Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Mardik Leopold: Whale strandings - Are we to blame?
    Leopold, M.F. - \ 2018
    oceans - whales
    Detmer Sipkema - Are sponges full of bacteria?
    Sipkema, D. - \ 2017
    luffa acutangula - bacteria - oceans
    Marine complex adaptive systems : theory, legislation and management practices
    Bigagli, Emanuele - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Arnold Bregt, co-promotor(en): M. Craglia. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431255 - 160
    marine areas - marine environment - adaptation - environmental management - oceans - climate - environmental legislation - global warming - climatic change - mariene gebieden - marien milieu - adaptatie - milieubeheer - oceanen - klimaat - milieuwetgeving - opwarming van de aarde - klimaatverandering

    Anthropogenic and climate-related stressors challenge the health of nearly every part of the global oceans. They affect the capacity of oceans to regulate global weather and climate, as well as ocean productivity and food services, and result in the loss or degradation of marine habitats and biodiversity. Moreover, they have a negative impact on maritime economic sectors and on the social welfare of dependent coastal populations. In order to overcome the deficiencies of traditional single-sector management, in the recent decades several scientific approaches emerged, based on the view of marine systems as Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS), i.e. systems where components interact in non-linear, path dependent ways, with lock-in and feedback loop mechanisms, and unpredictable effects also across scales. These approaches have been introduced into the texts of several international agreements related to marine CAS, and related management practices, with contrasting results in relation to effectiveness and integration of governance.

    This thesis evaluates for the first time the current international and European legal frameworks from the perspective of marine CAS. To accomplish this objective, four research objectives are formulated: (1) Develop a framework for marine CAS assessment and management; (2) Evaluate the entire European Union (EU) legal framework against the framework developed; (3) Evaluate the international legal framework for the assessment and management of the global oceans against the framework developed; and (4) Evaluate the implementation of the EU and global legal frameworks into practice.

    Chapter 2 develops a framework for marine CAS, based on the combination of two promising theoretical approaches: Adaptive Management (AM) and Transition Management (TM). The framework is based on the idea that AM and TM have the potential to overcome each other’s limitations, which are related to the insufficient attention to micro-level socio-economic components, and to the limited incorporation of environmental aspects into socio-technical assessments, respectively. More into detail, the proposed framework is articulated into three components. First, the two sets of marine social-ecological systems and connected socio-technical systems (e.g. fisheries, maritime transportation, coastal tourism and energy) must be clearly identified, and the complex interactions and influences between socio-economic patterns of production and consumption, and ecological components must be assessed. Second, the achievement of ecological resilience of a marine social-ecological system should be performed in coordination with transitions of unsustainable connected socio-technical systems. This implies that sustainability should be evaluated in relation to the pressures socio-technical systems generate on the ecological resilience of connected social-ecological systems, and related impacts. Third, the implementation of the two approaches should be articulated into iterative, learning- and science-based policy cycles, with mechanisms to foster coordination between the policy cycles of social-ecological and socio-technical systems. The benefits of this framework are threefold. First, the assessment of the two sets of social-ecological and socio-technical systems, taken together, allows to overcome current AM limitations and include micro-level socio-economic components into the assessment of ecological resilience. Second, by linking AM managers with established transition arenas, it is possible to overcome TM limitations and streamline the consideration of ecological aspects into the TM process. Third, by linking AM and TM policy cycles, it is possible to reduce the current legal and policy fragmentation.

    Chapters 3 and 4 apply the framework proposed in Chapter 2 to evaluate the EU and global legal frameworks for the assessment and management of marine CAS. Chapter 3 presents the first comprehensive review ever realised of the entire EU legal framework, composed of more than 12,000 EU legal acts, from the perspective of marine CAS assessment and management. It concludes that the EU legislation does not provide a fully coherent framework for the assessment and management of EU marine CAS. Although the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD; 2008/56/EC) is a major step towards this purpose, the present research highlights three major limitations: (1) the limited capacity of the MSFD to support the coordination between Member States sharing the same marine region or sub-region; (2) the insufficient characterisation of marine ecological resilience, in particular in relation to socio-economic elements, ecosystem services, human benefits and cross-scale interactions; and (3) the limited capacity of the MSFD to tackle the fragmentation of the EU legal framework and integrate ecological resilience into the objectives of sector-based laws and policies.

    Chapter 4 reviews 500 multilateral agreements, evaluated for the first time from the perspective of marine CAS. It shows that there is no international agreement aiming at the ecological resilience of the global oceans social-ecological system. Instead, the international legal framework is fragmented along two dimensions. On the one side, global agreements focus on specific objectives for determined socio-economic activities, ecological features or anthropogenic pressures. On the other side, regional agreements are in place for 18 ocean regions of the world, with a varying level of inclusion of elements of marine CAS assessment and management. The need is highlighted for a reformed global ocean governance framework, which should be based on a bio-geographical approach to the ecological resilience of the global oceans, and build on iteration, learning, and science-based advice to policy and management.

    Chapter 5 evaluates the implementation of the EU and global legal frameworks into the practice of assessment and management of a case-study area, the Adriatic Sea. It shows the importance of the MSFD as the first policy trying to deliver a CAS approach to marine assessment and management. However, the case-study investigation confirms the three limitations of the MSFD, laying in: 1) an insufficient geographical approach, where implementation is driven at national level and the requirement of cross-border cooperation is weak; 2) the vagueness of legal requirements, and the limited capacity to include socio-economic aspects into the required assessment; and 3) an insufficient capacity to coordinate with other laws, policies and programmes at various levels of governance. Based on the identified limitations, suggestions are advanced on how to strengthen the implementation of the MSFD, both at Adriatic and EU level. These suggestions are further advanced in Chapter 6, which includes detailed proposals on how to foster integrated large-scale marine monitoring in the EU, in order to contribute to the implementation of the MSFD in an efficient and effective way, also in relation to costs.

    Chapter 7 synthesizes the major findings of this thesis and evaluates the capacity of the framework to deliver a CAS approach to marine systems. It concludes that AM and TM, although holding different visions on sustainability and referring to different principles, have the potential to be put in synergy at the practical level. Further scientific research and management practices should focus on the need for AM and TM to overcome the relative isolation and foster synergies across sector-based management, in order to integrate environmental considerations into economic sectors. Suggestions are advanced to improve legal frameworks and policy practices at the global and EU level. They focus on the need: (i) to fill the gaps in the geographical scope of legal texts and to foster international cooperation at the right social-ecological scale; (ii) to increase guidance in translating complex scientific requirements into clear management objectives, and improve related data collection and sharing; and (iii) to reduce current legal and policy fragmentation through targeted, ecological resilience-based marine environmental impact assessments and maritime spatial planning. Lines for further scientific research are suggested, focusing on: (i) improving the evidence-base through additional case-studies; (ii) analysing legal frameworks and governance regimes in place for other marine social-ecological systems, like e.g. the United States of America, Canada, Australia and China; (iii) improving existing tools, or creating new ones for marine ecological resilience assessment; and (iv) developing innovative instruments and mechanisms to strengthen global oceans governance.

    Growth and Innovation in the Ocean Economy : North Sea Checkpoint : Data Adequacy Report – Oil Platform Leak Challenge
    Wal, J.T. van der; Vries, P. de; Tamis, J.E. - \ 2016
    Den Helder : IMARES Wageningen UR (IMARES rapport C095/16) - 67
    oceans - economics - innovations - emergencies - pollution - case studies - oil spills - north sea - oceanen - economie - innovaties - noodgevallen - verontreiniging - gevalsanalyse - olieverontreinigingen - noordzee
    Multi-use platform solutions in the North Sea, Baltic Sea, Atlantic and Adriatic Sea : MERMAID
    Rockmann, C. ; Stuiver, M. ; Burg, S.W.K. van den; Zanuttigh, B. ; Zagonari, Fabio ; Airoldi, L. ; Angelelli, E. ; Suffredini, R. ; Franceschi, G. ; Belloti, G. ; Schouten, Jan Joost ; Soderqvist, T. ; Garcao, R. ; Garcia, R.G. ; Martinez, J. ; Petersen, O.S. ; Ahrensberg, N.A. - \ 2015
    European Union - 109
    oceans - space - offshore - design - stakeholders - environmental policy - oceanen - ruimte - offshore - ontwerp - stakeholders - milieubeleid
    Plastic raakt zoek in de oceaan (interview met Jan Andries van Franeker)
    Kleis, R. ; Franeker, J.A. van - \ 2015
    Resource: weekblad voor Wageningen UR 10 (2015)2. - ISSN 1874-3625 - p. 18 - 19.
    mariene gebieden - microplastics - oceanen - ecotoxicologie - vogels - vergelijkingen - marine areas - microplastics - oceans - ecotoxicology - birds - comparisons
    De plastic eilanden op de oceanen verliezen in hoog tempo .....plastic. Jan Andries van Franeker toont dat aan door plastic vangsten in die eilanden te vergelijken met de maaginhoud van Noordse stormvogels op de Noordzee. Waar al dat plastic blijft, is vooralsnog een raadsel.
    Operational efficiency of ballast water biocides at low water temperatures
    Kaag, N.H.B.M. ; Sneekes, A.C. - \ 2015
    Den Helder : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C052/15) - 22
    transport over water - schepen - waterballast - geïntroduceerde soorten - waterzuivering - oceanen - canada - water transport - ships - water ballasting - introduced species - water treatment - oceans - canada
    In the period 2013-2015 the effect of two biocides used for the treatment of ballast water has been evaluated at low ambient temperatures. Peraclean® Ocean and sodium hypochlorite were used as biocides. Most of the tests were conducted during winter and early spring at the laboratories of IMARES in Den Helder, using outdoor cultures from which phytoplankton and zooplankton (as communities) were collected for the tests. In summer 2013, tests were also conducted at Svalbard in the Arctic using natural zooplankton. Here only Peraclean® Ocean was tested.
    Ocean Acidification: a review of the current status of research and institutional developments
    Beek, I.J.M. van; Dedert, M. - \ 2012
    Den Helder : IMARES (Report / IMARES Wageningen UR C116/12) - 60
    verzuring - mariene gebieden - oceanen - kooldioxide - luchtverontreiniging - acidification - marine areas - oceans - carbon dioxide - air pollution
    Ocean acidification is defined as the change in ocean chemistry driven by the oceanic uptake of chemical inputs to the atmosphere, including carbon, nitrogen and sulphur compounds. Ocean acidification is also referred to as ‘the other CO2 problem’ of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions alongside climate change. Ocean acidification has become a hot topic on the international research agenda, whereby most publications are less than a decade old. Ocean acidification has also become an emerging topic on the international policy agenda. UNESCO supported the first global meeting on ocean acidification in 2004 and in 2007 the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) first recognized ocean acidification in its 4th assessment report as an associated disturbance of climate change caused by increasing CO2 emission. Recommendations to get ocean acidification on the Dutch policy agenda are to focus on important economic activities such as fisheries and aquaculture and on vulnerable habitats such as deltas and coral reefs.
    Joint Program Initiative Healthy and productive seas and oceans
    Rasenberg, M.M.M. - \ 2011
    IJmuiden : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C107/11) - 25
    mariene gebieden - zeeën - oceanen - onderzoek - samenwerking - waterbeheer - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - milieubescherming - europa - nederland - marine areas - seas - oceans - research - cooperation - water management - sustainability - environmental protection - europe - netherlands
    Voor het ministerie van Economische Zaken, Landbouw en Innovatie is onderzoek gedaan naar de kansen die de JPI Healthy and Productive Seas and Oceans (JPI oceans) biedt voor Nederland en hoe Nederland zich zou kunnen opstellen binnen de JPI oceans. Joint programming is een concept dat in juli 2008 door de Europese Commissie (EC) is geïntroduceerd. Joint Programming is een van de vijf initiatieven om het Europese Onderzoeks Gebied (ERA) te implementeren. Een Joint Program Initiatief (JPI) is een vrijwillige overeenkomst tussen lidstaten en eventueel aangesloten derde landen rondom een groot thema. Het heeft als doel het aanpakken van grote maar gemeenschappelijke Europese uitdagingen door middel van het combineren van nationale onderzoeksprogramma’s en nationale onderzoeksmiddelen. Door deze samenwerking kan er beter gebruik gemaakt worden van de nationale en Europese Research & Development gelden. Internationale samenwerking in onderzoek en ontwikkeling is nodig voor verdere ontwikkeling van de zeeën en oceanen en het aanpakken van kennisgaten en uitdagingen. Daarom is in 2010 de JPI Healthy and productive seas and oceans geïntroduceerd. De JPI oceans is de enige JPI die gericht is op het mariene en maritieme gebied. De JPI Healthy and productive seas and oceans heeft zichzelf tot doel gesteld om in 2020 Europa’s middelen en capaciteiten in de mariene en maritieme gebieden op een gecoördineerde wijze te hebben gemobiliseerd, op basis van een geïntegreerde mariene en maritieme strategische onderzoeks- en innovatie agenda (SRIA), om kritische leemten op te vullen en de visie van gezonde en productieve zeeën en oceanen te realiseren. Daarnaast zal de JPI oplossingen aandragen voor grote maatschappelijke uitdagingen, door het Europees en nationaal marien en maritiem onderzoek beter op elkaar af te stemmen (o.a. door standaardisatie van data collectie), door efficiënter gebruik en coördinatie van nationale middelen (o.a. door het uitwisselen van infrastructuur en data en vermijden van dubbel onderzoek) en door het opstellen van een gezamenlijke onderzoeksagenda. De JPI biedt voldoende kansen voor Nederland. De thema’s die geformuleerd zijn door de Task Force hebben veel raakvlakken met de Nederlandse onderzoeksactiviteiten en beleidsvelden. Nederland is een land met een grote maritieme en mariene sector. Door betrokken te zijn bij de JPI kan Nederland zijn kennis op dit vlak vergroten door samenwerking met andere Europese landen en door het uitwisselen van kennis en infrastructuur. Door samenwerking kunnen beleidsuitdagingen aangepakt worden en kennisgaten opgevuld worden. De lidstaten bepalen echter zelf bij welke onderwerpen ze betrokken willen zijn, het principe van variabele geometrie. Het niet willen deelnemen aan deze JPI zou in feite geen optie voor Nederland moeten zijn; bij niet deelname wordt de Europese mariene en maritieme onderzoeksagenda en onderzoekspraktijk, en daarmee die in Nederland, zonder Nederlandse inbreng vorm gegeven. Dit druist in tegen het belang voor Nederland van water, de mariene en maritieme sectoren en met name het toekomstig duurzame gebruik van de kustzone, zeeën en oceanen. Sterker, gegeven deze Nederlandse belangen verdient het aanbeveling te opteren voor een sterk leidende rol in deze JPI. Met name op het gebied van maricultuur, integrale en innovatieve teeltsystemen (bv algen & zeewier) en verduurzaming van visserijpraktijken is Nederland bepalend in het zetten van een innovatieve agenda. Dit onderzoek is uitgevoerd in opdracht van het Ministerie van Economische Zaken, Landbouw & Innovatie. Dit onderzoek is medegefinancierd door IMARES.
    Optimal management of marine resources: spatial planning of multiple uses by multiple actors
    Punt, M.J. - \ 2011
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Ekko van Ierland; J.H. Stel, co-promotor(en): Hans-Peter Weikard. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789461730268 - 168
    economie van natuurlijke hulpbronnen - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - hulpbronnenbeheer - oceanen - marien milieu - ruimtelijke ordening - zeereservaten - windmolens - natural resource economics - natural resources - resource management - oceans - marine environment - physical planning - marine protected areas - windmills

    Ocean space supplies mankind with a multitude of goods and services and yet it is under severe pressure of pollution and over-extraction of resources. To extract goods and services sustainably and to protect vulnerable ecosystems, we need to manage human activities in the marine domain.

    Three essential elements characterize the management of marine resources. First we are dealing with multiple uses. These uses can be conflicting, neutral or complimentary and therefore when we manage one use we should also address the effects on other uses. Second these uses are inherently spatial. Conflicts can at least partly be avoided and complementarities can be improved with careful spatial planning. Therefore we should address the spatial effects of the multiple uses when managing these activities. Third we are dealing with multiple actors. Depending on the spatial scale we look at these actors can be representatives of the several user groups that have conflicting interests, or they can be countries trying to reach agreements over the use of shared resources.

    In this thesis I investigate how Marine Spatial Planning and one of its tools, Marine Protected Areas (MPAs), can assist us with the management of ocean space. These instruments and their associated incentives are highly influenced by the regulatory framework, and this framework in turn depends on the spatial scale. I investigate three scale levels: the local level, defined as the Exclusive Economic Zone of a single country, the regional level, defined as a regional sea that is fully claimed by a number of countries, and the global level defined as the High Seas where all countries have access within the limits of the UN Law of the Sea.

    On the local level I investigate the spatial planning of offshore wind farms with an optimization model that allocates offshore wind farms under ecological constraints. The model results show that space is an essential element to derive an optimal management plan of the EEZ, because the allocation of offshore wind farms is highly dependent on both spatial economic factors such as location costs and ecological restrictions. The results show that Marine Spatial Planning is necessary, because only in this way can possible synergies between e.g. offshore wind farms and environmental protection be identified and eventually realized. The model can assist with the first steps in Marine Spatial Planning of offshore wind farms; its results can be used as a basis for conversation and consultation with stakeholders.

    On the regional scale I investigate how the multiple use nature of MPAs affects the incentives of countries to assign these MPAs. To this end, I develop a game theoretic model in which two specific uses, fisheries and nature conservation, by multiple countries are considered in a strategic framework. The results of the paper suggest that EU marine policy may help to secure the highest possible benefits from these MPAs, but only if policies force countries to cooperate and consider all possible benefits of MPAs. In fact cooperation on a single issue may give a worse outcome than the non-cooperative equilibrium. The results also indicate that cooperation may be hard to achieve because of defector incentives, and therefore policy measures should be strict in enforcing cooperation on all possible uses of MPAs.

    At the same scale level I study how species distributions and different ways of accounting for the contributions of others affects MPA assignment as a tool for biodiversity conservation. With a spatial game theoretic model I investigate three different conservation regimes: full cooperation, strategic non-cooperation, and conservation autarky. Under strategic non-cooperation countries anticipate protection by the other, under conservation autarky they ignore these contributions. The main results show that unique species occurring in a single ecosystem are relatively well protected, even when countries are free-riding. Species that occur in multiple ecosystems on both sides of the border in contrast are under non-cooperation under-protected, compared to full cooperation. This is in part caused by location leakage, i.e. protecting a number of species less because they are protected by others. On the one hand conservation autarky eliminates location leakage and generates larger MPAs at the border. On the other hand these MPA sizes are often too high from a global perspective. From this we can conclude that international conservation efforts should mainly focus on transboundary occurring species. Also, although conservation autarky is not a first-best solution, if it occurs, e.g. through social norms, it is certainly better than strategic non-cooperation.

    At the third level I study the effect of the assignment of internationally recognized MPAs in the High Seas on the formation of Regional Fisheries Management Organisations (RFMO) with a game theoretic model. MPAs are assigned through a weakest-link game: because everyone has to agree on an MPA before it actually can be protected, it can only be as large as the strongest opposing player wants it to be. I find that if countries have equal costs and benefits MPAs of optimal size are implemented but these have no effect on stability of RFMOs; the only stable coalition is the coalition where everyone acts alone. In the case where countries face different fishing costs, MPAs stabilize a number of extra coalitions such that more and larger coalitions are stable when an MPA is present compared to the no MPA case. Full cooperation, however, is not necessarily reached. A general conclusion is therefore that the assignment of MPAs in the High Seas can not only improve the fisheries through direct effects such as insurance and possible increases in catches, but also indirect by contributing in a positive way to the formation of RFMOs.

    Three important conclusions can be drawn from this thesis as a whole. First Marine Spatial Planning and Marine Protected Areas can contribute in a positive way to the management of human activities in ocean space. Second, neither of them is a silver bullet. Both need careful implementation, where all uses are accounted for, and especially the public good aspects of MPAs needs to be addressed. Third the success of MPAs (and as such of Marine Spatial Planning) is not only highly dependent on the incentives and social norms but also on the implementation scale.

    Observation-based estimates of fossil fuel-derived CO2 emissions in the Netherlands using Delta 14C, CO and 222Radon
    Laan, S. van der; Karstens, U. ; Neubert, R.E.M. ; Laan-Luijkx, I.T. van der - \ 2010
    Tellus Series B: Chemical and Physical Meteorology 62 (2010)5. - ISSN 0280-6509 - p. 389 - 402.
    klimaatverandering - kooldioxide - emissie - brandstoffen - schatting - monitoring - nederland - climatic change - carbon dioxide - emission - fuels - estimation - monitoring - netherlands - atmospheric co2 - carbon-dioxide - regional-scale - europe - transport - methane - inversions - (co2)-c-14 - ratios - oceans
    Surface emissions of CO2 from fossil fuel combustion (¿FFCO2) are estimated for the Netherlands for the period of May 2006–June 2009 using ambient atmospheric observations taken at station Lutjewad in the Netherlands (6°21'E, 53°24'N, 1 m. a.s.l.). Measurements of ¿14C on 2-weekly integrations of CO2 and CO mixing ratios are combined to construct a quasi-continuous proxy record (FFCO2*) from which surface fluxes (¿FFCO2*) are determined using the 222Rn flux method. The trajectories of the air masses are analysed to determine emissions, which are representative for the Netherlands. We compared our observationally based estimates to the national inventories and we evaluated our methodology using the regional atmospheric transport model REMO. Based on 3 yr of observations we find annual mean ¿FFCO2* emissions of (4.7 ± 1.6) kt km-2 a-1 which is in very good agreement with the Dutch inventories of (4.5 ± 0.2) kt km-2 a-1 (average of 2006–2008).
    Plastic afvalberg in oceaan
    Lindeboom, H.J. ; Verdaat, J.P. - \ 2008
    Wageningen Marine Research
    kunststoffen - afval - verontreiniging - oceanen - grote oceaan - noordzee - zeedieren - plastics - wastes - pollution - oceans - pacific ocean - north sea - marine animals
    Plastic flessen, tassen, speelgoed, en industrieel afval. Het komt allemaal in zee en onze oceanen terecht en door stroming uiteindelijk naar de Stille Oceaan. Tien jaar geleden werd een afvalberg temidden van de grote wervelstroom ontdekt met een omvang vergelijkbaar als die van Frankrijk en Spanje tezamen. Heel langzaam vergaat het afval tot een plastic brij van miniscuul kleine snippers. Volgens deskundigen van o.a. Wageningen IMARES kunnen er meer van dit soort plekken bestaan in onze oceanen, maar dit is tot op heden nooit onderzocht. Kan zo'n afvalberg ook in de Noordzee ontstaan? Komt het in de magen van dieren als zeevissen, zeezoogdieren en zeevogels? In een Netwerk reportage, uitgezonden op 4 augustus 2008, geven wetenschappers van Wageningen IMARES antwoord op deze vragen.
    Europe's terrestrial biosphere absorbs 7 to 12% of European anthropogenic CO2 emissions
    Janssens, I.A. ; Freibauer, A. ; Ciais, P. ; Smith, P. ; Nabuurs, G.J. ; Folberth, G. ; Schlamadinger, B. ; Hutjes, R.W.A. ; Ceulemans, R. ; Schulze, E.D. ; Valentini, R. ; Dolman, A.J. - \ 2003
    Science (2003)5625. - ISSN 0036-8075 - p. 1538 - 1542.
    carbon-cycle - atmospheric co2 - climate-change - forests - model - land - inversion - transport - balance - oceans
    Most inverse atmospheric models report considerable uptake of carbon dioxide in Europe's terrestrial biosphere. In contrast, carbon stocks in terrestrial ecosystems increase at a much smaller rate, with carbon gains in forests and grassland soils almost being offset by carbon losses from cropland and peat soils. Accounting for non-carbon dioxide carbon transfers that are not detected by the atmospheric models and for carbon dioxide fluxes bypassing the ecosystem carbon stocks considerably reduces the gap between the small carbon-stock changes and the larger carbon dioxide uptake estimated by atmospheric models. The remaining difference could be because of missing components in the stock-change approach, as well as the large uncertainty in both methods. With the use of the corrected atmosphere- and land-based estimates as a dual constraint, we estimate a net carbon sink between 135 and 205 teragrams per year in Europe's terrestrial biosphere, the equivalent of 7 to 12% of the 1995 anthropogenic carbon emissions.
    A new approach for retrieving precipitable water from ATSR2 split-window channel data over land area
    Li Zhao-Liang, ; Jia, L. ; Su, Z. ; Wan Zhengming, ; Zhang Renhua, - \ 2003
    International Journal of Remote Sensing 24 (2003)24. - ISSN 0143-1161 - p. 5095 - 5117.
    avhrr data - radiance measurements - surface temperatures - noaa satellite - solar spectrum - vapor content - tiros-n - absorption - emissivity - oceans
    This paper presents a new algorithm to determine quantitatively column water vapour content ( W ) directly from ATSR2 (Along-Track Scanner Radiometer) Split-Window radiance measurements. First, the Split-Window Covariance-Variance Ratio (SWCVR) method is reviewed. The assumptions made to derive this method are highlighted and its applicability is discussed. Then, an operational use of this method is developed and applied to several ATSR2 datasets. The water vapour contents retrieved using ATSR2 data from SGP'97 (USA), Barrax (Spain) and Cabauw (The Netherlands) are in good agreement with those measured by the quasi-simultaneous radiosonde. The mean and the standard deviation of their difference are 0.04 g cm -2 and 0.22 g cm -2 , respectively. It is shown that water vapour content derived from ATSR2 data using the proposed algorithm is accurate enough in most cases for surface temperature determination with a split-window technique using ATSR2 data and for atmospheric corrections in visible and near-infrared channels of ATSR2.
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