Algen: onze oorspronkelijke omega-3 bron
Spruijt, J. - \ 2017
Wageningen University & Research - 6
algen - omega-3 vetzuren - voedseltechnologie - plantaardige oliën - algae - omega-3 fatty acids - food technology - plant oils
Brochure over de marktkansen voor omega-3 uit algen voor PUFAChain.
Circulaire economie en behoud van natuurlijk kapitaal - Paper
Smits, M.J.W. ; Burg, S.W.K. van den; Verburg, R.W. - \ 2013
LEI, onderdeel van Wageningen - 12
recycling - kringlopen - economische ontwikkeling - cradle to cradle - bedrijventerreinen - fosfaat - reststromen - algenteelt - omega-3 vetzuren - karpet - netten - biobased economy - recycling - cycling - economic development - cradle to cradle - business parks - phosphate - residual streams - algae culture - omega-3 fatty acids - carpet - nets - biobased economy
In deze paper worden vier inspirerende voorbeelden van circulaire productieprocessen in Nederland beschreven en geanalyseerd. De centrale vraag daarbij is hoe de circulaire economie kan bijdragen aan instandhouding van het natuurlijk kapitaal. Het natuurlijk kapitaal omvat zowel grondstoffen als biodiversiteit.
Gezonde vis alternatieven literatuurstudie binnen het beleidsondersteunende project "Nieuwe marktgerichte duurzame eiwitconcepten"
Sluis, A.A. van der; Vereijken, J.M. - \ 2013
Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Rapport / Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research nr 1383) - 39
vis - visconsumptie - docosahexaeenzuur - eicosapentaeenzuur - omega-3 vetzuren - voedingsstoffenbronnen - algen - aanbevolen dagelijkse hoeveelheden - voedingsmiddelenwetgeving - voedselverrijking - voeding en gezondheid - Nederland - fish - fish consumption - docosahexaenoic acid - eicosapentaenoic acid - omega-3 fatty acids - nutrient sources - algae - recommended dietary allowances - food legislation - food enrichment - nutrition and health - Netherlands
Within the policy supporting project "New market-oriented sustainable protein concepts" (BO-08-018.03-002), a literature study is performed to healthy fish alternatives. The research question was: "What is the nutritional importance of fish consumption, what are alternatives to fish, are there technological and legal barriers, and what are the limits for enrichment with nutritional components?"
n-3 Fatty acid derived endocannabinoids: a new link between fish oil and inflammation
Balvers, M.G.J. - \ 2012
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Renger Witkamp, co-promotor(en): K.C.M. Verhoeckx. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461731159 - 206
omega-3 vetzuren - meervoudig onverzadigde vetzuren - visoliën - cannabinoïden - ontsteking - anti-inflammatoire eigenschappen - ontstekingsremmers - omega-3 fatty acids - polyenoic fatty acids - fish oils - cannabinoids - inflammation - antiinflammatory properties - antiinflammatory agents
Inflammatory processes are critical components of many illnesses, and dietary n-3 fatty acids have been shown to contribute to a reduction of the inflammatory status, both in in vivo and in vitro studies. The mechanisms underlying the modulation of inflammation are not completely understood, but it is clear that dietary n-3 fatty acids alter the eicosanoid metabolome profile, resulting in increased levels of n-3 fatty acid eicosanoids, whereas eicosanoids from other fatty acids are decreased. Until now, the anti-inflammatory properties of n-3 fatty acids had not been linked to an interaction with endocannabinoids/N-acyl ethanolamides (NAEs) levels before. This thesis describes a series of studies on the link between dietary fatty acids, endocannabinoids/NAEs, and inflammation.
Previous research indicated that dietary fatty acids alter the profile of endocannabinoids/NAEs rather than just affecting single compounds such as arachidonoyl ethanolamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) as suggested before, and therefore a method based on liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to quantify a broad range of endocannabinoids/NAEs was developed. This method was used to demonstrate that n-3 fatty acids are converted to their endocannabinoid derivates by adipocytes in vitro. These n-3 derived NAEs, docosahexaenoyl ethanolamide (DHEA) and eicosapentaenoyl ethanolamide (EPEA), were shown to have anti-inflammatory properties in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated adipocytes by reducing interleukin-6 (IL-6) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) excretion. Further studies showed that serum free fatty acid levels and plasma NAE levels are correlated under both fasting and post-prandial conditions in women, and demonstrated that plasma AEA and oleoyl ethanolamide (OEA) correlated with body mass index (BMI).
Considering the complexity of endocannabinoid and eicosanoid metabolism, it is likely that their concentrations are dynamic over time and tissue-specific during inflammation. So far, most studies had focused on limited numbers of endocannabinoids and eicosanoids in restricted numbers of tissues or plasma, and the effect of inflammation on DHEA and EPEA levels had not been studied before. Therefore, an animal study was conducted which investigated in detail the time-dependent effects of i.p. LPS on the levels of lipid derived mediators (endocannabinoids/NAEs and eicosanoids) in plasma, liver, ileum and adipose tissue in mice fed with a diet rich in fish oil. The results demonstrated that both DHEA and EPEA levels were increased after LPS treatment, but also time- and tissue dependent effects were observed. Based on these data, another study was performed which investigated the combined effect of different fish oil diets and inflammation on the profiles of endocannabinoids and eicosanoids using the same multi-compartment targeted lipidomics approach. The data indicated that that dietary n-3 fatty acids and inflammation alter both the endocannabinoid and eicosanoid metabolomes towards higher levels of n-3 derived metabolites at the expense of metabolites derived from other fatty acids. Multivariate data analysis revealed that under normal conditions the diet groups were primarily separated based on decreased levels of other than n-3 derived metabolites. However, during inflammation, the separation was primarily explained by increases in n-3 derived compounds. Finally, additional analyses demonstrated that plasma and erythrocytes contain significant levels of esterified NAEs. The esterified levels were approximately 20-60 fold higher than the free NAE levels, and their profiles resembles the free NAE profiles.
In conclusion, (dietary) n-3 fatty acids increased the levels of DHEA and EPEA, and these metabolites displayed anti-inflammatory properties. Although the n-3 fatty acids are likely to be converted to a variety of other metabolites, the work in this thesis suggests that ‘fish oil-derived’ endocannabinoids are a new link between fish oil and its anti-inflammatory properties. Further research is needed to relate nutrition-based modulation of endocannabinoid profiles to more specific effects on health and disease.
Biologische melk onderscheidend door meer gezonde vetzuren
Wit, J. de - \ 2011
In: BioKennis innovatie magazine / Wijnands, F.G., van Keulen, H., Dubbeldam, R., - p. 26 - 27.
biologische voedingsmiddelen - biologische landbouw - melk - omega-3 vetzuren - vetzuren - melkveehouderij - zuivelindustrie - voeding en gezondheid - organic foods - organic farming - milk - omega-3 fatty acids - fatty acids - dairy farming - dairy industry - nutrition and health
Biologische melk bevat meer goede vetzuren als CLA en omega-3 dan gangbare melk. Eerder onderzoek van het Louis Bolk Instituut toonde dit aan. Zuivelverwerkers hebben deze metingen gebruikt om teksten als ‘is rijk aan gezonde vetzuren’ op hun verpakkingen te plaatsen. De onderscheidendheid van biologische melk is op deze en andere manieren verder op weg geholpen.
Fish fatty acids and mental health in older people
Rest, O. van de - \ 2009
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Lisette de Groot; Frans Kok, co-promotor(en): Marianne Geleijnse. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085854715 - 200
geestelijke gezondheid - mentale vaardigheid - depressie - visoliën - meervoudig onverzadigde vetzuren - ouderen - verouderen - omega-3 vetzuren - mental health - mental ability - depression - fish oils - polyenoic fatty acids - elderly - aging - omega-3 fatty acids
It has been suggested that the intake of fish and marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids could protect against age-related cognitive decline and impaired mental well-being. However, results from observational studies are inconclusive and data from randomized controlled trials in older people without clinical dementia or depression are scarce. The objective of this thesis was to investigate the effect of daily supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on cognitive performance and mental well-being in an older non-clinical population. We also examined the effect of fish oil on gene expression profiles in white blood cells to identify early changes in pathways possibly related to mental health. Furthermore, we assessed the association of fish and EPA+DHA intake with mental health in different aging populations.
The effect of low and high doses of EPA+DHA (400 and 1,800 mg per day, respectively) on cognitive performance, several measures of mental well-being, and gene expression was examined in a 26-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. This study was conducted in 302 individuals aged 65 years or older with no clinical diagnosis of dementia or depression. Furthermore, the cross-sectional association between fatty fish and EPA+DHA intake with cognitive performance and the association with cognitive change during 6 years of follow-up was assessed in 1,025 aging US men who participated in the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study (NAS). In addition, the associations of EPA+DHA and fish intake with depressive symptoms and dispositional optimism were assessed in 644 free-living Dutch subjects with a history of myocardial infarction.
Daily intake of low or high doses of EPA+DHA did not affect cognitive performance, mental well-being, anxiety, or quality of life, after 13 or 26 weeks of intervention. However, treatment with EPA+DHA for 26 weeks altered gene expression in white blood cells to a more anti-inflammatory and more anti-atherogenic profile. In elderly US men we found no association of fatty fish or EPA+DHA intake with cognitive performance or 6-year cognitive change. Intake of EPA+DHA was positively associated with dispositional optimism in subjects with a history of myocardial infarction. There was also a tendency for less depressive symptoms with a higher EPA+DHA or fish intake, but this association was no longer statistically significant after controlling for confounders.
Supplemental intake of EPA+DHA is unlikely to have a short-term impact on cognitive performance or mental well-being of older people without a clinical diagnosis of dementia or depression. Whether long-term intake of EPA+DHA and fish could be beneficial to the maintenance of cognitive performance or mental well-being of older people in Western populations still needs to be established.
Micronutrients, omega-3 fatty acids and cognitive performance in Indian schoolchildren
Eilander, J.H.C. - \ 2009
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Frans Kok, co-promotor(en): S.J.M. Osendarp; S. Muthayya. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085854708 - 175
sporenelementen - meervoudig onverzadigde vetzuren - cognitieve ontwikkeling - mentale vaardigheid - minerale supplementen - fortificatie - ondervoeding - schoolkinderen - india - omega-3 vetzuren - kenvermogen - trace elements - polyenoic fatty acids - cognitive development - mental ability - mineral supplements - fortification - undernutrition - school children - india - omega-3 fatty acids - cognition
In developing countries, approximately 30-40% of school-age children suffer from iodine and iron deficiencies. Poverty and consumption of monotonous diets are underlying causes of inadequate intakes of micronutrients and omega-3 fatty acids and may have severe consequences for children’s cognitive development. Multiple micronutrient interventions have shown to benefit mental performance of children, but a systematic evaluation of the evidence is currently lacking. The omega-3 fatty acid, -linolenic acid (ALA) is converted into docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a major structural component of the brain, which is important for normal development and maintenance of brain function. At present, it is unclear whether additional intake of omega-3 fatty acids improves cognitive performance in children.
The aim of this thesis was to investigate the role of multiple micronutrients and omega-3 fatty acids on cognitive performance in school-age children living in deprived environments, thereby addressing three main research questions.
The first query concerned the investigation of the size of effects of multiple micronutrient interventions on different cognitive domains. Findings of our meta-analysis comprising 17 studies in children 5-16 years of age, suggested that multiple micronutrients were beneficial for fluid intelligence (i.e. reasoning abilities) (0.14 SD; 95% CI: -0.02, 0.29) and academic performance (0.30 SD; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.58). Crystallized intelligence (i.e. acquired knowledge) seemed not affected (-0.03 SD; 95% CI: -0.21, 0.15) and for the other cognitive domains data were too limited to draw firm conclusions.
Secondly, we examined the role of omega-3 fatty acids on children’s cognitive development, for which a literature review was conducted. Associations between omega-3 fatty acid status or dietary intake and cognitive performance were investigated by cross-sectional analysis using baseline data of a randomized controlled trial in 598 Indian schoolchildren (see below for details). We found no evidence for a beneficial effect of additional intake of omega-3 fatty acids, and of DHA in particular, on cognitive development in school-age children. Neither there was a significant relationship between omega-3 fatty acid status and cognitive performance.
Lastly, we studied the effect of different doses of micronutrients and omega-3 fatty acids, and their interaction, on cognitive performance. For that purpose, a randomized controlled trial in 598 Indian schoolchildren aged 6-10 years was conducted from November 2005 until March 2007. Children received either 15% or 100% of the Recommended Dietary Allowance of micronutrients in combination with either a low (140 mg ALA) or high dose (900 mg ALA plus 100 mg DHA) of omega-3 fatty acids for 12 months. Cognitive function was measured at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Our results showed that with some small differential effects on short term memory at 6 months (0.11 SD; 95% CI: 0.01-0.20) and fluid intelligence at 6 months (-0.10 SD; 95% CI: -0.17, -0.03) and 12 months (-0.12 SD; 95% CI: -0.20, -0.04), the high and low dose of micronutrients were as effective for improving retrieval ability, cognitive speediness and overall cognitive performance. Neither there were differences between the omega-3 fatty acid treatments, nor an interaction between micronutrients and omega-3 fatty acids on cognitive outcomes.
In conclusion, although multiple micronutrients may benefit intellectual performance of schoolchildren, development of public health guidelines is currently premature. Further investigation on doses and composition of micronutrients would be needed to identify a cost-effective micronutrient supplement to optimize cognitive performance in children. Presently, no evidence exists for a positive effect of omega-3 fatty acids on cognitive performance in healthy children. A final trial using a higher dose and sufficiently long duration would be needed to conclude whether omega-3 fatty acid supplementation improves mental development at school age.
Very long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: a head start to win some years between the ears?
Dullemeijer, C. - \ 2009
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Frans Kok; R.J. Brummer, co-promotor(en): I.A. Brouwer. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085853770 - 136
vetzuren met een lange keten - hersenen - cognitieve ontwikkeling - mentale vaardigheid - visoliën - ouderen - vaatziekten - omega-3 vetzuren - kenvermogen - long chain fatty acids - brain - cognitive development - mental ability - fish oils - elderly - vascular diseases - omega-3 fatty acids - cognition
Very long-chain n-3 (or omega-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids have attracted considerable public interest during the past few years for their potential beneficial role in cognitive performance. The proposed benefits stretch from advantages in developing brains of infants and children to preventing cognitive decline at old age.
In this thesis, we first examined the role of very long-chain n-3 PUFA at the beginning of the lifespan. We investigated the effects of dietary very long-chain n-3 PUFA on the fatty acid composition of the several brain lobes in juvenile pigs, and showed that a diet enriched with fish oil resulted in higher proportions of DHA in the frontal, parietal and occipital brain lobes compared with the temporal brain lobe. These findings suggest a region-specific incorporation of DHA in the developing brain, which may guide future research into the mechanism by which very long-chain n-3 PUFA may in involved in brain development and function.
Subsequently, we investigated the role of very long-chain n-3 PUFA near the end of the lifespan. In a population of older adults, we investigated the association between very long-chain n-3 PUFA and cognitive decline over three years in multiple cognitive domains. We demonstrated that higher plasma proportions of very long-chain n-3 PUFA were associated with less decline in the cognitive domains sensorimotor speed and complex speed, but not in memory, information-processing speed and word fluency, compared with lower plasma proportions of very long-chain n-3 PUFA. These results suggest a beneficial role of very long-chain n-3 PUFA in the speed-related cognitive domains, which justifies future research in this area with sensitive cognitive outcome measurements that provide domain-specific information.
Finally, we touched upon the role of very long-chain n-3 PUFA in the macrovascular and the microvascular blood supply in the head region. We showed that plasma very long-chain n-3 PUFA were not associated with changes in carotid intima-media thickness and common carotid distension in a healthy older adult population. This may suggest that the role of very long-chain n-3 PUFA in a healthy population extends in particular to the smaller blood vessels. The role of very long-chain n-3 PUFA in the microcirculation of the brain could therefore be an interesting future direction of research. Although we did not directly investigate the role of very long-chain n-3 PUFA in the brain microcirculation, we did investigate whether plasma very long-chain n-3 PUFA were associated with age-related hearing loss over a period of three years in older adults. Since microvascular disease may decrease the blood supply to the highly vascularised cochlea, this may result in age-related hearing loss. We showed that higher plasma proportions of very long-chain n-3 PUFA were indeed associated with less age-related hearing loss compared with lower plasma proportions of very long-chain n-3 PUFA which implies that the hypothesis of improved microcirculation, if proven correct, may have far-reaching consequences.
In summary, this thesis showed that very long-chain n-3 PUFA have region-specific effects on the developing brain and that higher plasma proportions of very long-chain n-3 PUFA were associated with less decline in the speed-related cognitive domains and less age-related hearing loss. Further research is required to establish the role of very long-chain n-3 PUFA in the developing as well as the aging brain and to investigate the underlying mechanisms.
“Very long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: a head start to win some years between the ears?” PhD-thesis by Carla Dullemeijer, Top Institute Food and Nutrition and Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, Wageningen, the Netherlands, May 15, 2009
Organic Milk Quality in the Netherlands : Distinguishable from conventional milk?
Hospers-Brands, A.J.T.M. ; Burgt, G.J.H.M. van der - \ 2009
melk - biologische voedingsmiddelen - melksamenstelling - onverzadigde vetzuren - linolzuur - kristallografie - luminescentie - vergelijkend onderzoek - omega-3 vetzuren - milk - organic foods - milk composition - unsaturated fatty acids - linoleic acid - crystallography - luminescence - comparative research - omega-3 fatty acids
Recent studies have indicated possible positive interactions between organic animal production and, particularly, and various vitamins. As possible distinguishing quality parameters for organic milk, the differences between organic and conventional milk in Netherlands for fatty acid composition and vitamins were investigated in milk samples form supermarkets at several points in time. We have also investigated possible differences in taste and two alternative analytical parameters (bio-photons and bio-crystallisations) because a single quality parameter, like poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), hardly reflects organic intentions to produce quality in a more holistic way being an inherent reflection of proper agricultural practices. These two alternative parameters try to relate to the hypothesis stating that the structure (the ‘order’) of food is just as important to human health as the material composition (Bloksma et al, 2008).
Long-term lifestyle and dietary habits in relation to cardiovascular mortality and life expectancy: a prospective cohort study
Streppel, M.T. - \ 2009
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Daan Kromhout; Frans Kok, co-promotor(en): M.C. Ocké. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085853640 - 127
hart- en vaatziekten - mortaliteit - levensverwachting - levensstijl - dieet - tabak roken - alcoholinname - trans-isomeren van vetzuren - visconsumptie - vezel - epidemiologische onderzoeken - omega-3 vetzuren - voedingsvezels - cardiovascular diseases - mortality - life expectancy - lifestyle - diet - tobacco smoking - alcohol intake - trans fatty acids - fish consumption - fibre - epidemiological surveys - omega-3 fatty acids - dietary fibres
Introduction: In prospective cohort studies, information on lifestyle and dietary habits is generally only assessed at the baseline examination, assuming that these habits are relatively constant over the entire study period. Repeated measures can take into account changes in these habits, reduce measurement error due to a reduction in within-subject variation, and can give more insight into the etiology of diseases. The main objective of this thesis is to assess the relationships of recent and long-term exposure to known lifestyle and dietary risk factors with cardiovascular mortality and life expectancy.
Methods: We used data from the Zutphen Study, a prospective cohort study among 1373 men born between 1900 and 1920. These men were examined repeatedly in seven examination rounds between 1960 and 2000. In addition to hazard ratios (HR), we presented some of our results in terms of differences in life expectancy at age 50.
Main findings on lifestyle factors: We found that both the number of cigarettes smoked and smoking duration were strongly associated with mortality risk. Compared to never or long-term former smoking, cigarette smoking decreased life expectancy by about 7 years and exclusive cigar or pipe smoking decreased life expectancy by about 5 years. Stopping smoking cigarettes at age 50 increased life expectancy by 3.3 years. Furthermore, we observed that long-term light alcohol intake, i.e. <20 grams per day, compared to no alcohol intake, lowered cardiovascular (HR: 0.70 [95% confidence interval: 0.55 to 0.89]) and all-cause (HR: 0.75 [0.63 to 0.91]) mortality risk. Compared to men who do not consume alcohol, wine consumers had a 5 years longer life expectancy.
Main findings on dietary factors: We observed that average trans unsaturated fatty acid intake decreased from 7 to about 1 percent of energy intake between 1960 and 2000 and that each additional 2 percent of long-term energy intake from trans unsaturated fatty acids was positively associated with sudden coronary death (HR: 1.62 [1.01 to 2.60]). In contrast, long-term fatty fish consumption was inversely associated with sudden coronary death (HR: 0.46 [0.27 to 0.78]). The strength of the association between long-term total fish consumption and coronary heart disease (CHD) death decreased from age 50 (HR: 0.32 [0.13 to 0.80]) until age 80 (HR: 1.34 [0.58 to 3.12]). We observed no clear dose-response relationship between the intake of the n-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA, and (sudden) coronary death. Finally, we found that each additional 10 grams of recent dietary fiber intake was associated with a lower risk of CHD (HR: 0.83 [0.70 to 0.98]) and all-cause (HR: 0.91 [0.82 to 1.00]) mortality.
Conclusions: The studies described in this thesis emphasize the importance of lifestyle and diet for public health. Our results suggest that non-smoking and a low level of wine consumption decrease the risk of (cardiovascular) mortality and will increase life expectancy at age 50. The long-term consumption of fatty fish and the reduction in long-term trans unsaturated fatty acid intake may prevent sudden coronary deaths, and a higher recent dietary fiber intake may reduce both CHD and all-cause mortality risk.
Verhogen van gezonde vetzuren in biologische melk
Keulen, H. van - \ 2008
Wageningen : Wageningen UR (Biokennis bericht : Zuivel & rundvlees ) - 4
biologische voedingsmiddelen - biologische landbouw - melk - melksamenstelling - gezondheid - gezondheidsvoedsel - voersamenstelling - melkveehouderij - omega-3 vetzuren - organic foods - organic farming - milk - milk composition - health - health foods - feed formulation - dairy farming - omega-3 fatty acids
Biologische melk bevat meer CLA en omega-3 vetzuren dan gangbare melk. Aan deze meervoudige onverzadigde vetzuren worden allerlei positieve effecten op de gezondheid toegeschreven. De gehaltes van deze gezonde vetzuren variëren echter sterk. Via de samenstelling van het rantsoen kunt u sturen op de gehaltes en daarmee, in een aantal gevallen, een toeslag ontvangen op uw melkprijs. Ook draagt de verhoging van het gehalte van deze gezonde vetzuren bij aan een goed imago van de biologische melkveesector. Dit bioKennisbericht zet de mogelijkheden op een rij.