Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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Het stimuleren van ondernemen met natuur: handelingsopties voor de overheid
Smits, M.J.W. ; Bos, E.J. - \ 2016
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-technical report 83) - 90
natuur - ondernemingen - regering - overheidsbeleid - ondernemerschap - milieueconomie - nature - enterprises - government - government policy - entrepreneurship - environmental economics
De Rijksnatuurvisie wil ondernemers meer betrekken bij natuur. De ambitie is dat natuur altijd meegenomen wordt inhandelingen en beslissingen, ook van ondernemers. Dit wordt ‘natuurinclusief ondernemen’ genoemd. De vraag diecentraal staat in dit rapport is welke beleidsmaatregelen genomen kunnen worden om natuurinclusief ondernemen(verder) te stimuleren. Het antwoord op deze vraag wordt mede bepaald door de wisselwerking tussen publieke enprivate taken en verantwoordelijkheden voor natuur. Een tweede vraag is: in welke mate worden de kosten vannatuurinclusief ondernemen gedragen door de private sector en in welke mate door de publieke sector? Op basis vanvijftien interviews met personen uit het veld kwamen een aantal aandachtspunten en behoeften naar voren die vanbelang blijken voor het verder uitrollen van het concept ‘natuurinclusief ondernemen’. Zo is er behoefte aan duidelijkafgebakende experimenteerruimte om ondernemers het belang en de toepassing van natuurinclusief ondernemen telaten ervaren. Er leeft een gevoel van willekeur door verschillen in (lengte van) procedures tussen gemeenten enprovincies. Verder wordt een intermediair zoals voorheen de Dienst Landelijk Gebied wordt gemist voorgrondaanwerving, inrichting en voorfinanciering. Daarnaast is behoefte aan (ecologische) kennis bij ondernemers enaan ‘oplossingen’ voor de hoge grondprijs die natuurinclusieve landbouw belemmeren, en er werd gewezen op hetbelang van een gebiedsgerichte aanpak. En tot slot: natuurinclusief ondernemen impliceert vaak multifunctioneelgrondgebruik, maar dit stuit nogal eens op wetgeving gericht op bescherming van natuur. Hoewel aan de term‘natuurinclusief ondernemen’ het private belang ten grondslag ligt, blijkt een overheidsrol nog altijd onontbeerlijkhierbij. Zo wordt natuurinclusief ondernemen deels betaald met publiek geld, bijvoorbeeld via subsidies en fiscalevrijstelling. Ook al blijkt uit dit onderzoek de behoefte aan een overheidsrol, tegelijkertijd is duidelijkheid vereist.Wanneer kan natuur privaat opgepakt worden, en wanneer moet het publiek ondersteund worden? Een nieuwevenwicht tussen publieke en private inbreng bij beheer en behoud van natuur is nog niet gevonden---In its policy vision on nature, ‘The Natural Way Forward’ (2014), the government calls on entrepreneurs to take agreater interest in nature. The government’s ambition is for nature to be taken into account in all actions and decisions,including those by entrepreneurs. This is called ‘nature-inclusive enterprise’. The key research question in this report iswhich policy measures can be introduced to stimulate nature-inclusive enterprise. The answer to this question isdetermined in part by the interplay between public and private tasks and responsibilities for nature. A second questionis how the costs of nature-inclusive enterprise should be divided between the private and public sectors. Interviews with15 stakeholders revealed a number of issues and requirements that would help to roll out the concept of ‘natureinclusiveenterprise’ further. For example, there is a need for room to experiment, within clearly defined limits, to allowentrepreneurs to experience the value of nature-inclusive enterprise and how it can be put into practice. There is afeeling that the situation is somewhat arbitrary at the moment because of differences in the procedures, particularlytheir length, between municipalities and provinces. For land acquisition, landscape works and prefinancing, therespondents felt the need for an intermediary organisation like the former Government Service for Land and WaterManagement (DLG). In addition, entrepreneurs are in need of ecological expertise as well as ‘solutions’ to the high priceof land, which frustrates nature-inclusive farming. The importance of an area-based approach was also raised. Finally,nature-inclusive enterprise often implies multifunctional land use, but this tends to conflict with the nature conservationlegislation, which is geared more to protection. Although the term ‘nature-inclusive enterprise’ reflects the underlyingprivate sector interest, government still has an essential role to play. For one thing, nature-inclusive enterprise is stillpartly financed with public money, for example via grants and tax exemptions. The study also indicates that while thisgovernment intervention is welcomed, there is also a desire for certainty. When can nature be integrated into thebusiness case and when should it be supported by the public sector? A new balance between public and privateinvolvement in nature conservation has not yet been found.
De waarde van waarden
Oosterhoff, W. ; Stokkers, G.J. ; Smit, A.B. - \ 2015
V-focus 12 (2015)2. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 32 - 33.
agrarische bedrijfsvoering - ondernemerschap - ondernemingen - persoonlijke ontwikkeling - bewustwording - waarden - economische samenwerking - farm management - entrepreneurship - enterprises - personal development - conscientization - values - economic cooperation
Agrarische ondernemers schakelen voortdurend tussen de drie O’s: Ondernemer, Onderneming en Omgeving. De laatste jaren komt er steeds meer aandacht voor de relatie tussen onderneming en omgeving. We noemen dat omgevingsgericht ondernemen. Bij het Kenniscentrum Agrofood en Ondernemen in Dronten ligt de focus vooral op de ondernemer. Persoonlijke ontwikkeling van ondernemers in opleiding staat hoog in het vaandel. Onderdeel van die persoonlijke ontwikkeling is de bewustwording van de eigen waarden.
Garantstelling Marktintroductie Innovatie land- en tuinbouw; Verkenning naar toepassing in de praktijk
Blokland, P.W. ; Meulen, H.A.B. van der; Dijken, E. van - \ 2013
Wageningen : LEI, onderdeel van Wageningen UR (Nota / LEI Wageningen UR 13-088) - 28
landbouwsector - financiële instellingen - kredietbeleid - systeeminnovatie - garantiesubsidies - innovaties - ondernemingen - risicobeheersing - agricultural sector - financial institutions - credit policy - system innovation - deficiency payments - innovations - enterprises - risk management
Vanuit kredietinstellingen bestaat de behoefte aan een garantstelling die de introductie van duurzame (systeem)innovaties vergemakkelijkt. De beoogde regeling Garantstelling Marktintroductie Innovaties van het ministerie van EZ kan in deze behoefte voorzien. Zeker als deze regeling het kapitaalrisico dat innovatieve ondernemers lopen, ondervangt. Kredietinstellingen zijn door het economisch klimaat en aangescherpte voorwaarden op het verstrekken van kredieten kritisch en geneigd risico’s te mijden.
Werkblad van de Toekomst
Jong, D. de; Schoutsen, M.A. ; Visser, A.J. ; Bos, B. - \ 2013
Wageningen UR
persoonlijke ontwikkeling - ondernemerschap - toekomst - ontwikkeling - ondernemingen - lesmaterialen - personal development - entrepreneurship - future - development - enterprises - teaching materials
Deze brochure video geeft een overzicht van het 'Werkblad van de Toekomst'.
Non-governmental organizations and the sustainability of small and medium-sized enterprises in Peru : an analysis of networks and discourses
Castro Aponte, W.V. - \ 2013
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Arthur Mol, co-promotor(en): Kris van Koppen. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789461735805 - 296
niet-gouvernementele organisaties - ondernemingen - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - samenwerking - peru - ontwikkelingslanden - zuid-amerika - non-governmental organizations - enterprises - sustainability - cooperation - peru - developing countries - south america

The importance of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in terms of employment and income generation has been recognized worldwide. In Peru, SMEs are responsible for 85% of the employment at the national level and they represent 98% of the total companies registered. Around 12% of SMEs, organized in associations, clusters, and cooperatives or as single companies, are dedicated to productive actives; the others are engaged in commercial and services activities. However, next to their positive economic role, SMEs are also responsible for significant disturbances of nature, environmental degradation and threats to human health. Environmental pollution related to the increase of productive activities has become evident in Peru and the entire region of Latin America.

The thesis aims to provide a better understanding of the changing roles of NGOs in promoting sustainability of SMEs in Peru, using the perspectives of networks and discourses. It focuses on three domains, which together are characteristic for promoting of SME sustainability in Peru: organic production (the first case study), business social responsibility (the second cases study) and sustainable production (the third case study). Three research questions have been outlined for this research: First, what are the networks of NGOs promoting sustainability of SMEs involved in the domains of organic production, business social responsibility and sustainable production in Peru, and what are the main changes in time in these networks? Second, what are the main discourses fostering sustainability that prevail and are articulated in these networks of NGOs and what are the main changes in time in these discourses? And finally, how to understand and assess the actual, new and potential roles of NGOs in promoting sustainability of SMEs in terms of network society theory and ecological modernization theory?

In this study the universe of NGOs is narrowed to NGOs operating in Peru that provide support (a) to medium and small scale producers and producer associations to bring organic products to local and global markets, (b) to urban and rural small scale enterprises to adopt cleaner production and appropriate technologies, and/or (c) to SMEs to upgrade social and environmental standards within value chains involving large companies. Some SMEs are concentrated in the main cities of Peru such as Trujillo, Arequipa and Lima, while other SMEs, such as organic food producers, are spread all over the country. In any case, SMEs under this research have collaboration ties with the NGOs to be studied. The research questions were investigated by means of more than 28 interviews with representatives of local NGOs, international NGOs, local SMEs and the national government, carried out in the period of 2006 to 2010. Additionally, documents and internet sources were consulted.

The networks involved in promoting the sustainability of SMEs are: the agro-ecological network, the organic market network and the ecological farming network in the first case study; the social justice network and the business network in the second case study; and the eco-efficiency network, the appropriate technology network, the cleaner technology network, the technological innovation network and the urban cleaner production network in the third case study.

The main actors identified in the networks of the organic production domain are: the Ecological Agriculture Network of Peru (RAE Peru), Grupo Ecologica Peru and the National Ecological Producers Association (ANPE). RAE Peru consists of 16 individual NGOs operating throughout Peru and has led several initiatives (i.e. Biocanastas, Bioferias, Biostores) to develop the organic market in Peru. Grupo Ecologica Peru consists of 5 NGOs and 24 producers, including associations and individual producers, and it commercializes organic products at local competitive markets (i.e. the Bioferia Miraflores farmers’ market) and provides the supply of organic food to supermarkets. ANPE Peru consists of 22 organic small scale producer associations (including small food processers and family small-scale enterprises). ANPE’s constituencies produce and commercialize organic food in 13 farmers’ markets throughout the country.

The main actors identified in the business social responsibility networks are: the Labor Advisory Council of Peru (CEDAL), the Center of Studies for Development and Participation (CEDEP) and Peru 2021. CEDAL and CEDEP promote business social responsibility for urban and rural small enterprises in Peru in order to meet national regulation and international standards on labor rights and good environmental practices. CEDAL has been collaborating with 60 small enterprises of garment and handy craft makers, organized in clusters, who commercialize their products directly to consumers or business intermediaries oriented at domestic and foreign markets. CEDEP collaborates with small and medium-sized agri-industries, small garment workshops, shoemakers, metal workshops and bakeries to adopt business social responsibility principles by improving working conditions for their employees and sustainable production practices. Peru 2021 collaborates only with SMEs that are providers of larger companies in value chains promoting social and environmental standards.

The main actors involved in the sustainable production networks are: the Eco-efficiency and Social Responsibility Center (CER), the Institute for the Transfer of Technology for Marginal Sectors (ITACAB), the National Council of Science and Technology (CONCYTEC), the Centers of Technological Innovation (CITEs) and the Peruvian Institute of Social Economy (IPES). While CER, IPES and most of CITEs are NGOs, ITACAB and CONCYTEC are (inter)governmental agencies. CER provides consultancy for small scale suppliers of larger domestic companies and single SMEs exporting to international markets. Through the projects EcoADEX, EcoHotels and EcoParks CER aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, increase eco-efficiency, optimize production and services processes and reduce operation costs in SMEs. ITACAB promotes technological transfer to small scale rural enterprises through the Center for Technological Transferring Resources. CONCYTEC promotes technological transfer for SMEs but it is currently dispersed into several institutional programmes. CITEs provide production technologies services to SMEs. In total there are 13 CITEs throughout Peru, each one specialized in particular type of products (i.e. leather and shoemaking, wood and furniture, wine and horticulture, tropical fruits and medicinal plants, garment, agro-industry, textile, logistic and tracing, software and forest wood). Finally, IPES promotes cleaner technologies in small scale industries and workshops located in urban areas. During the last year, IPES is focusing on the establishing of recycling SMEs of electronic waste. As this overview shows, in the sustainable production domain, not only NGOs perform central roles but also governmental agencies. In some cases, quite close cooperation occurs between NGOs and governmental agencies.

In all three cases, networks of sustainability of SMEs are structured as interlinked platforms operating at local, national, Latin American and global level. For instance, in the organic production networks the Bioferias are at the local level, the Peruvian Agroecological Consortium at the national level, MAELA and GALCI at Latin American level and IFOAM at global level. Platforms include civil society, market and state actors. For instance, in the business social responsibility networks the civil society actors are CEDEP and CEDAL, in the organic production networks the market actors are the small scale enterprises affiliated with ANPE and Grupo Ecologica Peru, and in the sustainable production networks the state actors are CONCYTEC (governmental agency), ITACAB (inter-governmental agency) and the CITEs central office (OTCIT). Coordination and channeling of resources in the network platforms are performed by key actors, such as RAE Peru, Grupo Ecologica Peru, ANPE, Peru 2021, CEDAL, CEDEP, CER, CONCYTEC, ITACAB, OTCIT and IPES.

The ten networks are composed by diverse types of NGOs. Next to conventional NGOs as key actors, producer NGOs, market NGOs, business NGOs, technocratic NGOs and government organized NGOs (GONGOs) have emerged. Although NGOs are central in most networks, (inter)governmental agencies (GONGOs) are also central in the cleaner technology network, the appropriate technology network and the technological innovation network. CONCYTEC, ITACAB and the CITES’ central office (OTCIT) are agencies that are part of the governmental structure, but they operate in practice pretty much as NGOs. Hence, NGOs and these (inter) governmental agencies perform similar roles in the networks, compete for funding and operate projects funded by international cooperation agencies. Therefore, the (inter)governmental agencies (GONGOs) that are part of these networks of sustainability of SMEs has been found out to be less effective in promoting sustainability of SMEs than more typical NGOs. As a result of this diversification of NGOs the struggle for leading positions in the network platforms and the competition for scarce funding and operate projects of international cooperation agencies have also intensified. This diversification of NGOs and, above all, the increasing of service-like NGOs aim to fulfill the business growth and market demands of SMEs in collaborating with market actors. Hence, new types of NGOs emerge to fulfill market demands.

The discourses that NGOs and SMEs endorse in the networks of sustainability of SMEs are: market adaptation, market access or market democratization in the first case study; business upgrading and corporate responsibility in the second case study; and cleaner production and appropriate technology in the third case study. NGOs and SMEs involved in the networks of organic production endorse one of the following three discourses: market adaptation, market access or market democratization. The main storyline of the first discourse is that NGOs and small scale producers are forced to get new capacities and to adapt to the free market. Small scale producers do not have the competences to adapt to the free market by themselves, and NGOs play a crucial role in assisting them. The main storyline of the second discourse is that small scale producers are eager to move to competitive markets. Support is needed from specialized agents in managerial and technological issues to organize supply to competitive local and international organic markets. The main storyline of the last discourse is the prioritization of making the organic market also interesting for low and medium income consumers. Rather than adapt or access to the free market, small scale producers intend to build up a fair relationship with the market by making organic products available to all income groups.

NGOs and SMEs in the business social responsibility networks endorse one of the following two discourses: business upgrading or corporate responsibility. In the first discourse, business social responsibility is seen as a strategy to match economic and social rights with sustainability of small scale enterprises. Connecting small scale enterprises with larger companies and influencing them to become sustainable is central in the discourse. In the second discourse, business social responsibility is seen as a business strategy that contributes to sustainability of larger companies and their supply value chains. Only small providers of large profitable value chains have the capacity to adopt social and environmental standards.

NGOs and SMEs involved in the networks of sustainable production endorse one of the following two discourses: cleaner production or appropriate technology. In the first discourse, cleaner production is seen as a business strategy to make SME production more efficient and sustainable. Allocating the most up-to-date modern technology is considered as the best way to reduce environmental impacts and increase competitiveness. The discourse focuses on SMEs that are well established in the local market and have the capacities to reach international markets. In the second discourse, appropriate technology is seen as tailor-made technology adjusted to the needs of SMEs, particularly of micro and small enterprises. Low capital, small scale and suitable technology for the local social, economic and cultural setting are central in the discourse. The discourse highlights the use of renewable energy, development of local markets and poverty fighting.

The seven discourses emphasize either market justice or sustainable market. This means that the discourses are different in their position towards social movement and the market. The discourses of sustainability of SMEs have evolved from long-standing antagonist discourses: the liberal market discourse on one hand and the social movement discourse on the other hand, which can be considered as the ‘mother’ discourses of the discourses of sustainability of SMEs. While the cleaner production discourse and the corporate responsibility discourse have their origins in the liberal market discourse, the market democratization discourse, the market adaptation discourse, the market access discourse, the business upgrading discourse and the appropriate technology discourse have their origins in the social movement discourse. Hence, the discourses of sustainability of SMEs share views with their mother discourses. Only, the market access discourse strongly diverges from its origins. The difference between market justice discourses and sustainable market discourses has to do with their interpretation of environmental reform and sustainability.

In sum, the identified changes are expressed in new roles for NGOs. Next to the usual ‘watchdog’ roles, NGOs are developing roles of ‘helper’ in order to answer to the market needs of SMEs. The new roles are performed not only by new types of NGOs but also by ‘reoriented’ conventional NGOs. Consequently, NGOs have become market agents as a result of their new roles. Finally, the findings contribute to the theoretical debates on network society theory and ecological modernization theory. The analysis of networks promoting sustainability of SMEs helps to understand more deeply the way non-state actors cooperate, and challenges Castells’ scheme of space of flows versus space of place. Both spaces are connected and integrated in aiming for sustainability. Actors use rationalities, logics and power resources related to both spaces. Amending ecological modernization theory, the analysis suggests that it is needed to consider both ecological rationality and social rationality in order to advance environmental reform of SMEs in developing countries. The research also sheds light of issues of power. NGOs are becoming more collaborative and less confrontational, more conciliatory and less dogmatic towards market actors, but they remain rather conflictive and competitive towards fellow NGOs. Power of SMEs is not acknowledged in most discourses. However, SMEs show their power either by accepting or denying engage to the networks, either by collaborating or pressuring key actors and either by subscribing or being indifferent to the discourses. This power of SMEs pushes the networks to become more inclusive, participatory and valuable for SMEs. It rests on the capacity to be anchored within local social networks.

Landschappelijk ondernemen in de Achterhoek
Oosterbaan, A. ; Kaminski, A. - \ 2013
Varsseveld [etc.] : Stichting Achterhoek weer Mooi [etc.] - ISBN 9789087401351 - 100
landschap - economie - ondernemingen - natuur - agrarisch natuurbeheer - plattelandsontwikkeling - economische aspecten - achterhoek - landscape - economics - enterprises - nature - agri-environment schemes - rural development - economic aspects
Het boek beschrijft de verandering van het Achterhoeks landschap vanaf 1900 en laat zien hoe de Achterhoek er nu uitziet. Vervolgens laten de auteurs voorbeelden zien van ondernemers en hun verbondenheid met dat landschap. Als laatste schetsen een aantal kenners van het gebied waar zij kansen zien voor nieuwe verdienmogelijkheden in dat landschap. Het boek gaat in op de mogelijkheden die de regio biedt om economie en landschap samen te brengen
Topsectoren en dierenwelzijn, kans of bedreiging
Peet, G.F.V. van der; Leenstra, F.R. - \ 2012
V-focus 9 (2012)5a. - ISSN 1574-1575 - p. 8 - 9.
dierenwelzijn - diergezondheid - landbouwkundig onderzoek - ondernemingen - overheidsbeleid - dierlijke productie - animal welfare - animal health - agricultural research - enterprises - government policy - animal production
In 2012 is het Topsectorenbeleid geïntroduceerd, waarbij het bedrijfsleven de regie heeft in de aansturing van het (DLO-)onderzoek. Het bedrijfsleven is verantwoordelijk voor het opstellen van de onderzoeksagenda, die in toenemende mate wordt beïnvloed door NGO’s en samenleving, waarbij de overheid één van de partijen is. Dat laat onverlet dat ook de overheid in het kader van ontwikkelen en uitvoeren van beleid (of in opdracht van de Tweede Kamer) natuurlijk ook onderzoeksopdrachten kan uitzetten.
Internationale bedrijven duurzaam aan de slag met natuur en biodiversiteit : voorstudie bij de Balans van de Leefomgeving 2012
Overbeek, M.M.M. ; Harms, B. ; Burg, S.W.K. van den - \ 2012
Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-werkdocument 274) - 56
maatschappelijk verantwoord ondernemen - ondernemingen - ondernemerschap - biodiversiteit - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - corporate social responsibility - enterprises - entrepreneurship - biodiversity - natural resources - sustainability
Dit document verschaft inzicht in hoeverre internationale bedrijven bijdragen aan natuur en biodiversiteit. Naast literatuuronderzoek zijn hiervoor duurzaamheidsmanagers en directeuren van elf bedrijven geïnterviewd. Waar de bijdrage van bedrijven aan natuur vaker op operationeel niveau plaatsvindt om lokale goodwill te realiseren, speelt de bijdrage aan biodiversiteit nog vooral op directieniveau. De meeste aandacht gaat nu uit naar het gebruik van natuurlijke hulpbronnen (klimaatdoelen) waarbij de relatie met biodiversiteit vaak niet duidelijk is. In de beeldvorming over de bijdrage van bedrijven aan duurzaamheid krijgt biodiversiteit meer aandacht, maar aan de implementatie van de groene voornemens wordt nog weinig prioriteit toegekend, behalve wanneer hier op korte termijn al risico’s mee kunnen worden weggenomen. De aanbevelingen beogen het gebruik van biodiversiteit niet alleen meer op de agenda te krijgen, maar ook om verbeteringen hiertoe daadwerkelijk te realiseren.
Industrial clusters and social networks and their impact on the performance of micro- and small-scale enterprises: evidence from the handloom sector in Ethiopia
Ali, M.A. - \ 2012
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Arie Oskam, co-promotor(en): Jack Peerlings. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461731272 - 175
agrarische economie - industrie - clusters - sociale netwerken - kleine bedrijven - ondernemingen - weven - industrialisatie - financiën - welzijn - kosten - afrika - ethiopië - etniciteit - agricultural economics - industry - clusters - social networks - small businesses - enterprises - weaving - industrialization - finance - well-being - costs - africa - ethiopia - ethnicity

This study empirically investigates how clustering and social networks affect the performance of micro- and small-scale enterprises by looking at the evidence from Ethiopia. By contrasting the performance of clustered micro enterprises with that of dispersed ones, it was first shown that clustering significantly increases profit. The increase in profit from clustering is found to be higher in urban than rural areas. It is also found that regional specific factors determining clustering of micro enterprises are different in urban and rural areas. Second, it is empirically shown that clustering eases the financial constraints of micro enterprises by lowering the capital entry barrier through the reduction of the initial investment required to start a business. This effect is significantly larger for enterprises investing in districts with high capital market inefficiency. Third, the impact of clustering on the entry and exit decisions of farm households into and from non-farm enterprises is examined. Clustering significantly increases the likelihood of entry and enhances the survival of rural enterprises. The impact of entry and exit on household’s well-being is further investigated. Entry into non-farm enterprises significantly increases household’s income and boosts their food security status, while exit from non-farm enterprises is found to significantly reduce household’s income. Finally, the role of ethnic ties on the performance of micro enterprises is investigated. The empirical results show that ethnic ties affect the performance of producers negatively, which implies that the positive effect of ethnic ties, through the reduction of transaction costs arising from market imperfections, does not outweigh the negative effects of closed social networks.

Keywords: clustering, micro enterprises, industrialization, finance, entry, exit, well-being, ethnic ties, transaction cost, Africa, Ethiopia.

Kwartiermaken duurzame Aquacultuur Noord-Holland, deel II: 5 business cases: ondersteuning, status en aanbevelingen oct. 2009 - maart 2010
Veenstra, F.A. - \ 2010
IJmuiden : IMARES (Rapport / IMARES Wageningen UR C048/10) - 62
aquacultuur - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - projecten - netwerken (activiteit) - ondernemingen - noord-holland - multi-stakeholder processen - bedrijfsmanagement - aquaculture - sustainability - projects - networking - enterprises - multi-stakeholder processes - business management
Van december 2008 april 2009 heeft de Provincie Noord Holland IMARES ingehuurd om de kwartiermaker te leveren voor het verbinden, verdiepen en ondersteunen van de nieuwe en lopende aquacultuur initiatieven alsmede synergie te bewerkstellingen met de aquacultuur ontwikkelingen in de provincies Friesland, Flevoland en Zeeland. Ten aanzien van aquacultuur ontwikkelingen in Nederland er nog steeds te veel versnippering is, zowel met betrekking tot de ondersteuning van start up kweekbedrijven in de verschillende provincies alsmede onderlinge kennis en ervaringstransfer.In de voorjaarsbijeenkomst van Stuurgroep Aquacultuur Noord Holland is door de leden te kennen gegeven, dat de aanbevelingen van de kwartiermaker nog dit jaar een verdiepingslag zouden moeten krijgen en de kwartiermaker hierbij opnieuw een actieve aanjaag rol te geven. De focus ligt dan op de 3 viskweek business cases : tong,snoekbaars, paling en op de aquacultuur samenwerking, de 2 business cases: Noord Holland/ZeelandVIP/LNV/Provincies en een eerste aanzet tot een ontwikkelingsplan voor aquacultuur uitgangsmaterialen i.s.m.Seed Valley/TTI/Agriboard/WUR.
Samen werken aan samenwerking
Smit, A.B. ; Kortstee, H.J.M. ; Jukema, N.J. ; Meijaard, J. ; Oudmaijer, S.C. ; Idema, N. ; Pleijster, F. ; Braaksma, R.M. ; Staalduinen, J. van - \ 2009
Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (Rapport / LEI : Werkveld 2, Sectoren en bedrijven ) - ISBN 9789086153947 - 233
landbouwsector - tuinbouw - ondernemingen - samenwerking - bedrijven - innovaties - markten - marktanalyse - agricultural sector - horticulture - enterprises - cooperation - businesses - innovations - markets - market analysis
Op het gebied van horizontale samenwerking is er veel mogelijk qua vorm, intensiteit, werkterrein en juridische constructie, zowel in de agrosector als in het mkb. De vele mogelijkheden bieden veel aangrijpingspunten om privé- en bedrijfsdoelen beter te kunnen bereiken, onder andere door meer denk- en slagkracht, ook financieel, en sociale voordelen als steun en meer vrije tijd. Samenwerking vraagt echter ook veel van de ondernemers en hun competenties. In dit onderzoek is vooral gekeken naar horizontale samenwerking: tussen soortgelijke ondernemers onderling
Governance choices for external sourcing in innovation : towards a portfolio of strategic alliances and mergers & acquisitions
Sabidussi, A. - \ 2009
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Onno Omta; H. Schenk, co-promotor(en): Harry Bremmers. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085855323 - 155
innovatie adoptie - innovaties - technologie - ondernemingen - governance - kennismanagement - bedrijfsmanagement - strategisch management - innovation adoption - innovations - technology - enterprises - governance - knowledge management - business management - strategic management
Inspirerende kolomstrategieën : lessen van buiten en binnen de agrarische sector
Beldman, A.C.G. ; Schans, J.W. van der; Smit, C.T. ; Wierda, C. ; Poelarends, J.J. ; Enting, J. - \ 2009
Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (Rapport / LEI : Werkveld 3, Consumenten en ketens ) - 93
ondernemingen - bedrijfsvoering - landbouwbeleid - innovaties - duurzame landbouw - agro-industriële ketens - enterprises - management - agricultural policy - innovations - sustainable agriculture - agro-industrial chains
Vanwege de gewenste transitie naar duurzame landbouw zijn 6 inspirerende voorbeelden binnen en buiten de agrarische sector geanalyseerd op basis van eenzelfde theoretisch raamwerk. De resultaten van de analyse zijn vervolgens gebruikt in een workshop met primaire ondernemers die een trekkende rol vervullen in een aantal (over het algemeen nieuwe) agroketens. Dit heeft geleid tot een analyse van nog eens 7 casussen. Op basis van deze analyses worden aanbevelingen gedaan voor ondernemers en beleidsmakers
Hoe landbouwers voorzien in hun sociale zekerheid
Meulen, H.A.B. van der; Oosterkamp, E.B. ; Veen, H.B. van der; Asseldonk, M.A.P.M. van; Venema, G.S. - \ 2009
Den Haag : LEI Wageningen UR (Rapport / LEI : Werkveld 2, Sectoren en bedrijven ) - ISBN 9789086153190 - 115
werkloosheid in de landbouw - inkomsten uit het landbouwbedrijf - pensionering - ondernemingen - landbouwbedrijven - financiën - arbeidsongeschiktheid - agricultural unemployment - farm income - retirement - enterprises - farms - finance - labour disability
Dit rapport schetst een beeld van de sociale zekerheid en inkomensvoorzieningen in de agrarische sector. In deze studie wordt ingegaan op de mate waarin agrarische ondernemers in staat zijn zelf voorzieningen te treffen, of zij tekortkomingen of knelpunten signaleren en in hoeverre zij verbeteringen nastreven op het niveau van sociale zekerheid. Thema's die worden uitgewerkt zijn: arbeidsongeschiktheid, pensioenvorming, laag inkomen en de levensloopregeling. Het rapport is gebaseerd op deskstudie, diepte"interviews en een schriftelijke enquête
Samenwerking: kansen voor u als ondernemer: kansen voor lonend, innovatief en sociaal ondernermschap door onderlinge samenwerking
Smit, A.B. ; Kortstee, H.J.M. ; Jukema, N.J. ; Meijaard, J. ; Warmink, M. - \ 2008
Wageningen UR
landbouwsector - ondernemingen - ondernemerschap - bedrijfsvoering - samenwerking - innovaties - economische samenwerking - agricultural sector - enterprises - entrepreneurship - management - cooperation - innovations - economic cooperation
Het opzetten en uitbouwen van samenwerkingsverbanden tussen ondernemers is een vorm van ondernemerschap die het Ministerie van LNV graag ziet toenemen. Ondernemers, maar ook het onderwijs en de adviseurs in de landbouw worden opgeroepen om hiermee aan de slag te gaan. Voorbeelden van verregaande vormen zijn gezamenlijk een nieuwe stal bouwen of, in een telersvereniging, gezamenlijk producten bewerken en afzetten. Deze variatie biedt ondernemers de mogelijkheid een vorm te kiezen die bij hen zelf en bij hun bedrijfssituatie past. Het kiezen van de juiste vorm is daarbij een voorwaarde voor succes want samenwerking vraagt veel van de betrokken partners. Met deze brochure wil de Minister hier een bijdrage aan leveren
Inspire & innovate : eindrapportage
Cornelissen, T. ; Lugtenaar, M. ; Balendonck, J. ; Ruckelshausen, A. ; Wit, R. de - \ 2008
Arnhem : Ontwikkelingsmaatschappij Oost Nederland - 175
innovaties - voedsel - internationale samenwerking - ondernemingen - kennis - duitsland - nederland - levenswetenschappen - middelgrote bedrijven - bedrijfskunde - innovations - food - international cooperation - enterprises - knowledge - germany - netherlands - life sciences - medium sized businesses - business administration
In de Euregio Rijn-Waal en de Euregio Gronau bestond de behoefte om de aanwezige kennis grensoverschrijdend beter te benutten. Het centrale doel was MKB’ers te ondersteunen bij innovaties die ontstaan vanuit het toepassen van nieuwe kennis. Veel van de door de kennisinstellingen aan het bedrijfsleven aangeboden kennis gaat uit van een academische behoefte. In het project is uitgegaan van de behoefte aan kennis vanuit het MKB. Doordat er alleen projecten zijn ondersteund waarbij behoefte bestond aan een oplossing voor een reëel knelpunt, waren de bedrijfseconomische effecten binnen de bedrijven direct zichtbaar heeft het ook een aantoonbare impuls veroorzaakt voor de regio.
Occurrence and distribution of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) in the Netherlands; survey 2006-2007 : report
Scholte, E.J. ; Takken, W. - \ 2007
Wageningen : Department of Entomology, Dutch Plant Protection Service - 16
culicidae - aedes albopictus - populaties - distributie - dracaena sanderiana - import - ondernemingen - tellingen - nederland - populations - distribution - imports - enterprises - censuses - netherlands
In the summer of 2005, the Asian tigermosquito (Aedes albopictus) was found for the first time in the Netherlands. It was intercepted in several horticultural companies that import the ornamental plant Lucky bamboo from southern China, an endemic area for this mosquito species. The current report describes the results from a one-year survey that was carried out to study the distribution of Aedes albopictus in the Netherlands (July 2006-June 2007). Since the presence of this species is directly linked to the continuous import of Lucky bamboo the focus of the survey was aimed at these companies
Businessplan Bioport Nederland
Boosten, G. ; Florentinus, A. ; Sanders, J.P.M. - \ 2007
Utrecht : InnovatieNetwerk (Rapport / InnovatieNetwerk nr. 07.2.169) - ISBN 9789050593441 - 39
economische ontwikkeling - havens - innovaties - biomassa - brandstoffen - bedrijven - ondernemingen - innovatie adoptie - economic development - harbours - innovations - biomass - fuels - businesses - enterprises - innovation adoption
Environmental management in the Dutch food and beverage industry : a longitudinal study into the joint impact of business network and firm characteristics on the adoption of environmental management capabilities
Haverkamp, D.J. - \ 2007
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Onno Omta, co-promotor(en): Harry Bremmers. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085047575 - 209
food industry - beverage industry - firms - enterprises - environmental management - management by objectives - environmental protection - netherlands - business management - cradle to cradle - voedselindustrie - drankenindustrie - firma's - ondernemingen - milieubeheer - doelstellingenmanagement - milieubescherming - nederland - bedrijfsmanagement - cradle to cradle
The present study aims for a deeper understanding of the internal and external factors, such as firm strategy and pressure from the business network (government, buyers, suppliers, local inhabitants, etc.), that have an impact on the adoption of environmental management capabilities in firms in the Dutch food and beverage industry. A recent investigation by the Arthur D. Little Innovation High Ground Survey among 40 multinationals (Sony, Procter & Gamble, Vodafone, etc.) showed that managers in general expect that sustainability-driven innovation, such as environmentally product (re)design, has a growing potential to deliver value to business. However, only 5% indicated to pay attention to environmental issues in their strategic planning and decision-making. These figures would probably look even worse if small- and medium-sized firms were included. This thesis focuses on the commitment to the environment in terms of the adoption of environmental management capabilities. These comprise different environmental management items, such as an environmental action program, regular environmental auditing to evaluate strategic environmental targets, and an environmental database to keep record of environmental performance. In short, they reflect the capacity of the firm to take care of the environment on a structural basis. The study design integrates the outside-in and the inside-out perspective. According to the outside-in perspective, the firm’s competitiveness depends on industrial forces, such as rivalry among competitors and entrance of new market parties. External factors measured in this study are the different stakeholder influences from the business network, including government and societal groups as well as other chain and network actors, such as buyers, suppliers, consumers and bank and insurance firms. The inside-out perspective states that the firm’s competitiveness depends on acquiring valuable resources, competences, and (dynamic) capabilities to deal with the external influences. Internal factors measured in this study are firm characteristics, including firm strategy and enabling capabilities, such as internal communication on environmental issues. The central research question is formulated as follows: What is the joint impact of the business network (government, buyers, suppliers, customers, etc.) and firm characteristics on the adoption of environmental management capabilities in Dutch food and beverage firms? Semi-structured interviews are held with 13 environmental managers of different firms, while also two large-scale surveys are carried out in 2002 and 2005 in the Dutch food and beverage industry. The interviews are carried out to get more insight into environmental management practices. The aim of the survey questionnaires was to measure the business network influences on the attention for the environment, which formed the longitudinal backbone of the present study. However, the survey of 2002 concentrated on the relationship with government, as well. In total, 492 questionnaires could be used for the analyses, of which 386 originated from micro and small (5-50 employees) and 106 from medium-sized and large firms (50 or more employees). In 2005, special attention was paid to firm strategy and enabling capabilities. The survey included medium-sized and large firms only to get a more homogenous sample. In total, 100 questionnaires could be used. Differences between micro, small, medium-sized and large firms hare analyzed using t-tests. Furthermore, correlation and regression analyses are carried out. A cluster analysis is performed to get more insight in different firm profiles with respect to the joint impact of the business network and firm characteristics. A longitudinal analysis is carried out to get insight in changes with respect to business network impacts on the adoption of environmental management capabilities between 2002 and 2005. An increased impact of the business network is measured from 2002 to 2005. Interestingly, banks and insurance firms appeared to be important as well as chain actors and competitors. This might implicate that the attention for environmental issues in the business networks has extended from government and environmental organizations to include stakeholders that are of primary interest to attain commercial business goals. The perceived impact of environmental organizations was stronger in 2005 compared to 2002, which might reflect growing environmental concerns of society and also increased success of these organizations to get media attention for environmental issues. However, the results demonstrate also that government is (still) a dominant environmental stakeholder. Concerning the public-private relationship, public-private voluntary environmental agreements (or environmental covenants) and the contact intensity with (lower) government appeared to be important. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that firms with an innovative business strategy (i.e. prospector strategy) adopted more cradle-to-cradle environmental management capabilities, including attention for environmentally friendly product (re)design. Regarding the research question, a cluster analysis indicates that four different environmental taxonomies can be distinguished with respect to business network and firm characteristics. In conclusion, the present study shows that for micro and small firms, strong ties with government through frequent contacts with local governmental agencies are essential to stay informed about environmental regulations. Such regular contacts have as a side-effect that the understanding and consequently the appreciation of public environmental policy improves. Governmental agencies are therefore recommended to provide micro and small firms environmental information (e.g. through e-mails or news letters) and, more importantly, maintain frequency of visits even if no direct monitoring or control reasons exist. The micro and small firms typically lack expertise to fundamentally change their environmental behavior. Environmental training and education programs could therefore be organized to increase the expertise to deal with environmental measures. Furthermore, cooperative pilot projects on the implementation of clean technologies can serve as a platform for knowledge exchange. Intermediaries, such as branch-organizations, are important to be involved in these initiatives, since they can take care of the administrative consequences. In the medium-sized and large firms with a defensive environmental strategy, the adoption of environmental management capabilities is most likely provoked by command-and-control regulations, while voluntary public-private environmental initiatives can be used to support proactive firms. Environmental covenants can put a strong focus on innovation addressing environmental targets at the product level (e.g. percentage of recycled components or re-usable parts) and at the chain level (e.g. chain level energy reduction targets). Large firms in particular are able to stimulate their chain partners to be included in environmental initiatives, which is essential for environmentally friendly product (re)design and to achieve chain-oriented environmental targets.
Melkveebedrijven sterk door strategische alliantie
Nauta, W. - \ 2006
Syscope Magazine 2006 (2006)11. - p. 14 - 15.
melkveehouderij - samenwerking - ondernemingen - organisaties - agrarische bedrijfsvoering - bedrijfsontwikkeling in de landbouw - economische samenwerking - organisatievormen - dairy farming - cooperation - enterprises - organizations - farm management - farm development - economic cooperation - forms of organization
De vijf melkveehoudergezinnen van het netwerk Ko-alitie werken hard aan de verwezenlijking van hun droom: een coalitie van vijf melkveebedrijven die als grootschalig bedrijf de (internationale) ontwikkelingen aan kan. Het betekent een intensieve zoektocht naar de meest geschikte bedrijfsvorm, de invulling van de taken en verdeling van verantwoordelijkheden. Eind dit jaar valt het ‘go/no-go’ om een juridische verbinding aan te gaan
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