Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Retrospective Outcome Monitoring of ADHD and Nutrition (ROMAN) : The Effectiveness of the Few-Foods Diet in General Practice
    Pelsser, Lidy ; Frankena, Klaas ; Toorman, Jan ; Rodrigues Pereira, Rob - \ 2020
    Frontiers in Psychiatry 11 (2020). - ISSN 1664-0640
    attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder - children - diet - few-foods - food-induced - nutrition - oppositional defiant disorder - prevention

    Introduction: Double-blind placebo-controlled studies investigating the effect of a few-foods diet (FFD) on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have provided consistent evidence that ADHD can be triggered by foods, indicating the existence of a food-induced ADHD subtype. In 2001 the “few-foods” approach was included in an ADHD treatment protocol. This approach consists of (a) determining, by means of an FFD, whether food is a trigger of ADHD; (b) reintroducing, in FFD responders, foods to assess which foods are incriminated; (c) finally composing a personalised diet eliminating the involved foods only. In the Netherlands the few-foods approach is applied in practice. We aimed to retrospectively assess its effectiveness on ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) in real life. Methods: Data from all children who started the few-foods approach in three specialised healthcare facilities during three consecutive months were included. Behavior was assessed at start and end of the 5-week FFD, using the ADHD Rating Scale and a structured psychiatric interview. Clinical responders (behavioral improvements ≥40%) proceeded with the reintroduction phase. Results: Data of 57 children, 27 taking medication and 15 following some elimination diet at start, were available. No differences were noted between parental scores of children with and without medication or some elimination diet at start. 21/27 (78%) children stopped taking medication during the FFD. 34/57 (60%) children were ADHD responders, 20/29 (65%) children meeting ODD criteria were ODD responders. 26/34 (76%) ADHD responders started the reintroduction phase; 14/26 (54%) still participated at six months. Teacher data were available of 18/57 (32%) children. 9/18 (50%) children were ADHD responders. Conclusion: The FFD, if applied by trained specialists, may lead to clinically relevant reduction of ADHD and ODD symptoms in general practice, and a concomitant decrease of ADHD medication. These results corroborate the existence of an ADHD subgroup with food-induced ADHD. Defining and eliminating the incriminated foods, i.e. the underlying causal triggers, may result in secondary prevention of food-induced ADHD. Research into underlying mechanism(s) is of vital importance: finding an easier method or biomarkers for diagnosing food-induced ADHD and ascertaining the incriminated foods may lead to redundancy of the few-foods approach.

    Effect of fructans, prebiotics and fibres on the human gut microbiome assessed by 16S rRNA-based approaches : a review
    Swanson, K.S. ; Vos, W.M. de; Martens, E.C. ; Gilbert, J.A. ; Menon, R.S. ; Soto-Vaca, A. ; Hautvast, J. ; Meyer, P.D. ; Borewicz, K. ; Vaughan, E.E. ; Slavin, J.L. - \ 2020
    Beneficial Microbes 11 (2020)2. - ISSN 1876-2883 - p. 101 - 129.
    health - intestine - inulin - microbiota - nutrition

    The inherent and diverse capacity of dietary fibres, nondigestible oligosaccharides (NDOs) and prebiotics to modify the gut microbiota and markedly influence health status of the host has attracted rising interest. Research and collective initiatives to determine the composition and diversity of the human gut microbiota have increased over the past decade due to great advances in high-throughput technologies, particularly the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequencing. Here we reviewed the application of 16S rRNA-based molecular technologies, both community wide (sequencing and phylogenetic microarrays) and targeted methodologies (quantitative PCR, fluorescent in situ hybridisation) to study the effect of chicory inulin-type fructans, NDOs and specific added fibres, such as resistant starches, on the human intestinal microbiota. Overall, such technologies facilitated the monitoring of microbiota shifts due to prebiotic/fibre consumption, though there are limited community-wide sequencing studies so far. Molecular studies confirmed the selective bifidogenic effect of fructans and galactooligosaccharides (GOS) in human intervention studies. Fructans only occasionally decreased relative abundance of Bacteroidetes or stimulated other groups. The sequencing studies for various resistant starches, polydextrose and beta-glucan showed broader effects with more and different types of gut microbial species being enhanced, often including phylotypes of Ruminococcaceae. There was substantial variation in terms of magnitude of response and in individual responses to a specific fibre or NDO which may be due to numerous factors, such as initial presence and relative abundance of a microbial type, diet, genetics of the host, and intervention parameters, such as intervention duration and fibre dose. The field will clearly benefit from a more systematic approach that will support defining the impact of prebiotics and fibres on the gut microbiome, identify biomarkers that link gut microbes to health, and address the personalised response of an individual's microbiota to prebiotics and dietary fibres.

    Effect of mineral and vitamin C mix on growth performance and blood corticosterone concentrations in heat-stressed broilers
    Saiz del Barrio, A. ; Mansilla, W.D. ; Navarro-Villa, A. ; Mica, J.H. ; Smeets, J.H. ; Hartog, L.A. den; García-Ruiz, A.I. - \ 2020
    Journal of Applied Poultry Research 29 (2020)1. - ISSN 1056-6171 - p. 23 - 33.
    broilers - heat stress - mineral - nutrition - vitamin-C

    Heat stress is a major problem in the poultry industry, especially during summer months and when birds are raised under high-density conditions. Previous studies have reported that vitamin C or electrolyte supplementation could palliate the effects of heat stress in broiler chickens. The present study evaluated the effect of a mineral and vitamin mix (AHS) added to drinking water on the performance of broiler chickens. In total, 1,824 one-day-old birds were randomly allocated to 48 pens. Maximum animal density was 26.5 kg/m2. The control group received no additive; AHS-1 and -2 groups received the AHS mix at a concentration of 1 and 2 kg/1,000 L in drinking water, respectively; and the Vit-C group received vitamin C in drinking water at 200 g/1,000 L. All birds were fed the same diets based on a 3-phase feeding program; feed and water were given on ad libitum basis. To mimic heat stress conditions, temperature in the barn was raised to 35 C from 08:00 to 14:00 h each day. For the overall growing period (0 to 35 D), adding AHS to drinking water increased final BW, ADG, and ADFI linearly (PLinear < 0.05); FCR was decreased linearly with AHS supplementation (PLinear < 0.05). Final BW, ADG, and FCR for the Vit-C group were intermediate between AHS-2 and the control groups (P > 0.10). No significant effect on mortality were found (8.77%; P > 0.10). Relative to control, all the treatments tested reduced (P < 0.05) corticosterone concentration in blood serum. In conclusion, the combined use of supplementary levels of minerals and vitamins could alleviate the effects of heat stress on broilers chickens.

    Randomized Controlled Trial of Exercise and Nutrition Supplementation on Physical and Cognitive Function in Older Chinese Adults Aged 50 Years and Older
    Woo, Jean ; Chan, Ruth ; Ong, Sherlin ; Bragt, Marjolijn ; Bos, Rolf ; Parikh, Panam ; Groot, Lisette C.P.G.M. de - \ 2020
    Journal of the American Medical Directors Association 21 (2020)3. - ISSN 1525-8610 - p. 395 - 403.
    cognitive function - Exercise - nutrition - older adults - physical performance - self-rated health

    Objectives: To assess whether a 24-week multidomain lifestyle intervention including a nutritional milk supplement and an exercise program had any effect on physical and cognitive function, self-rated health, and health-related quality of life in older Chinese adults. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting and participants: Community-living people aged 50 years and older. Methods: 180 participants (mean age 61 ± 6 years) were randomized to 24 weeks of exercise plus nutrition supplementation or no intervention. The primary outcome was gait speed, with additional physical and cognitive function measures, self-rated health, and health-related quality of life as secondary outcomes. Information collected also included dietary intake by 3-day dietary records, and blood sampling for renal function, glycated hemoglobin, serum vitamin B12, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and biochemical indices of bone turnover. Results: There was no significant group difference in the change of gait speed, muscle strength, muscle power, cardiovascular fitness, or cognitive function over time, either by intention-to-treat or per-protocol analysis. A significant time × group effect (P = .039) on self-rated health was detected, but there was no significant time or time × group difference in the change of physical and mental health-related quality of life measures over time. In addition, moderate physical activity level was greatly increased from baseline to 24 weeks in the intervention group compared with the control group. Conclusions and implications: A 24-week exercise and nutrition supplementation program among community-living people in late midlife to early old age improved self-rated health and the overall level of physical activity, without objective improvements in physical and cognitive function.

    Infrastructure for Innovative Research on Healthy Food Choice, Preparation and Consumption: A Position Paper on the RICHFIELDS project
    Seljak, Barbara Korousic ; Poppe, Krijn ; Finglas, Paul ; Timotijevic, Lada ; Veer, Pieter van 't; Zimmerman, Karin - \ 2019
    In: Proceedings - 2019 IEEE International Conference on Big Data, Big Data 2019. - Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. (Proceedings - 2019 IEEE International Conference on Big Data, Big Data 2019 ) - ISBN 9781728108582 - p. 5183 - 5185.
    consumer - data - food choice - interoperability - nutrition

    This paper presents the recently finished EU-funded RICHFIELDS project aimed to design a new research infrastructure that would foster research in the areas of food and nutrition with a focus on consumers' behavior and lifestyle. In this project, an architecture of a new consumer data platform was designed and discussed from the researchers, business, management, ethical and legal points of view. Also new methodology for supporting big and open data standardization and interoperability was developed.

    Testing the Various Pathways Linking Forest Cover to Dietary Diversity in Tropical Landscapes
    Baudron, Frédéric ; Tomscha, Stephanie A. ; Powell, Bronwen ; Groot, Jeroen C.J. ; Gergel, Sarah E. ; Sunderland, Terry - \ 2019
    Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems 3 (2019). - ISSN 2571-581X
    ecosystem services - hidden hunger - multifunctional landscapes - nutrition - structural equation modeling

    A diverse diet is important to address micronutrient deficiencies and other forms of malnutrition, one of the greatest challenges of today's food systems. In tropical countries, several studies have found a positive association between forest cover and dietary diversity, although the actual mechanisms of this has yet to be identified and quantified. Three complementary pathways may link forests to diets: a direct pathway (e.g., consumption of forest food), an income pathway (income from forest products used to purchase food from markets), and an agroecological pathway (forests and trees sustaining farm production). We used piece-wise structural equation modeling to test and quantify the relative contribution of these three pathways for households in seven tropical landscapes in Bangladesh, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Ethiopia, Indonesia, Nicaragua, and Zambia. We used survey data from 1,783 households and determined forest cover within a 2-km radius of each household. The quality of household diets was assessed through four indicators: household dietary diversity and consumption of fruits, vegetables, and meat, based on a 24-h recall. We found evidence of a direct pathway in four landscapes (Bangladesh, Cameroon, Ethiopia, and Zambia), an income pathway in none of the landscapes considered, and an agroecological pathway in three landscapes (Bangladesh, Ethiopia, and Indonesia). We also found evidence of improved crop and livestock production with greater forest cover in five landscapes (Bangladesh, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Ethiopia, and Indonesia). Conversely, we found negative associations between forest cover and crop and livestock production in three landscapes (Cameroon, Indonesia, and Zambia). In addition, we found evidence of forest cover being negatively related to at least one indicator of diet quality in three landscapes (Indonesia, Nicaragua, and Zambia) and to integration to the cash economy in three landscapes (Cameroon, Ethiopia, and Nicaragua). This is one of the first studies to quantify the different mechanisms linking forest cover and diet. Our work illuminates the fact that these mechanisms can vary significantly from one site to another, calling for site-specific interventions. Our results also suggest that the positive contributions of forests to rural livelihoods cannot be generalized and should not be idealized.

    The Mediterranean, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH), and Mediterranean-DASH Intervention for Neurodegenerative Delay (MIND) Diets Are Associated with Less Cognitive Decline and a Lower Risk of Alzheimer's Disease-A Review
    Brink, Annelien C. van den; Brouwer-Brolsma, Elske M. ; Berendsen, Agnes A.M. ; Rest, Ondine van de - \ 2019
    Advances in Nutrition 10 (2019)6. - ISSN 2161-8313 - p. 1040 - 1065.
    Alzheimer's disease - cognition - cognitive decline - DASH - dementia - dietary components - dietary patterns - Mediterranean - MIND - nutrition

    As there is currently no cure for dementia, there is an urgent need for preventive strategies. The current review provides an overview of the existing evidence examining the associations of the Mediterranean, Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH), and Mediterranean-DASH Intervention for Neurodegenerative Delay (MIND) diets and their dietary components with cognitive decline, dementia, and Alzheimer's disease (AD). A systematic search was conducted within Ovid Medline for studies published up to 27 March 2019 and reference lists from existing reviews and select articles were examined to supplement the electronic search results. In total, 56 articles were included. Higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with better cognitive scores in 9 of 12 cross-sectional studies, 17 of 25 longitudinal studies, and 1 of 3 trials. Higher adherence to the DASH diet was associated with better cognitive function in 1 cross-sectional study, 2 of 5 longitudinal studies, and 1 trial. Higher adherence to the MIND diet was associated with better cognitive scores in 1 cross-sectional study and 2 of 3 longitudinal studies. Evidence on the association of these dietary patterns with dementia in general was limited. However, higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with a lower risk of AD in 1 case-control study and 6 of 8 longitudinal studies. Moreover, higher adherence to the DASH or MIND diets was associated with a lower AD risk in 1 longitudinal study. With respect to the components of these dietary patterns, olive oil may be associated with less cognitive decline. In conclusion, current scientific evidence suggests that higher adherence to the Mediterranean, DASH, or MIND diets is associated with less cognitive decline and a lower risk of AD, where the strongest associations are observed for the MIND diet.

    Determining Key Research Areas for Healthier Diets and Sustainable Food Systems in Viet Nam
    Raneri, Jessica E. ; Kennedy, Gina ; Nguyen, Trang ; Wertheim-Heck, S.C.O. ; Haan, Stef de; Do, Ha Thi Phuong ; Nguyen, Phuong Hong ; Thi, Huong Le ; Mai, Truong Tuyet ; Duong, Thi Thanh Thuy ; Hung, Nguyen ; Nguyen, Tuan ; Huynh, Tuyen ; Nodari, Gulia Rota ; Spellman, Olga ; Talsma, Elise F. ; Stoian, Dietmar ; Duong, Minh-Cam ; Tran, Lam Nguyen ; Bene, Christophe - \ 2019
    IFPRI (IFPRI Discussion Paper 1872) - 127 p.
    food systems - diet - nutrition - agriculture
    Vietnamese food systems are undergoing rapid transformation, with important implications for human and environmental health and economic development. Poverty has decreased, and diet quality and under-nutrition have improved significantly since the end of the Doi Moi reform period (1986-1993) as a result of Viet Nam opening its economy and increasing its regional and global trade. Yet poor diet quality is still contributing the triple burden of malnutrition, with 25 percent stunting among children under age 5, 26 percent and 29 percent of women and children, respectively, anemic, and 21 percent of adults overweight. Agricultural production systems have shifted from predominantly diverse smallholder systems to larger more commercialized and specialized systems, especially for crops, while the ‘meatification’ of the Vietnamese diet is generating serious trade-offs between improved nutrition and sustainability of the Vietnamese food systems. The food processing industry has developed rapidly, together with food imports, resulting in new and processed food products penetrating the food retail outlets, trending towards an increase in the Westernized consumption patterns that are shifting nutrition-related problems towards overweight and obesity and, with it, an increase of non-communicable disease-related health risks. While regulatory policies exist across the food system, these are not systematically implemented, making food safety a major concern for consumers and policy makers alike. Where data exists, it is not easy to aggregate with data from across food system dimensions, making it difficult for Viet Nam to make an informed analysis of current and potential food system trade-offs. In our research, we reviewed existing literature and data, and applied a food systems framework to develop an initial food systems profile for Viet Nam and to identify a comprehensive set a of research questions to fill current data gaps identified through the review. Insights on these would provide the comprehensive evidence needed to inform policy makers on how to develop new food systems policies for Viet Nam, and further refine and improve existing policies to achieve better quality diets and more sustainable food systems in Viet Nam. Based on these, we then engaged with stakeholders to develop research priorities in the Viet Nam context and identified 25 priority research questions. This paper aims to stimulate such reflections by clearly outlining key areas for research, government policy, and development programs on priority investment to build the evidence base around inclusive food systems interventions that aim to result in healthier diets and more sustainable food systems for Viet Nam.
    Entomophagy: Nutritional, ecological, safety and legislation aspects
    Raheem, Dele ; Raposo, António ; Oluwole, Oluwatoyin Bolanle ; Nieuwland, Maaike ; Saraiva, Ariana ; Carrascosa, Conrado - \ 2019
    Food Research International 126 (2019). - ISSN 0963-9969
    ecology - edible insects - food legislation - food safety - food security - nutrition - sustainability

    Globally, there is a need to seek alternative sources of protein in addition to meat. This has led to considerable interest in edible insects. Such insects form part of cultures and diets in many Asian and African countries, and are an excellent source of essential nutrients, minerals, vitamins and proteins. Furthermore, they have been reported to be sustainable. The ecological importance of insects is related to their short life cycles when reared and farmed. This makes them ideal in mitigating greenhouse gas emissions, cutting land uses and polluted water, and reducing environmental contamination. However, the use of edible insects as food in Europe is minimal. To ensure safety of insects when eaten as food, considerations should be made on: microbiological contamination; toxicological hazards, e.g. chemical hazards and antinutrients; allergenicity issues that are related to different exposures, including injection, ingestion, inhalation and skin contact. In this review, we summarize the nutritional and sustainable values of edible insects, look at safety and legislative measures and we finally discuss future issues.

    Dietary Patterns Are Related to Clinical Characteristics in Memory Clinic Patients with Subjective Cognitive Decline: The SCIENCe Project
    Wesselman, Linda M.P. ; Doorduijn, Astrid S. ; Leeuw, Francisca A. de; Verfaillie, Sander C.J. ; Leeuwenstijn-Koopman, Mardou van; Slot, Rosalinde E.R. ; Kester, Maartje I. ; Prins, Niels D. ; Rest, Ondine van de; Schueren, Marian A.E. van der; Scheltens, Philip ; Sikkes, Sietske A.M. ; Flier, Wiesje M. van der - \ 2019
    Nutrients 11 (2019)5. - ISSN 2072-6643 - 10 p.
    Alzheimer’s disease - cognition - memory clinic - nutrition - prevention - subjective cognitive decline

    As nutrition is one of the modifiable risk factors for cognitive decline, we studied the relationship between dietary quality and clinical characteristics in cognitively normal individuals with subjective cognitive decline (SCD). We included 165 SCD subjects (age: 64 ± 8 years; 45% female) from the SCIENCe project, a prospective memory clinic based cohort study on SCD. The Dutch Healthy Diet Food Frequency Questionnaire (DHD-FFQ) was used to assess adherence to Dutch guidelines on vegetable, fruit, fibers, fish, saturated fat, trans fatty acids, salt and alcohol intake (item score 0-10, higher score indicating better adherence). We measured global cognition (Mini Mental State Examination), cognitive complaints (Cognitive Change Index self-report; CCI) and depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale; CES-D). Using principal component analysis, we identified dietary components and investigated their relation to clinical characteristics using linear regression models adjusted for age, sex and education. We identified three dietary patterns: (i) "low-Fat-low-Salt", (ii) "high-Veggy", and (iii) "low-Alcohol-low-Fish". Individuals with lower adherence on "low-Fat-low-Salt" had more depressive symptoms (β -0.18 (-2.27--0.16)). Higher adherence to "high-Veggy" was associated with higher MMSE scores (β 0.30 (0.21-0.64)). No associations were found with the low-Alcohol-low-Fish component. We showed that in SCD subjects, dietary quality was related to clinically relevant outcomes. These findings could be useful to identify individuals that might benefit most from nutritional prevention strategies to optimize brain health.

    Human Milk Short-Chain Fatty Acid Composition is Associated with Adiposity Outcomes in Infants
    Prentice, Philippa M. ; Schoemaker, Marieke H. ; Vervoort, Jacques ; Hettinga, Kasper ; Lambers, Tim T. ; Tol, Eric A.F. van; Acerini, Carlo L. ; Olga, Laurentya ; Petry, Clive J. ; Hughes, Ieuan A. ; Koulman, Albert ; Ong, Ken K. ; Dunger, David B. - \ 2019
    The Journal of Nutrition 149 (2019)5. - ISSN 0022-3166 - p. 716 - 722.
    breast milk - growth - lipids - nutrition - short chain fatty acids - weight

    BACKGROUND: Presumed benefits of human milk (HM) in avoiding rapid infancy weight gain and later obesity could relate to its nutrient composition. However, data on breast milk composition and its relation with growth are sparse. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), known to be present in HM and linked to energy metabolism, are associated with infancy anthropometrics. METHODS: In a prospective birth cohort, HM hindmilk samples were collected from 619 lactating mothers at 4-8 wk postnatally [median (IQR) age: 33.9 (31.3-36.5) y, body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2): 22.8 (20.9-25.2)]. Their offspring, born at 40.1 (39.1-41.0) wk gestation with weight 3.56 (3.22-3.87) kg and 51% male, were assessed with measurement of weight, length, and skinfold thickness at ages 3, 12, and 24 mo, and transformed to age- and sex-adjusted z scores. HM SCFAs were measured by 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and GC-MS. Multivariable linear regression models were conducted to analyze the relations between NMR HM SCFAs and infancy growth parameters with adjustment for potential confounders. RESULTS: NMR peaks for HM butyrate, acetate, and formic acid, but not propionate, were detected. Butyrate peaks were 17.8% higher in HM from exclusively breastfeeding mothers than mixed-feeding mothers (P = 0.003). HM butyrate peak values were negatively associated with changes in infant weight (standardized B = -0.10, P = 0.019) and BMI (B = -0.10, P = 0.018) between 3 and 12 mo, and negatively associated with BMI (B = -0.10, P = 0.018) and mean skinfold thickness (B = -0.10, P = 0.049) at age 12 mo. HM formic acid peak values showed a consistent negative association with infant BMI at all time points (B < = -0.10, P < = 0.014), whereas HM acetate was negatively associated with skinfold thickness at 3 mo (B = -0.10, P = 0.028) and 24 mo (B = -0.10, P = 0.036). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that HM SCFAs play a beneficial role in weight gain and adiposity during infancy. Further knowledge of HM SCFA function may inform future strategies to support healthy growth.

    Poultry husbandry, water, sanitation, and hygiene practices, and child anthropometry in rural Burkina Faso
    Gelli, Aulo ; Headey, Derek ; Becquey, Elodie ; Ganaba, Rasmane ; Huybregts, Lieven ; Pedehombga, Abdoulaye ; Santacroce, Marco ; Verhoef, Hans - \ 2019
    Maternal and Child Nutrition 15 (2019)4. - ISSN 1740-8695
    hygiene - nutrition - poultry

    Poultry production in low income countries provides households with nutrient-rich meat and egg products, as well as cash income. However, traditional production systems present potential health and nutrition risks because poultry scavenging around household compounds may increase children's exposure to livestock-related pathogens. Data from a cross-sectional survey were analysed to examine associations between poultry, water, sanitation, and hygiene practices, and anthropometric indicators in children (6–59 months; n = 3,230) in Burkina Faso. Multilevel regression was used to account for the hierarchical nature of the data. The prevalence of stunting and wasting in children 6–24 months was 19% and 17%, respectively, compared with a prevalence of 26% and 6%, respectively, in children 25–60 months. Over 90% of households owned poultry, and chicken faeces were visible in 70% of compounds. Caregivers reported that 3% of children consumed eggs during a 24-hr recall. The presence of poultry faeces was associated with poultry flock size, poultry-husbandry and household hygiene practices. Having an improved water source and a child visibly clean was associated with higher height-for-age z scores (HAZ). The presence of chicken faeces was associated with lower weight-for-height z scores, and no associations were found with HAZ. Low levels of poultry flock size and poultry consumption in Burkina Faso suggest there is scope to expand production and improve diets in children, including increasing chicken and egg consumption. However, to minimize potential child health risks associated with expanding informal poultry production, research is required to understand the mechanisms through which cohabitation with poultry adversely affects child health and design interventions to minimize these risks.

    Food Aid for Nutrition: Narrative Review of Major Research Topics Presented at a Scientific Symposium Held October 21, 2017, at the 21st International Congress of Nutrition in Buenos Aires, Argentina
    Caiafa, Kristine ; Dewey, Kathryn G. ; Michaelsen, Kim F. ; Pee, Saskia de; Collins, Steve ; Rogers, Beatrice Lorge ; El-Kour, Tatyana ; Walton, Shelley ; Webb, Patrick - \ 2019
    Food and Nutrition Bulletin 40 (2019)1. - ISSN 0379-5721 - p. 111 - 123.
    cost-effectiveness - evidence - food aid - global health - nutrition - public health

    Background: Food aid is a valuable tool for meeting global nutrition goals, particularly for vulnerable populations of children and reproductive-aged women. On October 21, 2017, the Food Aid Quality Review Project hosted a scientific symposium at the 21st International Congress on Nutrition in Buenos Aires, Argentina, to take stock of what the global community has learned about selected topics in the research literature on food aid used to address malnutrition. Objective: This article presents the discussion that took place during the symposium, which was guided by presentations by 6 experts from the field of nutrition, food aid, and humanitarian response. Conclusion: The recent upsurge in research on food aid has advanced the collective knowledge of what food aid products and programs work for addressing nutrition, but there is much more to learn. Presentations in this symposium called for further inquiry on (1) different and novel food aid formulations, (2) the cost-effectiveness of products and programs, and (3) market-based approaches to food assistance. Continuing to expand the evidence base on these topics is critical to improving global nutrition programs.

    Understanding urban consumers' food choice beavior in Ethiopia: Promoting demand for healthy foods
    Melesse, M.B. ; Berg, M.M. van den; Brauw, Alan de; Abate, Gashaw T. - \ 2019
    Washington DC : International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) (Strategy Support Program, Working Paper 131 ) - 33 p.
    nutrition - health - food prices - food security - trade - gender
    Using survey data collected from 996 representative households in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, this paper documents several insights to help understand urban consumer food purchasing and consumption choices. The findings can be summarized as follows: 1) We find that households face important dietary gaps; a large proportion eats insufficient amounts of nutrient-dense vegetables, animal-source foods, and fruits. 2) The consumption of ultra-processed foods increases with income and may become a pressing health concern as incomes rise. 3) From a purchasing perspective, we find that consumers buy foods for different purposes at different outlets. Nearby kiosks and informal street markets are frequented for small food items and for fruits and vegetables, while formal open markets and consumer cooperatives are used for bulky food items. 4) Respondents make food and food outlet choices based on their health and food safety concerns, but few consider the nutritional value of food when purchasing it. Concurrently, the availability of a wide variety of healthy and safe foods is highly valued by most respondents for outlet choice. Among consumers in lower income categories, they tend to make food and food outlet choices based on prices and location convenience. 5) Although nutrition is not a primary concern when making choices about food, consumers appear to have reasonable nutritional knowledge. Most respondents considered a healthy diet to be primarily plant-based. Most people are aware that they should eat more fruits and vegetables and less sugary, fatty, and salty foods, but they have limited knowledge on the nutrient content of specific foods and the causes of obesity. 6) Labelling would not be an effective way to increase nutritional knowledge; most respondents have limited understanding of the information that labels provide. Rather, most respondents trust the information provided by health professionals over other sources. In sum, these results are potentially relevant for policy and the design of future programs for improving nutritional outcomes through enhanced diets.
    Effects of dietary protein and carbohydrate on life-history traits and body protein and fat contents of the black soldier fly Hermetia illucens
    Barragan-Fonseca, Karol B. ; Gort, Gerrit ; Dicke, Marcel ; Loon, Joop J.A. van - \ 2019
    Physiological Entomology 44 (2019)2. - ISSN 0307-6962 - p. 148 - 159.
    Body nutrient composition - fecundity - food quality - larval performance - macronutrients - nutrition

    We investigate how the black soldier fly Hermetia illucens L. (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) responds to dietary protein (P) and carbohydrate (C) contents and the P:C ratio in terms of both immature and adult life-history traits, as well as effects on larval body composition. Nine chicken-feed based diets varying in their P:C ratio are formulated. We test three protein concentrations (10%, 17% and 24%) and three carbohydrate concentrations (35%, 45% and 55%) and their combinations. All nine diets support the complete development and reproduction of this species. Survival is high on all diets. Development time, larval yield, larval crude fat and egg yield are more influenced by P and C contents than by the P:C ratio. Low contents result in a shorter development time. Larval yield is higher on diets with higher C-contents. Pupal development is faster on a low dietary P-content for all three C-contents. Egg yield only increases when P-content increases, although it also varies with the P:C ratio. Larval crude protein content is similar on all nine diets but increases when C-content is low (10%) in P10 and P17. Larval crude fat content is high at P24-diets irrespective of C-content. We conclude that a high macronutrient content combined with a low P:C ratio positively affects H. illucens performance. The diet P17:C55 supports the highest larval and adult performance and results in a high larval body protein content and an intermediate crude fat content.

    Dose, timing, and source of protein intake of young people with spastic cerebral palsy
    Anker–van der Wel, Ieke ; Smorenburg, Ana R.P. ; Roos, Nicole M. de; Verschuren, Olaf - \ 2019
    Disability & Rehabilitation (2019). - ISSN 0963-8288 - 6 p.
    Cerebral palsy - children - disability - muscle - nutrition - protein intake

    Purpose: Since the dose, timing and source of dietary protein intake are important for muscle growth and development, the aim of this study was to examine the dose, timing and source of protein intake of young people with cerebral palsy. Materials and methods: Dietary intake was assessed in 19 children with spastic cerebral palsy (Gross Motor Function Classification System levels I–V; Eating and Drinking Classification System levels I–V; 10 males, 9 females; mean [SD] age 11 years 2 months [3 years 3 months]) using a 3-day food diary. The data were analyzed for three age categories (4–8, 9–13, and 14–17 years). Results: Average 3-day protein intake (62.1 g [27.9 g]) was within the recommended boundaries with a minimum of 1.0 g/kg body weight/day and a maximum of 4.1 g/kg body weight/day. However, dinner was the only mealtime that provided at least 25 g of protein, which is needed for optimal muscle maintenance. The main food groups that contributed to protein intake were ‘milk and milk products’, ‘meat, meat products and poultry’, and ‘bread’. Conclusions: These observations suggest timing of protein intake can be improved with higher intakes during breakfast and lunch to better support skeletal muscle growth and development.IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATION Recent studies have shown that smaller muscles and early atrophy are already present at young age in individuals with cerebral palsy. Besides physical training, adequate protein intake (with optimal dose, timing and source of protein) may be a key factor in the prevention and treatment of loss of muscle mass in children with cerebral palsy. In a relatively small sample this study shows that overall protein intake (dose) was in line with recommendations and also that the source of the protein seemed sufficient to contain all essential amino acids. Improvement of the timing of protein intake throughout the day, with higher intakes during breakfast and lunch, seems important to better support skeletal muscle growth and development.

    Nutrition-sensitive agriculture interventions in mountain areas-Lessons learned from a 5-country project to upscale best practices
    Bernet, Thomas ; Kurbanalieva, Shakhnoza ; Pittore, Katherine ; Zilly, Barbara ; Luttikholt, Louise ; Eyhorn, Frank ; Batlogg, Verena ; Arbenz, Markus - \ 2018
    Mountain Research and Development 38 (2018)4. - ISSN 0276-4741 - p. 278 - 287.
    Ethiopia - Kyrgyzstan - Mountain agriculture - Nepal - nutrition - Pakistan - Peru - rural development policy

    Many people living in mountain regions in lowand middle-income countries are vulnerable to food and nutrition insecurity, which contributes to poor nutritional status. Food and nutrition security require stability of access to affordable, safe, diverse, and nutritious foods. In mountainous areas, affordability and access to diverse foods are challenged by climatic factors constraining agricultural production, poor infrastructure, and geographic isolation. This article describes a nutrition-sensitive agriculture (NSA) project focusing on 5 countries-Ethiopia, Kyrgyzstan, Nepal, Pakistan, and Peru-where 132 microinterventions were implemented by rural service providers (RSPs) who received training and technical support from the project. These microinterventions serve as learning cases for advocacy work to promote the NSA approach at the local, national, and global levels. They are also documented on an Internet platform allowing RSPs and other stakeholders to share best practices and lessons learned at the national and global levels. Preliminary results indicate that this approach is highly effective in addressing nutrition and livelihood issues in remote mountain areas. To scale up the approach and boost its integration into policies at the local, national, and global levels, 2 aspects will be critical. First, more systemic and integrated NSA initiatives need to be implemented that functionally combine production- A nd consumption-related aspects to effectively change nutrition behavior and serve as learning cases for scaling up. Second, effective capacity development of RSPs and encouragement of interaction among them is key to empowering them as change agents.

    Towards integrated government action? Assessing nutrition policy integration in Uganda
    Namugumya, Brenda ; Candel, J.J.L. ; Talsma, E.F. ; Termeer, C.J.A.M. - \ 2018
    nutrition - Policy integration - integrated nutrition strategies - Uganda - governance
    To tackle malnutrition more effectively, Sub-Saharan African governments have developed overarching, integrative policy strategies over the past decade. Despite their popularity, little is known about their follow-up and ultimately their success (or failure). Consequently, tracking the progress of such political commitment has gained global importance. Various studies provide insights into changes in nutrition-related policies. Nevertheless, it is generally acknowledged that we have limited understanding of how nutrition concerns are explicitly addressed in policies of different ministries. This study uses a novel policy integration perspective to investigate the extent to which eight ministries in Uganda integrated nutrition concerns across their policy outputs between 2001 and 2017. The approach used assumes nutrition policy integration is a dynamic process occurring in different policy dimensions. We performed a qualitative content analysis to assess 103 policy outputs for changes in subsystems involved, policy goals, and instruments used. Overall, we found a shift towards increased integrated government action on nutrition over time. The 2011–2015 analysis period was a critical juncture where increased integration of nutrition was observed in all policy integration dimensions across all ministries. However, considerable variations in actor networks, goals, and instruments exist across sectors and over time. The sustainability of nutrition integration efforts remains contentious, because of which continuous monitoring will be essential.

    Direct and Long-Term Metabolic Consequences of Lowly vs. Highly-Digestible Starch in the Early Post-Weaning Diet of Mice
    Fernández-Calleja, José M.S. ; Bouwman, Lianne M.S. ; Swarts, Hans J.M. ; Oosting, Annemarie ; Keijer, Jaap ; Schothorst, Evert M. van - \ 2018
    Nutrients 10 (2018)11. - ISSN 2072-6643
    adipose tissue - amylopectin - amylose - C57BL mice - carbohydrates - glycemic index - indirect calorimetry - metabolic flexibility - nutrition - sexual dimorphism

    Starches of low and high digestibility have different metabolic effects. Here, we examined whether this gives differential metabolic programming when fed in the immediate post-weaning period. Chow-fed mice were time-mated, and their nests were standardized and cross-fostered at postnatal days 1⁻2. After postnatal week (PW) 3, individually housed female and male offspring were switched to a lowly-digestible (LDD) or highly-digestible starch diet (HDD) for three weeks. All of the mice received the same high-fat diet (HFD) for nine weeks thereafter. Energy and substrate metabolism and carbohydrate fermentation were studied at the end of the HDD/LDD and HFD periods by extended indirect calorimetry. Glucose tolerance (PW 11) and metabolic flexibility (PW14) were analyzed. Directly in response to the LDD versus the HDD, females showed smaller adipocytes with less crown-like structures in gonadal white adipose tissue, while males had a lower fat mass and higher whole body fat oxidation levels. Both LDD-fed females and males showed an enlarged intestinal tract. Although most of the phenotypical differences disappeared in adulthood in both sexes, females exposed to LDD versus HDD in the early post-weaning period showed improved metabolic flexibility in adulthood. Cumulatively, these results suggest that the type of starch introduced after weaning could, at least in females, program later-life health.

    Nutrimetabolomics: An Integrative Action for Metabolomic Analyses in Human Nutritional Studies
    Ulaszewska, Marynka M. ; Weinert, Christoph H. ; Trimigno, Alessia ; Portmann, Reto ; Andres Lacueva, Cristina ; Badertscher, René ; Brennan, Lorraine ; Brunius, Carl ; Bub, Achim ; Capozzi, Francesco ; Cialiè Rosso, Marta ; Cordero, Chiara E. ; Daniel, Hannelore ; Durand, Stéphanie ; Egert, Bjoern ; Ferrario, Paola G. ; Feskens, Edith J.M. ; Franceschi, Pietro ; Garcia-Aloy, Mar ; Giacomoni, Franck ; Giesbertz, Pieter ; González-Domínguez, Raúl ; Hanhineva, Kati ; Hemeryck, Lieselot Y. ; Kopka, Joachim ; Kulling, Sabine E. ; Llorach, Rafael ; Manach, Claudine ; Mattivi, Fulvio ; Migné, Carole ; Münger, Linda H. ; Ott, Beate ; Picone, Gianfranco ; Pimentel, Grégory ; Pujos-Guillot, Estelle ; Riccadonna, Samantha ; Rist, Manuela J. ; Rombouts, Caroline ; Rubert, Josep ; Skurk, Thomas ; Sri Harsha, Pedapati S.C. ; Meulebroek, Lieven Van; Vanhaecke, Lynn ; Vázquez-Fresno, Rosa ; Wishart, David ; Vergères, Guy - \ 2018
    Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 63 (2018)1. - ISSN 1613-4125
    GC–MS - LC–MS - metabolomics - NMR - nutrition
    The life sciences are currently being transformed by an unprecedented wave of developments in molecular analysis, which include important advances in instrumental analysis as well as biocomputing. In light of the central role played by metabolism in nutrition, metabolomics is rapidly being established as a key analytical tool in human nutritional studies. Consequently, an increasing number of nutritionists integrate metabolomics into their study designs. Within this dynamic landscape, the potential of nutritional metabolomics (nutrimetabolomics) to be translated into a science, which can impact on health policies, still needs to be realized. A key element to reach this goal is the ability of the research community to join, to collectively make the best use of the potential offered by nutritional metabolomics. This article, therefore, provides a methodological description of nutritional metabolomics that reflects on the state-of-the-art techniques used in the laboratories of the Food Biomarker Alliance (funded by the European Joint Programming Initiative “A Healthy Diet for a Healthy Life” (JPI HDHL)) as well as points of reflections to harmonize this field. It is not intended to be exhaustive but rather to present a pragmatic guidance on metabolomic methodologies, providing readers with useful “tips and tricks” along the analytical workflow.
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