Strong families and declining fertility : a comparative study of family relations and reproductive careers in Soviet Ukraine
Hilevych, Yuliya - \ 2016
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Hilde Bras; Theo Engelen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462579385 - 191
families - demography - family environment - family size - sociology of the family - contraception - ukraine - gezinnen - demografie - gezinsmilieu - gezinsgrootte - gezinssociologie - contraceptie - oekraïne
This dissertation focuses on the role of family and social relationships in individuals’ reproductive careers during the fertility decline in Soviet Ukraine from around 1950 to 1975. These three decades after the Second World War signified the end of the First Demographic Transition in Ukraine and other European republics of the Soviet Union, and some even define the period after the 1960s as the start of a latent depopulation in this part of Europe. However, this fertility decline that had already begun to manifest itself in the early 1920s gained speed within only a few generations as those who were born in families of six siblings in the 1920s and 1930s had only two children themselves in the 1950s, the 1960s and the 1970s.
Previous research has discussed these demographic changes on a macro-level for the Soviet and post-Soviet periods by typically linking these changes to the processes of modernisation and transformation. However, this singular focus on structural changes ignores the fact that relationships between people also adjust to politico-economic changes according to the social and family values that al- ready exist in society. As a result, old and new social (in)equalities, both outside and within the household, (re-) emerge alongside the politico-economic modernisation, which, in tandem, contribute to the formation of different demographic realities on a micro-level and different fertility trends on a macro-level. In this respect, social relationships should be seen as playing an intermediary role in the interplay between the formation of interpersonal inequalities and the politico- economic reality. Because they surround our everyday lives and choices, social relationships form a coherent social structure that helps us to interpret, to under- stand and to adjust to everyday reality, including state legal regulations, political ideology, and economic crises. The primary aim of this dissertation is to study the effects of family relationships and their continuities on changes in reproductive behaviour through a comparative regional perspective in Ukraine during the post-war fertility decline.The role of social relationships in reproductive behaviour is particularly important in the specific context of Ukraine as well as in the broader context of Eastern Europe, where family relationships have provided welfare in critical situations, such as childbearing, childcare and elderly care, both in the past and today. Sim- ilar to Southern Europe, the prevalence of strong family ties in Eastern Europe is also often connected to the high fertility rates in the pre-transitional context and to the rapid fertility decline to the lowest-low level in the 1990s and 2000s. The lowest-low fertility phenomenon is often referred to as a paradox of strong family and low fertility. Moreover, in the context of Ukraine, where regional dif- ferences remain pronounced in many aspects of social life, regional variations in fertility could also be linked to local family values. Considering this, the main research questions that I address in this dissertation are the following: (1) How did family and social relationships influence individual reproductive careers in Soviet Ukraine from around the 1950s to the 1970s? (2) How can local family systems and their associated power dynamics and social interdependencies help to understand fertility decline in Soviet Ukraine? Focusing on these post-war decades is also relevant for our understanding of historical and contemporary fertility decline in this part of Europe because these three decades were significant for the beginning of the Cold War, general liberalisation of the regime and the introduction of some family policies that are still enacted today.
On the theoretical level, I frame the empirical analysis of family and social influences on individual reproductive careers in a broader framework of local con- tinuities in family relationships and values, the so-called family systems. In this respect, individual reproductive careers are studied as processual characteristics of reproductive behaviour and long life experiences and include such life events as marriage, entrance into parenthood, abortion and birth control, and transition to second birth. By social influences I understand the ‘process by which attitudes, values or behaviour of an individual are determined by the attitudes, values or behaviour of others with whom he or she interacts’ (Bernardi, 2003, p. 535). I examine different patterns of social relationships, such as those between spouses, generations, siblings and peers. Based on the social influences stemming from family and social relationships, I try to characterise different power relationships and other social interdependencies underlying these relationships, which I then connect to the context of local family systems.
On the methodological level, this study is based on the analysis of various qual- itative methods, such as in-depth biographical interviews, life history calendars (LHC) and family photographs. The interviews were collected in two Ukrainian borderland cities: Lviv in western Ukraine and Kharkiv in eastern Ukraine. These sites allowed me to compare how family relationships were historically organised in Ukraine and how they actually shaped the informants’ reproductive decisions. This study also uses archival demographic data and secondary ethnographic materials as supplementary sources.
The empirical findings of this dissertation discuss different transitions of individual reproductive careers, namely marriage, entrance into parenthood, birth control and abortion, and transitions to second and later births, all of which I discuss in the context of family and peer relationships. In Soviet Ukraine, the transition to marriage was characterised by strong parental control over men’s and women’s pre-marital practices and sometimes also marital decisions. This strong parental control before marriage was not without consequences, as it seems to have created an imaginary dependency of children on their parents not only be- fore but also after marriage, which I associate with the persistence of paternalistic intergenerational values in family relationships in the two localities.
Similarly, the entrance into parenthood was also surrounded by frequent parental assistance, particularly when a couple tried to postpone their entrance into par- enthood. This pattern was also reinforced by the social learning from peers among the Kharkiv informants and social contagion from siblings(in-law) among the Lviv informants. That said, the actual decision to give birth was connected to the ex- pectations of help with childcare in the future. In this respect, I observed that if after the marriage a couple resided separately from their parents, they would also take greater responsibility for childcare, and grandparental support became an additional and temporary option, as it often was in Lviv. However, when spouses resided with either set of parents, they also tended to rely more on the parents in terms of childcare, which I more often observed in Kharkiv and less in Lviv.
These differences in dynamics of spousal and intergenerational relationships between the two localities became even more pronounced around abortion and birth control decisions and their practices after first birth. Spousal cooperation in birth control decision-making played an important role in how women exercised their agency in these decisions and which birth control methods the couple used and how effectively they used them. In couples where spouses communicated about birth control and abortion decisions, the women had fewer abortions, as was often the case in Lviv. These women did not feel the need to exercise their agency, as the husbands took over the responsibility of both birth control and abortion. When abortion was practiced as a routine method to limit family size, spouses did not communicate about birth control and abortion, as was the case in Kharkiv. In this situation, birth control was the husband’s responsibility and abortion was the wife’s. These women sought abortions to fulfil their own goals and, at the same time, to maintain the dominant patriarchal order in marital relationships as they understood it.
These differences in spousal cooperation with regard to birth control seem to have had direct implications for the transition to second and later births in the two localities. In Lviv, spouses continued to negotiate the timing of second and third births and the childcare arrangements, while still mainly relying on each other in these matters. In doing so, the Lviv informants often adopted a traditional male-breadwinning model, which allowed spouses to share the costs of childcare: husbands were responsible for material costs and wives for the emotional and instrumental costs. However, some women resumed working part-time or worked on jobs with more flexible working schedules after their child’s birth, and then spouses divided the material and instrumental costs of childcare more equally and without a traditional gender bias. In either case, the accumulated costs of childcare were often shared between spouses. This strategy often allowed couples to combine childcare after their first and second/third child, which seems to have been reinforcing for many couples in Lviv to adopt a shorter birth spacing strategy. In Kharkiv, in contrast, the timing of second and later births and childcare were mainly the women’s responsibility. Some continued to rely on grandparental support even after starting to reside separately. However, this support was not always available due to different factors such as the few possibilities for multi- generational co-residence or parental health issues. When women received little intergenerational and spousal support, they tended to delay transition to second birth until they felt more secure. Additionally, women in Kharkiv seem to have learned from each other’s experiences about the benefits of this strategy. As such, the adoption of the waiting strategy seems to have resulted in a more prolonged interval between first and second births, sometimes ten to fifteen years, which in other studies is defined as postponement as opposed to spacing. However, those women who did not meet the deadline for parenthood because they were still feeling too insecure to proceed with another birth never had a second child.
Overall, my findings illustrate that the ways in which family relationships were organised over the life course formulated different responses in the two local- ities to the emerging socio-economic conditions. Subsequently, these differences in responses were reflected in regional reproductive strategies. I suggest that these differences in responses have to do with the intrafamilial dependencies in the two localities: more couple-oriented (horizontal intrafamilial interdependen- cies) in Lviv and generations-oriented (vertical intrafamilial interdependencies) in Kharkiv. I also observe continuity in these two social interdependencies with the historical family systems and the intrafamilial (in)equalities produced within them in the past, namely a mix of nuclear-stem family system in Lviv and a joint family system in Kharkiv. In the early life, strong intergenerational connections characterising both family systems seem to have promoted early and universal entrance into marriage and parenthood in the past and during the Soviet time. Additionally, the Soviet family policy adopted many of these paternalistic and pronatalist values on the level of legal regulations, which meant that this re-productive ideology was reinforced within and outside the family. In later life, however, the intrafamily interdependencies start to differ in the two contexts, and this aspect is crucial to understand regional patterns in fertility decline. During the Soviet time, even though socio-economic constraints created more or less sim- ilar structural uncertainties in the both localities, these structural factors did not equally challenge intrafamilial interdependencies between spouse and generations. Subsequently, these local intrafamilial interdependencies resulted in different re- productive strategies on the micro-level and in their reflection on the macro-level fertility trends.
Altogether, these findings provide a fruitful ground for formulating future hy- potheses to be tested on larger and representative population samples. They also formulate important clues for policy makers by suggesting that a more relativist perspective that incorporates intrafamilial social inequalities and communication strategies is needed to regulate the issues of fertility decline and subsequently the process of population ageing, the latter of which may soon become a vital issue in this part of the world as well.
Setting up international biobased commodity trade chains : a guide and 5 examples in Ukraine
Dam, J.E.G. van; Elbersen, W. ; Ree, R. van; Wubben, E.F.M. - \ 2014
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Report / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research 1477) - ISBN 9789461739926
agro-industriële ketens - ketenmanagement - logistiek - biobased economy - chemie op basis van biologische grondstoffen - productiemogelijkheden - oekraïne - agro-industrial chains - supply chain management - logistics - biobased economy - biobased chemistry - production possibilities - ukraine
Setting up biobased production chains, from biomass feedstock to final biobased product (energy, chemicals, materials) is a complicated process in which a whole range of decisions have to be made. Choices include what feedstocks to use, arranging logistics and most important of all the locating facilities to compact and dewater and convert the biomass into intermediates and final products. Choices depend on the local conditions and factors such as the economy-of-scale of intermediate steps and are complicated by the fact that biomass is produced dispersed ( a low density per area) and is almost by definition bulky, low in energy density and generally contains considerable amounts of water. Also other aspects such as (local and international) market demands, regulations and competing applications for biomass feedstocks are relevant aspects. The objective of this study was to develop an overview of possibilities, choices and trade-offs for production and trading of biobased commodities (e.g. raw materials and biobased chemical “building blocks”) and fuels that may guide project developers and decision makers in the development of business cases.
Switchgrass Ukraine : overview of switchgrass research and guidelines
Elbersen, H.W. ; Kulyk, M. ; Poppens, R.P. ; Lesschen, J.P. ; Kraisvitnii, P. ; Galytska, M. ; Rii, O. ; Roik, M.V. ; Kurylo, V.L. ; Morozov, O.V. ; Smirnykh, V.M. ; Gorobets, A.M. ; Gerasymenko, O.V. - \ 2013
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research - 26
brandstofgewassen - panicum virgatum - biomassa productie - teelt - cultuurmethoden - veldproeven - oekraïne - biobased economy - proeven op proefstations - fuel crops - panicum virgatum - biomass production - cultivation - cultural methods - field tests - ukraine - biobased economy - station tests
Between 2008 and 2013 switchgrass experiments have been conducted in Ukraine which have showed what varieties are locally adapted, how switchgrass can be established, what yields may be expected, what row space should be used, what seeding rate is optimal, etc. In the experiments the Ukrainian experts have gained much experience in establishing switchgrass and in management of switchgrass. This has made it possible to make a description of switchgrass management in Ukraine and to establish with success large fields. Further information is still needed, especially with respect to efficient harvesting on a larger scale and storage and conversion into pellets and conversion to energy.
Market potential of Ukrainian herbaceous biomass : analyzing market obstacles and promoting business strategies
Jamblinne, P. de; Poppens, R.P. ; Elbersen, H.W. ; Schoonewille, W. - \ 2013
Nivelles : Tuzetka - 63
biomassa - marktonderzoek - bio-energie - stro - panicum virgatum - phragmites - export - oekraïne - nederland - biobased economy - biomass - market research - bioenergy - straw - panicum virgatum - phragmites - exports - ukraine - netherlands - biobased economy
The Pellets for Power project, funded by Agentschap NL under the Sustainable Biomass Import program, is defining ways for sustainable biomass production in Ukraine. It is focused on three biomass sources: straw, switchgrass and reed. However, so far commercialization of Ukrainian non-wood biomass has not been successful. This report addresses the obstacles for successful commercialization, as experienced by project partner Tuzetka, focusing on biomass for energy (mostly heating and cooling) conversion.
Reed harvesting from wetlands for bioenergy : technical aspects, sustainability and economic viability of reed harvesting in Ukraine
Sluis, T. van der; Poppens, R.P. ; Kraisvitnii, P. ; Rii, O. ; Lesschen, J.P. ; Galytska, M. ; Elbersen, H.W. - \ 2013
Wageningen : Alterra, Wageningen-UR (Alterra report 2460) - 88
phragmites - oogsten - brandstofgewassen - wetlands - certificering - biomassa productie - indirecte veranderingen van landgebruik - oekraïne - biobased economy - phragmites - harvesting - fuel crops - wetlands - certification - biomass production - indirect land use change - ukraine - biobased economy
In this report the different aspects of reed and reed lands are discussed related to sustainable harvesting of biomass. This is based on a pilot project for Poltava Oblast, funded by Agency NL of the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs. Within the ‘Pellets for Power project’ several areas were identified, to test the approach and criteria applied for NTA8080. This report shows that ILUC free reed harvesting is possible. Reed in the project area is harvested on land not used currently for agricultural purposes. The wetland should be maintained as much as possible in its natural state, and protected against fires. Based on this, it is concluded that the requirements for NTA8080 can be met. Biomass harvesting is in support of wetland protection, and can result in increased biodiversity, provided that the necessary precautions are taken, as described in the ‘best practices’. In this way reed harvesting for biofuels also contribute to social wellbeing, increase income for local communities, and at the same time decrease greenhouse gas emissions.
Taking the law to the people : mobilizing community ownership for legal reed harvesting in Ukraine : experiences with Ukrainian legislation and stakeholder consultations for commercial reed harvesting in rural communities
Poppens, R.P. ; Rii, O. ; Kraisvitnii, P. - \ 2013
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research - 34
phragmites - biomassa productie - wetgeving - grondeigendom - vergunningen - certificering - oekraïne - biobased economy - Nederland - phragmites - biomass production - legislation - land ownership - permits - certification - ukraine - biobased economy - Netherlands
This report is an account of experiences of a Ukraine based company, Phytofuels Investments, operating in the framework of the Pellets for Power project. As one of five project partners, Phytofuels’ tasks included the development of sustainable reed production methods. Two aspects of this endeavor are zoomed in on in this report: reed legislation and engagement with authorities issuing permits on the one hand and engagements with local reed owning communities on the other. Both aspects are strongly interlinked and cover two sets of requirements in the NTA 8080, i.e. compliance with national legislation and performing stakeholder consultations.
Herbaceous biomass supply chains : assessing the greenhouse gas balance, economics and ILUC effects of Ukrainian biomass for domestic and Dutch energy markets
Poppens, R.P. ; Lesschen, J.P. ; Galytska, M. ; Jamblinne, P. de; Kraisvitnii, P. ; Elbersen, H.W. - \ 2013
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research - 52
biomassa productie - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - duurzaamheidsscan - phragmites - stro - panicum virgatum - broeikasgassen - kosten-batenanalyse - indirecte veranderingen van landgebruik - oekraïne - biobased economy - biomass production - sustainability - sustainability scan - phragmites - straw - panicum virgatum - greenhouse gases - cost benefit analysis - indirect land use change - ukraine - biobased economy
This report describes the supply chain performance for three types of biomass feedstock (reed, straw and switchgrass) and for three sustainability aspects, i.e. the greenhouse gas balance, economics and Indirect Land Use change effects (ILUC). Calculations are based on a fictional supply chain set-up, as no large-scaled commercial biomass operations have been initiated yet by the project partners. The analysis was performed for use of biomass pellets both on the domestic energy market and the Dutch electricity market, in four different supply chain configurations.
Ukrainian biomass sustainability : assessing the feasibility of sustainability standard implementation and producer compliance in Ukraine
Poppens, R.P. ; Hoekstra, T. - \ 2013
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research - 24
certificering - biomassa - bio-energie - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - duurzaamheidscriteria - phragmites - oekraïne - biobased economy - certification - biomass - bioenergy - sustainability - sustainability criteria - phragmites - ukraine - biobased economy
One of the objectives of the Pellets for Power project was to align biomass operations with the NTA 8080 standard. With no functional supply chains developed during the course of the project, a complete conformity assessment, covering all NTA 8080 provisions, was not possible. For the remaining provisions, the project has had to rely on assumptions based on fictional but realistic supply chains as planned by the project partners. Also, the emphasis was on the reed chain. With project partners successfully obtaining reed harvesting permits, reed became the most realistic resource for development in the short term and conformity of the proposed reed chain set-up was analysed against NTA 8080 certification system. Generally, the analysis results show that NTA 8080 certification for reed based pellets under our set-up should in principle be possible in Ukraine.
Pellets for Power: sustainable biomass import from Ukraine : public final report
Elbersen, H.W. ; Poppens, R.P. ; Lesschen, J.P. ; Sluis, T. van der; Galytska, M. ; Kulyk, M. ; Jamblinne, P. de; Kraisvitnii, P. ; Rii, O. ; Hoekstra, T. - \ 2013
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research - 35
bio-energie - biomassa - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - biomassa productie - import - projecten - oekraïne - nederland - biobased economy - phragmites - stro - panicum virgatum - bioenergy - biomass - sustainability - biomass production - imports - projects - ukraine - netherlands - biobased economy - phragmites - straw - panicum virgatum
This project responds to the mismatch between on the one hand a growing demand for biomass on the Dutch and EU energy markets with a limited biomass potential and on the other hand large amounts of biomass and biomass potential currently underutilised in Ukraine. Ukraine itself is seen as a very promising location for sustainable biomass production but is also plagued by economic depression, land degradation, depopulation and high cost for natural gas. The Ukrainian company Phytofuel and the Belgian company Tuzetka recognized the opportunity. Together with Wageningen UR in The Netherlands they started the first experiments with switchgrass and also initiated pelletisation of straw and assessed the opportunity to use available reed stands in the Poltava region. The project aimed to: develop a sustainable business model for pelletizing biomass residues and biomass crops in Ukraine for domestic and NL energy markets; test sustainability of underutilized biomass use and energy crop production on marginal land while avoiding indirect Land Use Changes (iLUC).
Harvesting and managing reed for sustainable bio-energy production in Ukraine
Elbersen, W. ; Sluis, T. van der; Lesschen, J.P. ; Kulyk, M. ; Rii, O. ; Shokalo, N. ; Poppens, R. ; Kraisvitnii, P. ; Lerminiaux, L. - \ 2013
biomassa productie - phragmites australis - bio-energie - oekraïne - biobased economy - biomass production - phragmites australis - bioenergy - ukraine - biobased economy
Poster met onderzoeksinformatie.
Prospects for Ukraine's agrifood sector; Implications for Dutch trade relations
Bezlepkina, I. ; Berkum, S. van; Rau, M.L. - \ 2013
The Hague : LEI, part of Wageningen UR (LEI report : Research area International policy ) - ISBN 9789086156382 - 100
landbouwindustrie - agro-industriële sector - landbouwsector - voedsel - voedselketens - handelsrelaties - vrijhandel - ketenmanagement - agro-industriële ketens - landbouwbeleid - europese unie - oekraïne - agribusiness - agroindustrial sector - agricultural sector - food - food chains - trade relations - free trade - supply chain management - agro-industrial chains - agricultural policy - european union - ukraine
A free trade agreement between the EU and Ukraine would help accelerate institutional improvements that are needed in Ukraine to better use the agri-food sector's potential. An improved business environment would support Dutch companies to explore the many opportunities offered by the present state and development potential of Ukraine's agri-food supply chain.
The financial and GHG cost of avoiding ILUC in biomass sourcing - a comparison between switchgrass produced with and without ILUC in Ukraine
Lesschen, J.P. ; Elbersen, H.W. ; Poppens, R. ; Galytska, M. ; Kylik, M. ; Lerminiaux, L. - \ 2012
indirecte veranderingen van landgebruik - kosten - panicum virgatum - brandstofgewassen - oekraïne - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - broeikasgassen - bio-energie - biobased economy - indirect land use change - costs - panicum virgatum - fuel crops - ukraine - sustainability - greenhouse gases - bioenergy - biobased economy
Avoiding ILUC is becoming important. An important option is the use of land that would otherwise not be used for food or feed production. This generally means that lower quality or marginal land will be used. Switchgrass is one of the main perennial biomass crops that can produce high biomass yields under low input conditions and which can be established at low cost by seeds. In Ukraine this crop has in recent years been tested, yielding information that can be used to assess the cost and GHG balance of growing the crop, pelletizing, transport to the Netherlands and conversion into electricity. Results show that GHG emissions on low quality soil without ILUC are higher than for good quality soil grown switchgrass with ILUC. Analysis of the costs of growing switchgrass on low productive soils are 22% higher compared to high quality soils. It is concluded that ILUC avoidance needs to be quantified and rewarded.
Duurzame biomassa uit Oekraine, Biobased Economy Info sheet
Poppens, R.P. - \ 2012
bio-energie - biomassa - import - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - duurzaamheidscriteria - biobased economy - oekraïne - bioenergy - biomass - imports - sustainability - sustainability criteria - biobased economy - ukraine
De Biobased Economy vereist grote hoeveelheden biomassa waarvoor Nederland is aangewezen op import uit het buitenland. Echter, hierbij moet duurzaamheid kunnen worden gegarandeerd. Deze eis staat aan de basis van het Duurzame Biomassa Import programma van de Nederlandse overheid. Deze infosheet belicht een van de projecten uit dit programma dat is uitgevoerd in Oekraïne, namelijk Pellets for power.
Development of an ECONET for Lugansk Oblast : rural development and sustainable development in Ukraine
Sluis, T. van der; Buijs, J. ; Koopmanschap, E.M.J. ; Gosselink, J.M.J. ; Kliuiev, V. ; Eupen, M. van - \ 2011
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 2153.a) - 86
ecologische hoofdstructuur - steppen - ecologisch herstel - begrazingsbeheer - veehouderij - participatie - biodiversiteit - oekraïne - natuurbescherming - ecological network - steppes - ecological restoration - grazing management - livestock farming - participation - biodiversity - ukraine - nature conservation
Towards an ecological network for the Carpathians
Zingstra, H.L. ; Seffer, J. ; Lasak, R. ; Baltzer, M. ; Bouwma, I.M. ; Walters, L.J. ; Smith, B. ; Kitnaes, K. ; Predoiu, G.E. ; Prots, B. ; Sekulic, G. - \ 2009
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Centre for Development Innovation - 48
ecologisch herstel - netwerken - roemenië - servië - oekraïne - ecological restoration - networks - romania - serbia - ukraine
The Carpathian Biodiversity Information System (CBIS) and the proposal for an ecological network for the eastern part of the Carpathians are the two main outcomes of the project funded by the BBI Matra program of the Dutch government. This brochure presents information on how the CBIS was designed, and how the data stored can be retrieved and used. It also clarifies how the CBIS data were used to design the ecological network and, last but not least, it offers recommendations for the use of the proposed ecological network in supporting sustainable developmentin the Carpathians. Due to funding restrictions, the project focused on three east Carpathian countries: Romania, Serbia and Ukraine, which together host the largest area of the Carpathians (Fig. 2). Geographically, the Eastern Carpathians also include parts of the Carpathians located in Poland and Slovakia. Data collection in the Western Carpathians (Czech Republic, Poland, Slovakia and Hungary) will be completed by 2010 and is funded by a parallel project.
Restoration of degraded steppe lands : opportunities for Lugansk Oblast, Eastern Ukraine
Sluis, T. van der; Gosselink, J.M.J. ; Slim, P.A. ; Verhagen, J. ; Keulen, H. van - \ 2009
Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-rapport 1935) - 59
landgebruik - landgebruiksplanning - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - biodiversiteit - bedrijfssystemen - conservering - dierlijke productie - grondproductiviteit - steppen - steppegronden - oekraïne - agrobiodiversiteit - duurzaam bodemgebruik - agro-ecologie - ecologische hoofdstructuur - begrazingsbeheer - ecologisch herstel - land use - land use planning - sustainability - biodiversity - farming systems - conservation - animal production - land productivity - steppes - steppe soils - ukraine - agro-biodiversity - sustainable land use - agroecology - ecological network - grazing management - ecological restoration
There are millions of hectares of land in the Ukraine which either have been abandoned, or are farmed with a low land productivity due to severe land degradation. The Netherlands Embassy has requested a study to assess the opportunities and benefits of restoration of degraded steppe areas. The goal of this project is the restoration of degraded land and to develop more sustainable land use with a higher biodiversity. Innovative farming systems are proposed which are both economically and environmentally sustainable agricultural production systems. This wil improve the livelihood of farmers and lead to higher biodiversity.
Market scan bioenergy Ukraine : report for the Dutch Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality
Elbersen, H.W. ; Wiersinga, R.C. ; Waarts, Y.R. - \ 2009
Wageningen : Agrotechnology & Food Sciences Group (Report / Agrotechnology & Food Innovations 1037) - ISBN 9789085854104 - 50
bedrijven - bio-energie - industriële gewassen - biomassa productie - oekraïne - energy economics - biobased economy - businesses - bioenergy - industrial crops - biomass production - ukraine - energy economics - biobased economy
In de Oekraïne bestaan veel handelsmogelijkheden, vooral in de energie en bio-energie sector. De Oekraïne heeft het grootste potentieel voor biomassa productie in Europa. Hier is nog nauwelijks gebruik van gemaakt en de arbeidskosten zijn laag. Dit biedt vele kansen voor investeringen in de lokale productie van bio-energie en de export van bio-energie gewassen als koolzaad.
Investeren in de varkenskolom in Hongarije, Roemenië, Oekraïne en Rusland
Hoste, R. ; Wagenberg, C.P.A. van; Bergevoet, R.H.M. ; Schutter, L. de - \ 2007
Den Haag : LEI (Rapport / LEI : Domein 2, Bedrijfsontwikkeling en concurrentiepositie ) - ISBN 9789086151974 - 152
agrarische economie - investering - particuliere investering - vee- en vleesindustrie - varkenshouderij - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - veevoederindustrie - hongarije - roemenië - oekraïne - rusland - ketenmanagement - agricultural economics - investment - private investment - meat and livestock industry - pig farming - farm management - feed industry - hungary - romania - ukraine - russia - supply chain management
De varkenskolom in Hongarije, Roemenië, Oekraïne en Rusland biedt ruime mogelijkheden voor investeerders met westers management. Vleesindustrie, varkenshouderij en veevoerbedrijven hebben vaak een grote technologische achterstand en behoefte aan investeringskapitaal, kennis, kennisintensieve producten en management.
Control of grubs and monitoring of the cockchafer, Melolontha melolontha : Laboratory and greenhouse experiments concerning control and field experiments concerning luring of Melontha melolontha
Ester, A. ; Griepink, F.C. ; Huiting, H.F. ; Moraal, L.G. - \ 2007
Wageningen : Wageningen UR (PPO - Report ) - 55
melolontha melolontha - geïntegreerde plagenbestrijding - oekraïne - kasproeven - melolontha melolontha - integrated pest management - ukraine - greenhouse experiments
Grubs, larvae of chafers, as a group are a major pest throughout the world. In Europe, the major species attacking agricultural and horticultural crops, is probably the cockchafer (Melolontha melolontha). In Ukraine, damage caused by the grubs of the cockchafer is increasing in outside crops. Particularly strawberries, but also vegetable crops, meadows and ornamental plant production, like rose bushes, can be seriously attacked. The research should ultimately result in a strategy that is effective in reducing the damage as well as cost effective. It should also be environmentally sound and fitting into current Ukrainian regulations. New control methods will possibly require adaptation of existing regulations/laws. Project experts should prepare advice to Ukrainian authorities on how to adapt the current legislation to incorporate the new strategy to fight cockchafer damage (May beetle)
Water as an economic good in irrigated agriculture: theory and practice
Hellegers, P.J.G.J. ; Perry, C.J. - \ 2004
Den Haag : LEI (Rapport / LEI : Domain 3, Natural resources and the environment ) - ISBN 9789052429304 - 152
economie - taxatie - prijszetting - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - irrigatie - irrigatiewater - inkomsten uit het landbouwbedrijf - egypte - india - indonesië - marokko - oekraïne - prijzen - economics - valuation - price fixing - natural resources - irrigation - irrigation water - farm income - egypt - india - indonesia - morocco - ukraine - prices
This report describes the results of the Water Valuation and Pricing project, which aims to provide insight into the relevance of economics to typical problems found in irrigated agriculture. It first considers the theoretical basis for the use of economic instruments, then considers their usefulness in the context of five case studies of irrigated areas - in Egypt, India, Indonesia, Morocco and Ukraine. The case studies confirm that competition for scarce water and shortage of funds are widespread. The study provides insight into the current price paid for water, the cost of service provision, and the value to irrigators of the water they receive. The analysis shows that volumetric pricing is unlikely to be relevant to demand management because the price of water at which demand and supply would be balanced is so high as to substantially reduce farm incomes. This socio-political problem, plus the technical and administrative complexity of measuring and accounting for water, and the crucial distinction between water applied to the field and water consumed by the crop make water pricing an unsuitable approach to balancing supply and demand.