In vivo relevance of two critical levels for NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1)-mediated cellular protection against electrophile toxicity found in vitro
Haan, L.H.J. de; Pot, G.K. ; Aarts, J.M.M.J.G. ; Rietjens, I.M.C.M. ; Alink, G.M. - \ 2006
Toxicology in Vitro 20 (2006)5. - ISSN 0887-2333 - p. 594 - 600.
dt-diaphorase - menadione toxicity - quinone toxicity - human colon - cells - nqo1 - reductase - enzymes - lines - sensitivity
NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1)-mediated detoxification of quinones is suggested to be involved in cancer prevention. In the present study, using transfected CHO cells, it was demonstrated that the relation between NQO1 activity and the resulting protection against the cytotoxicity of menadione shows a steep dose¿response curve revealing a `lower protection threshold¿ of 0.5 ¿mol DCPIP/min/mg protein and an `upper protection threshold¿ at 1 ¿mol DCPIP/min/mg protein. In an additional in vivo experiment it was investigated how both in vitro critical activity levels of NQO1, relate to NQO1 activities in mice and man, either without or upon induction of the enzyme by butylated hydroxyanisol (BHA) or indole-3-carbinol (I3C). Data from an experiment with CD1 mice revealed that base-line NQO1 levels in liver, kidney, small intestine, colon and lung are generally below the observed `lower protection threshold¿ in vitro, this also holds for most human tissue S-9 samples. To achieve NQO1 levels above this `lower protection threshold¿ will require 5¿20 fold NQO1 induction. Discussion focuses on the relevance of the in vitro NQO1 activity thresholds for the in vivo situation. We conclude that increased protection against menadione toxicity can probably not be achieved by NQO1 induction but should be achieved by other mechanisms. Whether this conclusion also holds for other electrophiles and the in vivo situation awaits further definition of their NQO1 protection thresholds