribution and abundance. The distinction and empirical assessment of capacity and flow, if measured with aligned indicators, improves the understanding of over- or underuse of ecosystem services. Furthermore, I have shown possible consequences of operationalizing the ecosystem service concept for conservation. To include ecosystem services in conservation or management decisions and to bear the consequences of this inclusion is mainly a societal choice. This choice requires a societal discourse on which ecosystem services and how much of these services should be conserved. This thesis provides knowledge that can feed into such a deliberative discourse about ecosystem services. A thick, rich and vague ecosystem service concept contributes to the philosophical basis of this discourse, ecosystem accounting contributes to the cognitive basis, and the proposed methods for ecosystem service conservation can help guiding action to effectively sustain the provision of ecosystem services.

    Vibriose in aquacultuur: een internationale workshop van de European Association of Fish Pathologists (EAFP)
    Haenen, O.L.M. - \ 2014
    Aquacultuur 29 (2014)4. - ISSN 1382-2764 - p. 29 - 34.
    aquacultuur - visziekten - vibrio - vibrio vulnificus - bacterieziekten - spanje - noorwegen - kroatië - nederland - aquaculture - fish diseases - vibrio - vibrio vulnificus - bacterial diseases - spain - norway - croatia - netherlands
    De wereldwijde groei van de aquacultuur had een toename tot gevolg van de vraag naar cysten van Artemia (voor het voeden van larven van vissen en garnalen in een hatchery). Mondiaal worden cysten van zoutwaterkreeftje Artemia gewonnen in natuurlijke, zoute wateren. De beschikbaarheid van cysten is echter beperkt; niet alleen stijgt de vraag, de hoeveelheid te oogsten cysten is ook onvoorspelbaar door de wisselende klimatologische omstandigheden. De wetmatigheden van vraag en aanbod veroorzaken daarom fluctuaties in de prijs.
    Dialogue between farmers and experts regarding farm animal welfare. Farmers' juries in Norway, the Netherlands and Italy
    Bock, B.B. ; Swagemakers, P. ; Jacobsen, E. ; Ferrari, P. - \ 2010
    Cardiff : Cardiff University Press (Welfare quality reports no. 17) - ISBN 9781908442017 - 142
    varkenshouderij - veehouders - houding van boeren - dierenwelzijn - mens-dier relaties - italië - noorwegen - nederland - dierlijke productie - varkens - pig farming - stockmen - farmers' attitudes - animal welfare - human-animal relationships - italy - norway - netherlands - animal production - pigs
    The main objective of this report is to evaluate farmers' responses to and acceptance of the Welfare Quality assessment and monitoring system, its grading system and use for product information. It is important to determine how farmers perceive the tool because they will be among main users, and their acceptance is essential for its successful implementation. The Welfare Quality team developing this tool also needs to know which aspects evoke farmers' interest and trust as well as those causing concern and distrust. We also need insight into their reasoning and motives for acceptance or refusal. Since opinions on and understanding of animal welfare differ between Northern, Western and Southern Europe we organized pig farmers' juries in 3 countries representing these geographic differences: the Netherlands, Norway and Italy.
    Met burgers de boer op : Input voor een maatschappelijk debat over een gewaardeerde en duurzame veehouderij
    Boogaard, B.K. - \ 2010
    Wageningen : Wageningen University - 32
    melkveehouderij - duurzame veehouderij - dierlijke productie - samenleving - tradities - modernisering - attitudes - maatschappelijk draagvlak - nederland - noorwegen - dairy farming - sustainable animal husbandry - animal production - society - traditions - modernization - attitudes - public support - netherlands - norway
    Dit boekje behandelt de opmerkelijkste resultaten van het kwalitatieve deel van het promotieonderzoek over de beelden, wensen en zorgen van burgers over de melkveehouderij. Deze uitgave is gebaseerd op promotieonderzoek van Birgit K. Boogaard, getiteld "Sociaal-culturele duurzaamheid van de veehouderij", uitgevoerd bij de leerstoelgroepen Dierlijke Productiesystemen en Rurale Sociologie van Wageningen University.
    Mosselkweek in Noorse fjorden
    Jansen, H.M. - \ 2010
    Aquacultuur 25 (2010)4. - ISSN 1382-2764 - p. 20 - 26.
    mosselteelt - schaal- en schelpdierenteelt - noorwegen - mossels - aquacultuur - mussel culture - shellfish culture - norway - mussels - aquaculture
    Schelpdiercultuur is een groeiende sector in Noorwegen, al kent de ontwikkeling ook belemmeringen zoals logistieke beperkingen, sluiting van de oogst door giftige algen, hiaten in de kennis over kweekmethoden, beperkte financiële middelen en een gering ontwikkelingen van de Sector. Zowel de sector als de gerelateerde onderzoeksactiviteiten staan in Noorwegen in de kinderschoenen. Het Institute of Marine (IMR) heeft daarom samenwerking gezocht met Nederlandse, Frans en Canadese onderzoeksinstituten. Deze landen kennen een lange historie en goed gestructureerd onderzoeksveld én hebben een grote schelpdiersector. De samenwerking met IMARES is één van de voorbeelden van deze samenwerkingsverbanden. Aad Smaal en Henrice Jansen zijn vanuit IMARES betrokken bij een project naar de draagkracht voor mosselkweek in Noorse fjorden. Henrice verblijft voor een periode van vier jaar in Noorwegen om promotieonderzoek uit te voeren naar de nutriëntendynamiek in mosselkwekerijen.
    The socio-cultural sustainability of animal farming : an inquiry into social perceptions of dairy farming in the Netherlands and Norway
    Boogaard, B.K. - \ 2009
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Akke van der Zijpp; Han Wiskerke, co-promotor(en): Simon Oosting; Bettina Bock. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085854470 - 207
    melkveehouderij - dierlijke productie - samenleving - cultuur - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - perceptie - attitudes - waarden - sociologie - nederland - noorwegen - dairy farming - animal production - society - culture - sustainability - perception - attitudes - values - sociology - netherlands - norway
    De afgelopen 50 jaar is de veehouderij in schaalgrootte toegenomen en geïntensiveerd. Tegelijkertijd zijn Westerse samenlevingen meer verstedelijkt en hebben minder mensen familieleden in de landbouw. Als gevolg daarvan hebben weinig burgers kennis van of directe ervaring met de landbouw. Duurzame ontwikkeling is een omstreden concept en wordt in veel gebieden bediscussieerd en op verschillende manieren gedefinieerd. Deze studie richt zich op burgerpercepties van de veehouderij om inzicht te krijgen in de sociaal-culturele aspecten van een duurzame veehouderij.
    Preliminary Water Assessment Reports of The Test Basins of The Watch Project
    Ludwig, F. ; Candel, M. ; Carrera, J. ; Fendekova, M. ; Haddeland, I. ; Horacek, S. ; Jodar, J. ; Koutroulis, A. ; Navorro, V. ; Tsanis, I. - \ 2008
    Wageningen : Watch (WATCH technical report / Water and Global Change no. X) - 19
    klimaatverandering - stroomgebieden - rivieren - watervoorraden - afvoer - waterbeheer - gevalsanalyse - noorwegen - spanje - tsjechië - griekenland - elbe - kreta - climatic change - watersheds - rivers - water resources - discharge - water management - case studies - norway - spain - czech republic - greece - river elbe - crete
    This report presents the initial plans of the case studies how they link to rest of the Watch project and on which water resources they will focus. This report will function as the basis for further discussions on how to improve the integration of the case studies within the project and to develop a more general protocol for each of the case studies. Currently 5 catchments are used within the Watch project, they differ in climatic and hydro-geological features and expected climate changes: the Glomma River basin (Eastern Norway), the upper Guadiana basin (Central Spanish Plateau), the Nitra River basin (central Slovakia), the Upper-Elbe basin (part of the Elbe River) and the island of Crete. Also the water resources issues vary over these cases. Agricultural (and domestic) water use is under pressure in the Mediterranean catchments probably aggravating with the expected increase in drought frequency under future climate. The Norwegian catchment provides hydropower services under threat of precipitation increase rather than decrease. The central European catchments are threatened mainly by increased variability, i.e. increased frequencies of extremes in a densely populated environment, and river flow may need additional buffers (reservoirs) to reduce floodrisk and store water for dry periods
    Biologische melkveehouderij in Noorwegen : kleinschalig met sterke koeien
    Noorduyn, L. ; Animal Sciences Group (ASG), - \ 2008
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR (BioKennis bericht : Zuivel & Rundvlees ) - 4
    biologische landbouw - melkveehouderij - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - noorwegen - organic farming - dairy farming - farm management - norway
    Noorwegen is een compleet ander land dan Nederland. Hoe is het om in zo’n land een biologisch melkveebedrijf te hebben? Waarin verschilt dat van een Nederlands bedrijf en kunnen Nederlandse boeren nog wat van hen leren? De themagroep Strategie van het Bedrijfsnetwerk Biologische Melkveehouderij organiseerde een tocht naar het belangrijkste veeteeltgebied van Noorwegen: het gebied rond Stavanger.
    Praktijkervaringen met zwart- en grijswatersystemen in Noorwegen en Duitsland
    Mels, A.R. ; Telkamp, P. ; Koetse, E. ; Braadbaart, O.D. - \ 2007
    H2O : tijdschrift voor watervoorziening en afvalwaterbehandeling 40 (2007)10. - ISSN 0166-8439 - p. 51 - 54.
    nieuwe sanitatie - afvalwaterbehandeling - huishoudens - verzamelen - proefprojecten - afvalwater - urine - duitsland - noorwegen - new sanitation - waste water treatment - households - collection - pilot projects - waste water - urine - germany - norway
    De laatste jaren bestaat wereldwijd steeds meer aandacht voor de ontwikkeling van nieuwe sanitatiesystemen die gebaseerd zijn op gescheiden inzameling van geconcentreerde en minder geconcentreerde afvalwaterstromen uit het huishouden. Ook in Nederland vindt het nodige onderzoek plaats en zijn recentelijk enkele projecten gerealiseerd. Wageningen Universiteit verzamelt systematisch de praktijkervaringen uit verschillende EU-landen en vergelijkt deze om de kennis op dit vlak verder te ontwikkelen. Dit artikel presenteert het resultaat van onderzoek naar vier praktijksystemen met vacuüminzameling en grijswaterzuivering in Noorwegen en Duitsland
    Risk analysis on the import of seed mussels from Norway into the Wadden Sea
    Wijsman, J.W.M. ; Tamis, J.E. ; Kaag, N.H.B.M. ; Karman, C.C. ; Foekema, E.M. ; Smaal, A.C. - \ 2007
    Yerseke/Den Helder : IMARES (Report / Wageningen IMARES nr. C102/07) - 62
    visserij - schaal- en schelpdierenvisserij - introductie - geïntroduceerde soorten - mossels - risicoschatting - noorwegen - nederland - mariene gebieden - visserij-ecologie - ecologische risicoschatting - waddenzee - aquatische ecologie - mariene biologie - fisheries - shellfish fisheries - introduction - introduced species - mussels - risk assessment - norway - netherlands - marine areas - fisheries ecology - ecological risk assessment - wadden sea - aquatic ecology - marine biology
    This report is the result of a risk analysis on the introduction of exotic nonCindigenous species with the import of rope culture mussels from Norway into the Wadden Sea. Based on available literature data and expert judgement, the target species are identified and the risks of these species are assessed semiCquantatively. Based on the risk analysis it is concluded that the risk of introducing exotic nonCindigenous species into the Dutch part of the Wadden Sea with the import of mussels from Norway is low, but not totally absent.
    Uit de mest- en mineralenprogramma's : EUROHARP: (2) Toetsing van methoden voor de voorspelling van de nutriëntenbelasting van het oppervlaktewater op stroomgebiedniveau
    Schoumans, O.F. - \ 2005
    Wageningen : Alterra (Informatieblad / Alterra 398.91) - 2
    voedingsstoffen - oppervlaktewater - stroomgebieden - modellen - waterverontreiniging - hydrologie van stroomgebieden - bronnen - europa - noorwegen - engeland - italië - nutrients - surface water - watersheds - models - water pollution - catchment hydrology - sources - europe - norway - england - italy
    Binnen het EU-project EUROHARP wordt nagegaan in hoeverre de verschillende type modellen geschikt zijn om de diffuse belasting van het oppervlaktewater uit het landelijke gebied te kwan-tificeren. De modellen die in het onderzoek betrokken zijn, worden ingezet in o.a. OSPAR kader om te evalueren in hoeverre reductiedoelstellingen worden gerealiseerd. Naast een inhoudelijke modelvergelijking (infoblad 90) vindt er ook een toetsing van alle modellen in 3 stroomgebieden plaats: Vansjø-Hobøl (Noorwegen), Yorkshire Ouse (Engeland) en Enza (Italië). Daarnaast zijn voor elk model afzonderlijk 3 andere stroomgebieden geloot uit de 17 stroomgebieden om uiteindelijk ook de toepasbaarheid van elk model onder verschillende omstandigheden te evalueren. In dit infoblad wordt de resultaten van de toetsing van alle modellen op de drie genoemde stroomgebieden beschreven
    Niet-houtige producten en diensten: denk aan de invloeden: een vergelijkende studie tussen Nederland en Noorwegen
    Janse, G. - \ 2003
    Nederlands Bosbouwtijdschrift 75 (2003)2. - ISSN 0028-2057 - p. 40 - 44.
    bosproducten - bossen - bosbeheer - bosbedrijfsvoering - meervoudig gebruik - marketing - bosbeleid - bosbouweconomie - nederland - noorwegen - jagen - forest products - forests - forest administration - forest management - multiple use - marketing - forest policy - forest economics - netherlands - norway - hunting
    Om tot een beter begrip te komen van de factoren die de rol van niet-houtige bosproducten en diensten in de samenleving en hun plaats in het bosbeleid beïnvloeden is een vergelijkend onderzoek uitgevoerd tussen Nederland en Noorwegen. Vier producten en diensten zijn meer in detail bekeken: jacht, recreatiehuisjes, bessen en paddestoelen, en drinkwater. Een en ander wordt bestudeerd in het licht van de verschillen in bosgerelateerde karakteristieken tussen Nederland en Noorwegen (institutioneel raamwerk; economische karakteristieken; demografie en boskwaliteit/kwantiteit; houdingen, waarden en gebruiken)
    "Consumer evaluation to (sensory properties) farmed and wild captured fish for the Norwegian and Dutch market"
    Luten, J.B. - \ 2001
    IJmuiden : RIVO-Netherlands Institute for Fisheries Reaearch - 6
    kweekvis - vis - sensorische evaluatie - markten - noorwegen - nederland - farmed fish - fish - sensory evaluation - markets - norway - netherlands
    Labour situation and strategies of farm women in diversified rural areas of Europe
    Overbeek, G. ; (AUA) Efstratoglou, S. ; (CRR) Haugen, M.S. ; (CRES) Saraceno, E. - \ 1998
    Luxembourg : Office for Official Publications of the European Communities - ISBN 9789282856529 - 226
    plattelandsvrouwen - boerengezinnen - familiebedrijven, landbouw - vrouwen - man-vrouwrelaties - griekenland - italië - nederland - noorwegen - europa - platteland - economische situatie - arbeid in de landbouw - rural women - farm families - family farms - women - gender relations - greece - italy - netherlands - norway - europe - rural areas - economic situation - farm labour
    Mogelijkheden voor hogedruk mestinjecteur
    Hol, J.M.G. ; Huijsmans, J.F.M. - \ 1998
    Landbouwmechanisatie 49 (1998)6/7. - ISSN 0023-7795 - p. 22 - 23.
    injectie - kunstmeststoffen - bodeminjecteurs - druk - luchtverontreiniging - ammoniak - emissie - vervluchtiging - noorwegen - injection - fertilizers - soil injectors - pressure - air pollution - ammonia - emission - volatilization - norway
    In het buitenland is de ammomiakemissie ook actueel geworden. Zo is de Direct Ground Injection machine (DGI) ontwikkeld in Noorwegen. Het IMAG-DLO onderzocht deze techniek in Nederland
    Melkwinningsonderzoek in Noorwegen
    Schuiling, E. ; Beek, M. - \ 1992
    Praktijkonderzoek / Praktijkonderzoek Rundvee, Schapen en Paarden (PR), Waiboerhoeve 5 (1992)2. - ISSN 0921-8874 - p. 37 - 39.
    dierhouderij - melkvee - melkveehouderij - zuivelindustrie - melkproducten - noorwegen - onderzoek - animal husbandry - dairy cattle - dairy farming - dairy industry - milk products - norway - research
    Diverse organisaties en instellingen zijn bezocht. Het onderzoek in Noorwegen kent overeenkomsten met de Nederlandse situatie, wat de contacten erg zinvol maakt.
    Voedingsonderzoek met varkens : verslag van een studiereis langs verschillende universiteiten en instituten in Noord-Duitsland, Zweden en Noorwegen, van 8 t/m 18 oktober 1984
    Lenis, N.P. ; Jongbloed, A.W. - \ 1985
    Lelystad : I.V.V.O. (Rapport I.V.V.O. no. 168) - 48
    diervoedering - voer - bondsrepubliek duitsland - noorwegen - varkens - onderzoek - zweden - animal feeding - feeds - german federal republic - norway - pigs - research - sweden
    Orientatiereis, waarbij de belangstelling vooral uitging naar de energie- en eiwitverhouding, de voederwaardering, de mineralenhuishouding en de vervoedering van bijprodukten. Een speciaal facet in de Zweedse varkenshouderij vormt de bijzondere bestaande en toekomstige wetgeving op het gebied van welzijn van dieren en milieu
    Computertomograaf 'snijdt' levend dier in plakjes
    Kanis, E. - \ 1984
    Boerderij 69 (1984)42. - ISSN 0006-5617 - p. 18 - 19.
    dieren - elektrische ontladingen - elektrische apparatuur - elektronica - experimenten - laboratoriumdieren - laboratoriummethoden - noorwegen - planten - radiografie - selectie - technieken - röntgenstraling - in vivo experimenten - animals - electric discharges - electrical equipment - electronics - experiments - laboratory animals - laboratory methods - norway - plants - radiography - selection - techniques - x radiation - in vivo experimentation
    Over een nauwkeurige maar kostbare methode om de waarde van fokdieren te bepalen, namelijk de computertomograaf van de Landbouwhogeschool van Noorwegen (apparaat waarmee met behulp van roentgenstraling een doorsnede van het lichaam wordt onderzocht). Ingegaan wordt op de verschillende principes van tomografie (het beschrijven van een lichaamsdoorsnede), de werking van de computertomograaf, de toepassingen en het onderzoek met behulp hiervan
    Verslag van een studiereis naar Noorwegen ten behoeve van het bastkever-feromoononderzoek, 7 - 14 Juni 1982
    Grijpma, P. - \ 1982
    Wageningen : De Dorschkamp (Rapport / Rijksinstituut voor Onderzoek in de Bos- en Landschapsbouw "De Dorschkamp" no. 320) - 16
    bosschade - insecten - insectenplagen - scolytidae - gewasbescherming - afweermiddelen - feromonen - plantenplagen - bosbouw - chemische bestrijding - vergiftiging - lokaas - lokken - onderzoek - noorwegen - forest damage - insects - insect pests - scolytidae - plant protection - repellents - pheromones - plant pests - forestry - chemical control - poisoning - baits - baiting - research - norway
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