Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Space-time monitoring of tropical forest changes using observations from multiple satellites
    Hamunyela, Eliakim - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): M. Herold, co-promotor(en): J.P. Verbesselt. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436403 - 188
    tropical forests - monitoring - satellites - deforestation - ecological disturbance - tropische bossen - monitoring - satellieten - ontbossing - ecologische verstoring

    Forests provide essential goods and services to humanity, but human-induced forest disturbances have been on ongoing at alarming rates, undermining the capacity for forests to continue providing essential goods and services. In recent years, the understanding of the short-term and long-term impacts of deforesting and degrading forest ecosystems has improved, and global efforts to reduce forest loss are ongoing. However, in many parts of the globe, significant forest areas continue to be lost. To fully protect forest ecosystems efficiently, timely, reliable and location-specific information on new forest disturbances is needed. Frequent and large-area forest mapping and monitoring using satellite observations can provide timely and cost-effective information about new forest disturbances. However, there are still key weaknesses associated with existing forest monitoring systems. For example, the capacity for forest monitoring systems to detect new disturbances accurately and timely is often limited by persistent cloud cover and strong seasonal dynamics. Persistent cloud can be addressed by using observations from multiple satellite sensors, but satellite sensors often have inter-sensor differences which make integration of observations from multiple sensors challenging. Seasonality can be accounted for using a seasonal model, but image time series are often acquired at irregular intervals, making it difficult to properly account for seasonality. Furthermore, with existing forest monitoring systems, detecting subtle, low-magnitude disturbances remains challenging, and timely detection of forest disturbances is often accompanied by many false detections. The overall objective of this thesis is to improve forest change monitoring by addressing the key challenges which hinders accurate and timely detection of forest disturbances from satellite data. In the next paragraphs, I summarise how this thesis tackled some of the key challenges which hamper effective monitoring of forest disturbances using satellite observations.

    Chapter 2 addresses the challenge of seasonality by developing a spatial normalisation approach that allows us to account for seasonality in irregular image time series when monitoring forest disturbances. In this chapter, I showed that reducing seasonality in image time series using spatial normalisation leads to timely detection of forest disturbances when compared to a seasonal model approach. With spatial normalisation, near real-time forest monitoring in dry forests, which has been challenging for many years, is now possible. Applying spatial normalisation in areas where evergreen and deciduous forests co-exist is however challenging. Therefore, further research is needed to improve the spatial normalisation approach to ensure that it is applicable to areas with a combination of different forest types. In particular, a spatial normalisation approach which is forest type-specifics is desirable. In this chapter, forest disturbances were detected by analysing single pixel-time series. Spatial information was only used to reduce seasonality.

    Taking in account the fact that forest disturbances are spatio-temporal events, I investigated whether there is an added-value of combining both spatial and temporal information when monitoring forest disturbances from satellite image time series. To do this, I first developed a space-time change detection method that detects forest disturbances as extreme events in satellite data cubes (Chapter 3). I showed that, by combining spatial and temporal information, forest disturbances can still be detected reliably even with limited historical observations. Therefore, unlike approaches which detect forest disturbances by analysing single pixel- time series, the space-time approach does not require huge amount of historical images to be pre-processed when monitoring forest disturbances. I then evaluated the added-value of using space-time features when confirming forest disturbances (Chapter 4). I showed that using a set of space-time features to confirm forest disturbances enhance forest monitoring significantly by reducing false detections without compromising temporal accuracy. With space-time features, the discrimination of forest disturbances from false detections is no longer based on temporal information only, hence providing opportunity to also detect low-magnitude disturbances with high confidence. Based on the analysis for conditional variable importance, I showed that features which are computed using both spatial and temporal information were the most important predictors of forest disturbances, thus enforcing the view that forest disturbances should be treated as spatio-temporal in order to improve forest change monitoring.

    In Chapter 2 – 4, forest disturbances where detected from medium resolution Landsat time series. Yet, recent studies showed that small-scale forest disturbances are often omitted when using Landsat time series. In Chapter 5, I investigated whether detection of small-scale forest disturbances can be improved by using the 10m resolution time series from recently launched Sentinel-2 sensor. I also investigated whether the spatial normalisation approach developed in Chapter 2 can be used to reduce inter-sensor differences in multi-sensor optical time series. I showed that the 10m resolution Sentinel-2 time series improves the detection of small-scale forest disturbances when compared to 30m resolution. However, the 10m resolution does not supersede the importance of frequent satellite observations when monitoring forest disturbances. I also showed that spatial normalisation approach developed in Chapter 2 can reduce inter-sensor differences in multi-sensor optical time series significantly to generate temporally consistent time series suitable for forest change detection. Spatial normalisation does not completely remove inter-sensor differences, but the differences are significantly reduced.

    Monitoring of forest disturbances is increasingly done using a combination of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and optical time series. Therefore, Chapter 6 investigated whether the spatial normalisation approach developed in Chapter 2 can also reduce seasonal variations in SAR time series to facilitate the integration of SAR-optical time series for forest monitoring in dry tropical forests. This Chapter demonstrated that seasonal variations in SAR time series can also be reduced through spatial normalisation. As a result, observations from SAR and optical time series were combined to improve near real-time forest change detection in dry tropical forest. In Chapter 7, it is demonstrated that spatial normalisation has potential to also reduce inter-sensor differences in SAR-optical time series, resulting into temporally consistent SAR-optical time series.

    In conclusion, this thesis developed a space-time forest monitoring framework that addresses some key challenges affecting satellite-based forest monitoring. In particular, new methods that allow for timely and accurate detection of forest disturbances using observations from multiple satellites were developed. Overall, the methods developed in this research contribute to our capacity to accurately and timely detect forest disturbances in both dry and humid forests.

    The role of forests in climate change mitigation : a discursive-institutional analysis of REDD+ MRV
    Ochieng, Robert M. - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): B.J.M. Arts; M. Herold, co-promotor(en): I.J. Visseren-Hamakers; M. Brockhaus. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431712 - 172
    forests - climatic change - mitigation - forest monitoring - developing countries - deforestation - forestry - bossen - klimaatverandering - mitigatie - bosmonitoring - ontwikkelingslanden - ontbossing - bosbouw

    Since the advent of professional forestry in the 17th century, forest monitoring has been part and parcel of forest management, and has been implemented in different forms in many European countries. The practice of forest monitoring was later exported to the European colonies, and has since been taken over and conducted by post-colonial governments in many developing countries. From an earlier focus on assessment of timber stocks, the practice has evolved to include assessments of other forest variables than timber. Despite this evolution, national forest monitoring has remained largely timber-oriented, and a closed system with little participation of actors outside the state forestry bureaucracy. However, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) decision on reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries (REDD+) has opened up new discussions on forest monitoring in developing countries. Specifically, the global discourse on monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) of REDD+ outcomes has introduced new ideas and demands on the scope and objectives of forest monitoring, the actors to be involved, and resources to be used. Taken together, the emergence of the REDD+ MRV discourse and associated ideas calls for change in the institutional arrangements for forest monitoring in developing countries. Furthermore, while these ideas and demands are determined and agreed upon in an international negotiation process, they need to be translated and implemented in highly diverse country-specific contexts, with country-specific actors, ideas, interests, and institutions. Translating the REDD+ MRV discourse and ideas into national institutional arrangements thus involves negotiation and contestation among national stakeholders.

    This dissertation examines the performance of REDD+ MRV in terms of its implementation and institutionalization in developing countries, and the political processes by which such institutionalization occurs. Specifically, it examines (1) the institutional effectiveness of REDD+ MRV; (2) how the concept of REDD+ MRV and associated ideas have materialized in new institutional arrangements for forest monitoring in developing countries; and (3) how discursive processes of policymaking and the argumentation and contestation inherent in such processes enable or constrain institutionalization. With this, the dissertation contributes to the literature on REDD+ MRV by examining forest monitoring from a social science perspective. While current research on REDD+ MRV remains highly technical, since it is assumed that forest monitoring is a neutral, apolitical activity, this study argues that monitoring deforestation is also political, and contributes by highlighting the political contestation involved in implementing REDD+ MRV at the national level. The dissertation also contributes to scientific debates on the performance of international environment agreements at the national level, and how contestation and negotiation among domestic stakeholders enable or constrain their institutionalization at the national level.

    Chapter 1 introduces the research presented in this dissertation. It provides an overview of the emergence of reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries (REDD+) within the United Nations Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) as a climate mitigation strategy, and argues that the UNFCCC’s decisions on monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) for REDD+ pose new ideas and demands for forest monitoring in developing countries. It elucidates the research that has been done on REDD+ MRV so far, identifies gaps in the existing literature on forest monitoring for REDD+, and delineates the objectives of the study. It discusses the theoretical basis and framework for the study, explaining how the main theoretical concept – discursive institutionalism – is combined with the Policy Arrangement Approach (PAA) to examine how REDD+ MRV has been shaped and institutionalized in new or reformed institutional arrangements for forest monitoring in developing countries, and discursive processes by which such institutionalization occurs. After presenting the conceptual framework, four research questions are outlined, namely:

    1. What is the institutional effectiveness of REDD+ MRV in terms of its implementation in developing countries?

    2. How have institutional arrangements for forest monitoring in Peru evolved, and how and to what extent has their evolution been shaped by international discourses on forests, especially REDD+ MRV?

    3. How and to what extent has the concept of MRV become institutionalized in new or reformed institutional arrangements for forest monitoring in Indonesia, Peru and Tanzania, and how can differences in this extent of institutionalization across the countries be explained?

    4. How has discursive politics enabled or constrained institutionalization of MRV in Indonesia, Peru and Tanzania?

    The chapter then describes the study’s overall research design and methodology, and ends by outlining the structure of the dissertation.

    Chapter 2 examines the institutional effectiveness of REDD+ MRV. The chapter draws on regime literature to conceptualize UNFCCC and its decisions on REDD+ MRV as an international institution or regime, and outlines the technical and good governance requirements for MRV. Drawing on Young and Levy’s (1999) framework for assessing effectiveness of international institutions, and building on UNFCCC and IPCC methodological guidelines for Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry (LULUCF), and good governance literature, it develops criteria and indicators for assessing progress in implementing the identified technical and governance requirements for MRV. Three dimensions on which effectiveness of REDD+ MRV can be evaluated are developed: ‘owning technical methods for MRV’, ‘developing administrative competence’ and ‘integrating good governance’ in MRV. The framework is applied to assess and compare institutional effectiveness of REDD+ MRV in 13 REDD+ countries, based on a review of national and international documents. The Chapter shows that REDD+ countries have high to very high ownership of technical methods. However, the majority of the countries rank only low to moderate on administrative capacity and good governance. This means that although countries have started developing technical methods for MRV, they are yet to develop the competence necessary to administer MRV and to incorporate aspects of good governance in MRV. The chapter explains the scores and suggest ways of improving implementation of REDD+ MRV.

    Chapter 3 examines how and to what extent global discourses and ideas on forests, especially the concept of REDD+ MRV, have shaped institutional arrangements for forest monitoring in developing countries, using the case of Peru. It draws on discursive institutionalism to conceptualize REDD+ MRV as a discourse and identify the ideas represented in the discourse. It then combines discursive institutionalism with the policy arrangement approach to craft a framework for examining the extent to which REDD+ MRV, and other global discourses, have shaped national institutional arrangements for forest monitoring in Peru. An analytical distinction is made between ‘shallow’ and ‘deep’ institutional change. The chapter identifies three distinct discourses – productivist forest philosophy, multiple-use and sustainable forest management philosophies and REDD+ MRV – that have shaped forest monitoring in Peru. The chapter shows that while all the three discourses have shaped the scope and objectives of forest monitoring, the actors involved, resources used, and rules governing forest assessments, none of them has led to ‘deep’ institutionalization of forest monitoring. On REDD+ MRV specifically, the chapter shows that it has expanded the scope and objectives of forest assessments in Peru, inspired the mobilization of new actors and resources, and spawned the development of new rules to govern forest monitoring. However, these institutional changes are not yet ‘deep’, since the new rules for forest inventories have not yet been formally adopted, and the agencies envisioned to implement forest monitoring have not been established. The chapter concludes that forest monitoring in general, and REDD+ MRV in particular, is only shallowly institutionalized in Peru.

    Chapter 4 compares how and to what extent the concept of REDD+ MRV has institutionalized in Indonesia, Peru and Tanzania. To do so, the chapter draws on insights from discursive institutionalism operationalized by means of the policy arrangement approach to develop the analytical categories of ‘shallow’, ‘shallow-intermediate’, ‘deep-intermediate’ and ‘deep’ institutionalization, and uses these categories to examine the extent of institutionalization across the countries. The chapter shows that in all three countries, REDD+ MRV has institutionalized in new or revised aims, scope and strategies for forest monitoring, and the development of new agencies and mobilization of new actors and resources. New legislation to anchor forest monitoring in law, and procedures to institutionalize the roles of the various agencies, are also being developed. Nevertheless, the extent of institutionalization of MRV varies across the countries, with Indonesia experiencing ‘deep’ institutionalization, Peru ‘shallow-intermediate’, and Tanzania ‘intermediate-deep’ institutionalization. To explain the differences in institutionalization, the chapter examines the theoretical factors for discourse institutionalization and their manifestation in each country. It shows that the relatively ‘deep’ institutionalization of REDD+ MRV in Indonesia and Tanzania is due to the presence of all five factors for discourse institutionalization. Only one factor is found to be present in Peru, and the ‘shallow- intermediate’ institutionalization of REDD+ is largely due to the absence of other factors. Based on the findings and conclusions, the chapter draws lessons to inform institutionalization of MRV in other countries.

    Chapter 5 examines how the discursive politics of MRV policymaking has enabled or constrained institutionalization of REDD+ MRV in Indonesia, Peru and Tanzania. To do this, it draws on the concept of discourse – understood as ideas and the interactive process of policymaking and public deliberation – to examine the actors involved in MRV policy development in the respective countries, and how the deliberation, argumentation and contestation among them (discursive politics) have enabled or constrained institutionalization. The chapter shows that in all countries, the methodologies to be used for MRV, the actors to be involved and their roles were contentious. However, it shows that in Indonesia and Tanzania, where there was a broad-based national discourse on MRV, and where policy actors agreed on the strategies to implement MRV and the role of different actors in forest monitoring, there is relatively ‘deep’ institutionalization compared to Peru, where such discourse and agreement were lacking. The chapter discusses how the discursive process facilitated institutionalization of REDD+ MRV in Indonesia and Tanzania and constrained the same in Peru. It concludes that how discursive politics is played matters in institutionalization.

    Chapter 6 presents the conclusions on the study. It draws on the empirical chapters to answer the research questions, concluding that majority (60%) of the analysed countries has achieved at least a ‘moderate’ institutional effectiveness for MRV. Further, it concludes that the concept of REDD+ MRV has materialized in reformed institutional arrangements for forest monitoring in Indonesia, Peru and Tanzania, albeit to varying degrees. The chapter also concludes that forest monitoring for REDD+ is not only a technical activity, but is also political. Specifically, it concludes that decisions on what exactly is to be monitored and reported, by whom and using what methods are determined through political negotiations, and that how this political process is managed has a significant influence on how, and the extent to which, MRV is institutionalized. After drawing the conclusions, the chapter reflects on the key theoretical concepts used in the study by outlining how discursive institutionalism and the policy arrangement approach can be used to enrich one another. The chapter ends by outlining several policy recommendations. First, it recommends that while the development of new agencies to implement REDD+ MRV is necessary in some countries, care should be taken to avoid establishment of many agencies. Where possible, policy makers and donors should consider working with and strengthening existing agencies before deciding to establish new agencies. Second, it recommends that more investments be directed to organizing inclusive MRV policy coordination processes, since the politics involved in these processes determine the extent to which REDD+ MRV is institutionalized. Lastly, investments in policy coordination should be accompanied with investments in broader communicative political discourse to enlighten all REDD+ stakeholders on MRV policy processes and the strategies being proposed, while seeking the views and feedback these strategies. This is necessary if the proposed strategies are to be legitimate in the eyes of key REDD+ stakeholders.

    REDD+ and Climate Smart Agriculture in landscapes : from national design to local implementation
    Salvini, G. - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Arnold Bregt; Martin Herold, co-promotor(en): Arend Ligtenberg. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578371 - 143
    climate adaptation - environmental policy - governance - un - landscape management - deforestation - klimaatadaptatie - milieubeleid - governance - vn - landschapsbeheer - ontbossing

    Global challenges posed by an increasing food demand and climate change call for innovative mechanisms that consider both agriculture and forests. Agriculture and forests are deeply interconnected in mosaic landscapes, just as multiple pieces of the same puzzle. These pieces are handled by numerous stakeholders with different and often contrasting goals. Hence landscape management is steered by power, access to scarce resources, but also vulnerability and hazards. In this thesis I analyze the roles each stakeholder plays on these dynamics, including policy makers, agribusiness actors and subsistence farmers. I explore landscapes as interconnected tiles of a game, in which players are real stakeholders and their goals determine land use dynamics on the game board just as in reality. Sometimes agreements made in the game translate to real-life actions influencing policy and management decisions. Other times the game is just fun and eventually contributes to social learning and trust.

    Optimising land use in Central Kalimantan Province, Indonesia : modelling ecosystem benefits and land use dynamics
    Suwarno, Aritta - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Rik Leemans; Lars Hein, co-promotor(en): Hans-Peter Weikard. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462578739 - 156
    land use - deforestation - decentralization - ecosystem services - ecosystems - forest policy - forests - modeling - kalimantan - indonesia - landgebruik - ontbossing - decentralisatie - ecosysteemdiensten - ecosystemen - bosbeleid - bossen - modelleren - kalimantan - indonesië

    The rising global population has increased the demand for food, renewable energy and other materials. Yet at the same time to meet this demand requires land and the amount of available land is finite. Considering the importance of land and ecosystems in providing benefits for human, I conducted four independent research on the socio-economic and biophysical aspects of ecosystem service, in Central Kalimantan Province, Indonesia. The first three independent studies were used to understand ecosystem management under decentralised forest governance in Indonesia and its influence on ecosystems, ESs and the benefits that different beneficiaries receive. The fourth study combines the outcomes from the previous three studies to assess and select the most appropriate areas for conservation and community development. As the results, I show the applicability of the ecosystem services concept and land-use modelling in optimising land-use under certain decentralised forest governance systems. My thesis’ results were obtained through the application of methods and steps that integrated a comprehensive set of qualitative and quantitative analyses to support land-use optimisation in the Kapuas Protected Forest Management Unit. My results can inform decision makers on the options of land-use optimisation and the consequences of their management decisions regarding land-use intensification, nature conservation and local economic conditions. I show how land-use optimisation provides an important step in preventing further land degradation and ecosystem loss.

    Carbonizing forest governance: analyzing the consequences of REDD+ for multilevel forest governance
    Vijge, M.J. - \ 2016
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Arthur Mol, co-promotor(en): Aarti Gupta. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462576445 - 178
    forest policy - governance - deforestation - environmental degradation - forests - carbon - bosbeleid - governance - ontbossing - milieuafbraak - bossen - koolstof

    Carbonizing forest governance:

    Analyzing the consequences of REDD+ for multilevel forest governance

    Marjanneke J. Vijge

    Despite the fifty years of global action to combat deforestation and forest degradation, the world is still losing its forests at great scale. A recent governance initiative that has raised high expectations to address global deforestation is Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+), negotiated under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The idea of REDD+ is to compensate developing countries for their forest-related carbon emission reductions. Through REDD+, forests are governed for their carbon content. I therefore see REDD+ as the embodiment of what I call a “carbonization” of forest governance. This thesis analyzes the consequences of carbonization for multilevel forest governance. It studies whether carbonization leads to 1) a simplification of forest governance through a prime focus on carbon, or a focus on multiple carbon and non-carbon benefits; 2) a centralization or dispersion of authority; 3) a privileging of scientific knowledge—what I call a technicalization—or a diversity in the production and use of knowledge; and 4) a primary reliance on market instruments—what I refer to as marketization—or reliance on a mix of market and non-market instruments. I discuss whether REDD+ can be seen as a case of increased homogenization of environmental governance through simplification, centralization, technicalization, and/or marketization.

    The research questions are as follows:

    1. How does the carbonization of forest governance manifest itself at different levels, and with what consequences for multilevel forest governance?

    2. What does this analysis of the consequences of carbonization reveal about the prospects of a homogenization of environmental governance?

    This thesis uses discourses as proxies for how and with what consequences the carbonization of forest governance manifests itself. The thesis analyzes how REDD+ is being framed by policy actors and practitioners, and operationalized in policy, institutional and project developments and design. Triangulation of data is established through reliance on qualitative and quantitative research methods, including semi-structured interviews, surveys, reviews of primary and secondary literature, and direct and participant observation during field visits, project meetings and conferences.

    Chapter 2 analyzes how carbonization manifests itself in UNFCCC policy debates and developments surrounding measuring, reporting and verification (MRV) systems that are centrally implicated in REDD+. This chapter shows that at the global level, REDD+ is framed as a mechanism to facilitate results-based compensation for carbon emission reductions, to be measured through national, state-based, expert-led MRV systems. The chapter argues that this may well induce a simplified focus on carbon, a technicalization of forest governance, and a centralization of authority in national state agencies responsible for measuring and accounting for forest carbon units. This might marginalize non-carbon forest services and empower certain groups of actors such as technical experts at the cost of, for example, local communities. Who will be empowered through REDD+, however, ultimately depends on the context-specific operationalization and implementation of REDD+ at the national and local level.

    Chapter 3 contains an in-depth case study of how carbonization manifests itself in the Green India Mission (GIM), the cornerstone of India’s national REDD+ strategy. The chapter shows that the GIM frames REDD+ as an opportunity to synergistically generate carbon and non-carbon benefits, and promote a further devolution of authority in Indian forest governance to local communities. Chapter 3 nevertheless concludes that this is not likely to be realized without significant investments in benefit-sharing mechanisms and biodiversity and community-based monitoring systems in India.

    Chapter 4 presents the in-depth case study of the first REDD+ pilot project in India. The chapter analyzes the prominence of REDD+-related discourses among stakeholders and in project design. The chapter shows that the manifestation of carbonization at project level can be very different from the dominant framing of REDD+ at the global level as a carbon-centric, centralized and technocratic mechanism. The project case study shows how the carbonization of forest governance might become a vehicle to generate multiple carbon and non-carbon benefits, diversify the production and use of knowledge and the types of actors involved therein, disperse authority among actors involved in forest governance, and diversify reliance on both market- and fund-based finances.

    Chapter 5 contains a cross-country comparative analysis of the prominence of REDD+-related discourses among national policy actors and in national REDD+ policy documents of seven countries: Cameroon, Indonesia, Nepal, Papua New Guinea, Vietnam, Peru and Tanzania. The chapter shows that though REDD+ is mostly framed as a mechanism to generate carbon and non-carbon benefits, most countries pay very little attention to non-carbon monitoring. Almost all countries lay out detailed plans to diversify the production and use of knowledge through the involvement of local communities in REDD+ MRV systems, but currently lack the institutional capacity to implement such plans. Almost all REDD+ policy documents plan for a national state agency to account for and distribute REDD+ payments. There is, however, strikingly little discussion of how to finance REDD+. The chapter argues that a simplification, a centralization and, to a lesser extent, a technicalization of national forest governance are possible consequences of carbonization.

    The concluding chapter shows that carbonization of forest governance manifests itself differently at different levels of governance, with varying consequences for multilevel forest governance. Though homogenization does not yet occur, it may happen in the long run due to the centralization of authority that countries envision in accounting for and distributing REDD+ payments, as well as countries’ capacity gaps in non-carbon and community-based monitoring, which make a simplification and technicalization of national forest governance possible consequences of REDD+. In answering the second research question regarding the prospects of a homogenization of environmental governance, the case of REDD+ shows that developing countries retain authority to design policies, but in diversified ways. I argue that though diversity in policies and practices exist, this goes hand in hand with—and sometimes even flows from—efforts to homogenize in order to measure and regulate environmental outcomes at central (global and/or national) levels. As such, the challenges facing global environmental governance lie not only in measuring and controlling environmental outcomes, but also in managing the diversity and fragmentation that arise from these efforts.

    Spatial modelling and ecosystem accounting for land use planning: addressing deforestation and oil palm expansion in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia
    Sumarga, E. - \ 2015
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Lars Hein. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574854 - 156
    landgebruiksplanning - landgebruik - modelleren - ontbossing - oliepalmen - ecosysteemdiensten - ecosystemen - kalimantan - indonesië - land use planning - land use - modeling - deforestation - oil palms - ecosystem services - ecosystems - kalimantan - indonesia

    Ecosystem accounting is a new area of environmental economic accounting that aims to measure ecosystem services in a way that is in line with national accounts. The key characteristics of ecosystem accounting include the extension of the valuation boundary of the System of National Accounts, allowing the inclusion of a broader set of ecosystem services types such regulating services and cultural services. Consistent with the principles of national account, ecosystem accounting focuses on assessment of the contribution of ecosystem in generating benefits for human well-being. Those valuation characteristics allow ecosystem accounting to explicitly visualize the comprehensive values of ecosystem contribution, and integrate them in a standardized national account.

    There is a wide range of potential application of ecosystem accounting in natural resource management and environmental preservation. This includes the provision of basic data on the values of multiple ecosystem services (both in terms of physical quantities and monetary values), monitoring ecosystem services dynamics, analyzing impacts of land-use change and land management on the trade-offs of ecosystem services, and development of ecosystem services based land-use planning. Ecosystem accounting approach has also been widely involved in addressing critical environmental issues such as deforestation, GHG emissions, and biodiversity conservation.

    Considering the spatial heterogeneity of ecosystem services distribution, spatial analysis is a key element in ecosystem accounting. The availability of spatial information of the values of ecosystem services creates opportunity for a broad range of applications required for land-use planning and management, such as identification of areas with high variability of ecosystem services (often called as ecosystem services hotspots) and areas with high aggregate values of ecosystem services, identification of ecosystem services supply and ecosystem services demand interaction, and analysing the impacts of land-use change on the trade-offs of ecosystem services. Most importantly, spatial information of a comprehensive set of ecosystem services values allows land-use planners to analyse the relationship between any options of land management and the existence of a combination of ecosystem services, hence the best management type which optimize the provision of ecosystem services can be formulated.

    The objective of this thesis is to develop an ecosystem services approach to land-use planning through integration of ecosystem accounting and spatial modelling, with a specific case study on deforestation and oil palm expansion in Central Kalimantan Indonesia. The main motivations of this study includes the high rate of deforestation and oil palm expansion in Central Kalimantan, the environmental degradation related to the deforestation such as greenhouse gas emissions and biodiversity loss, the uncertainty of provincial land-use planning, and the lack of experiences on the integration of ecosystem accounting in land-use planning.

    In chapter 2 of this thesis, seven key ecosystem services (timber production, rattan production, oil palm production, paddy rice production, carbon storage, carbon sequestration, and wildlife habitat) are assessed and mapped at a provincial scale. The ecosystem services are assessed in term of physical quantities. Three mapping techniques are applied: spatial interpolation, lookup tables, and Maximum Entropy (Maxent) modelling. An ecosystem services based land-use planning is tested using the seven ecosystem services maps to identify areas for oil palm expansion. This study shows that selection of the best spatial modelling technique for ecosystem services mapping highly depends on the availability of input data and the characteristics of spatial distribution of ecosystem services. This study also demonstrates the significant support of spatial information of ecosystem services in provincial land-use planning.

    In chapter 3, six ecosystem services mapped in chapter 2 (timber production, rattan production, oil palm production, paddy rice production, carbon sequestration, and wildlife habitat) are valued in monetary terms. The valuation also includes additional cultural service, i.e. nature recreation. Two valuation methods consistent with the principles of ecosystem accounts are applied: resource rent valuation and costs based approach. The monetary values of ecosystem services are then mapped, allowing analysis on the aggregate values of the seven ecosystem services in different land-use types. This study shows the capability of resource rent valuation in filtering and visualizing the value of ecosystem contribution in providing benefits that have market values, and the applicability of a costs based approach for carbon sequestration valuation. However, application of the cost based approach is considered inappropriate in monetary valuation of biodiversity habitat, and further improvement is required. This study also shows how the trade-offs of ecosystem services from the past and the potential land-use change can be analyzed based on the spatial information of monetary values of ecosystem services.

    Chapter 4 of this thesis presents land-use change modelling, with a specific case of modelling oil palm expansion in Central Kalimantan. An integrated deductive inductive modelling is developed, using logistic regression and scenario based modelling. The scenarios used in the modelling consist of two scenarios reflecting the past and the current policies on oil palm expansion, i.e. a business as usual scenario and a moratorium scenario, and one alternative scenario, i.e. the sustainable production scenario, developed based on stakeholder workshop and ecosystem services approach studied in chapter 2. Based on the monetary values of ecosystem services valued and mapped in chapter 3, the societal costs and benefits of oil palm expansion based on the three policy scenarios are then analyzed. The model forecasts the continuation of strong oil palm expansion in the period 2015 – 2020, in particular in case of the business as usual scenario, and forecasts that oil palm expansion would level off in the period 2020 – 2025 in all three scenarios. In the business as usual scenario, this expansion would lead to substantial net costs to society resulting from a loss of ecosystem services, particularly from carbon emission emissions. The sustainable production scenario provides the highest net benefits to society, however, implementation of this scenario requires fundamental change of current land-use policy.

    Chapter 5 presents hydrological and economic impacts of oil palm development on peat, with a case study in the ex mega rice project area, Central Kalimantan. Hydrological aspect of oil palm development have not been studied in the previous chapters, and this chapter addresses this aspect through modelling three types of flooding on drained peatland for oil palm: impaired drainability, frequent flooding, and near permanent inundation. The model integrates current knowledge on subsidence rates and drinage limits, and uses a high resolution LiDAR DEM. The results of the model are presented up to 2136. The economic impacts are analysed through two land-use scenarios: the oil palm scenario assuming all peatlands in the study area will be converted into oil palm, and the mix scenario combining natural forest preservation, jelutung forest development and oil palm plantation. This study shows that in 100 years’ time only around 10% of the area would still be suitable for oil palm. This study also shows that under the first scenario, the social costs of carbon emissions considerably outweigh the benefits of oil palm production. In term of private benefits, the mixed land-use option scores better even at the first plantation cycle. The mix land-use scenario also potentially preserve about 84,000 ha habitat for orangutan. This study provides useful inputs for a comprehensive analysis on the sustainability of oil palm development on peatland.

    In general this thesis demonstrates the significant contribution of ecosystem accounting and spatial modelling for land-use planning. Valuation methods and spatial modelling techniques developed in this study provide basis for completing ecosystem accounting in Central Kalimantan, with potential applicability in other regions. By addressing the critical environmental issues in Central Kalimantan, i.e. deforestation and oil palm expansion and their environmental and economic impacts, this study contributes to formulate a better land-use management, which facilitates the need for oil palm development while maintaining the provision of important ecosystem services.

    Inauguratie Pieter Zuidema
    Zuidema, P.A. - \ 2015
    Wageningen UR
    tropische bossen - ontbossing - ecosysteemdiensten - bosfragmentatie - klimaatverandering - bosbouweconomie - bosexploitatie - tropical forests - deforestation - ecosystem services - forest fragmentation - climatic change - forest economics - forest exploitation
    Hoogleraar Pieter Zuidema vertelt over zijn onderzoek naar invloed van global change op tropische bossen.
    Land use and land cover dynamics in the Brazilian Amazon: understanding human-environmental interactions
    Souza Soler, L. de - \ 2014
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Tom Veldkamp; Peter Verburg, co-promotor(en): Kasper Kok. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462570887 - 186
    dynamiek van het ruimtegebruik - ontbossing - amazonas - brazilië - remote sensing - land use dynamics - deforestation - amazonas - brazil - remote sensing

    Land use and land cover dynamics are a result of the interactions between human activities and the environment. The objective of this thesis is to analyze Amazonian land use and land cover pattern dynamics in order to identify the underlying system dynamics. By combining empirical statistical models and Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping, feedbacks in the human-environment system can be explored to identify more sustainable development pathways. The results show that specific feedback loops can lead to a sustainable human-environment system in the Brazilian Amazon, e.g., in case policies such as Payment for Ecosystems Services (PES) and Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) are enforced. Also, the analysis indicates that land market regulations and the enforcement of the Forestry Code can reduce deforestation. It is concluded that policy effectiveness of sustainable land use practices can be better evaluated by using the combination of statistical and cognitive methods. In summary, the thesis illustrates that added value in analyzing land system changes is achieved if insights obtained at different scales are combined through different methods of analysis.

    The Multi-Stakeholder Dialogue in Ghana : Towards a negotiated solution to illegal chainsaw milling
    Mckeown, J.P. ; Rozemeijer, N. ; Wit, M. - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Tropenbos International - ISBN 9789051131147 - 44
    ontbossing - houtkap - illegale kap - ghana - deforestation - logging - illicit felling - ghana
    From landless to forestless? : settlers, livelihoods and forest dynamics in the Brazilian Amazon
    Homero Diniz, F. - \ 2013
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Bas Arts, co-promotor(en): Kasper Kok; Marjanke Hoogstra-Klein. - [S.l.] : s.n. - ISBN 9789461735836 - 184
    ontbossing - landloosheid - bossen - bosdynamiek - bosecologie - middelen van bestaan - strategieën voor levensonderhoud - bosbedrijfsvoering - brazilië - deforestation - landlessness - forests - forest dynamics - forest ecology - livelihoods - livelihood strategies - forest management - brazil

    Keywords: deforestation; remote sensing; mental models; stakeholders’ perceptions; agrarian reform

    Over the last decades, hundreds of thousands of families have settled in projects in the Brazilian Amazon within the Agrarian Reform Program (ARP) framework, the rationale being to enable settlers to earn their living by small-scale farming and produce an agricultural surplus for sale. Further, the Brazilian Forestry Code requires settlers not to deforest more than 20% of forest on their properties, but in many projects settlers have deforested larger areas than this. However, specific questions about whether the settlers’ activities are, at the very least, providing their livelihoods, and about the effects of these choices on deforestation over time, have hardly been addressed. Located in five settlement projects in Eldorado do Carajás, southeast Pará State, this research investigated how settlers make their living; how their activities and practices affect forest cover changes; and how future prospects for both, i.e. people and forest, are envisioned. Within the framework of the sustainable livelihoods approach, the results indicated that settlers rely on three livelihood strategies (livestock-, diversified-, and off-farm-oriented), with dairy cattle as the main agricultural activity. These strategies are shaped by several factors, such as agrarian reform policies (e.g. credit) and settlers’ background. Forest dynamics analysis showed a clear recent increase in forest (2005–2010) at municipal level, suggesting that the first steps towards forest transition are taking place. However, settlers do not perceive secondary regrowth as ‘real’ forest, implying a high risk of future deforestation in these areas; but these areas can also be seen as having a high potential of remaining forested if technological innovations in agricultural activities and practices become available in the (near) future. The research findings also indicated the necessity to analyse livelihoods and forest cover changes as dynamic processes. It was not possible to determine one-to-one relationships and general patterns of effects of livelihood trajectories on forest dynamics due to the complexities involved, although analysis of individual household- and property-level cases offered insights into factors driving both. Fuzzy cognitive mapping was used to capture current settlers’ perceptions about their realities. The results indicated that settlers have similar perceptions of the factors that affect their livelihood security and environmental sustainability, independent of livelihood strategy adopted. However, differences were found in the relationships among factors and the weight attributed to each relationship, creating fundamentally different system dynamics for each livelihood strategy. Consequently, strong trade-offs exist between livelihood security and environmental sustainability independent of livelihood strategy and in (nearly) all future scenario analyses. The research produced five key messages: 1) small farmers within the studied ARP projects are less poor than often assumed; they achieve livelihood security through on- and off-farm income; 2) there is a strong trade-off between livelihood security and environmental sustainability; hence primary forest deforestation continues, although the first signs of secondary forest transitions have been observed; 3) the settlers’ contribution to deforestation is less than often assumed because they contribute to emerging forest transitions and because local deforestation peaked before the projects; 4) policies strongly affect the settlers’ realities; hence their views are crucial for effective policymaking, including both the Forestry Code and agrarian reform policies; and 5) livelihood trajectories and forest dynamics models are more appropriate to capture the realities of the human–environment systems in the Brazilian Amazon than livelihoods as snapshots and unidirectional deforestation models.

    Forestry in MAGNET : a new approach for land use and forestry modelling
    Woltjer, G.B. - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-werkdocument 320) - 44
    bosbouw - ontbossing - landgebruik - modelleren - verandering - forestry - deforestation - land use - modeling - change
    This report discusses improvements of MAGNET in order to improve the analysis of land use change and forestry dynamics. In the standard approach only a difference is made between agricultural land, non-used land that can be potentially used for agriculture, and land that never can be used for agriculture. In the new approach different other land cover types like built - up area and forestry are distinguished. Also the symmetry requirement of the old model is replaced by a more sophisticated mechanism where stylized facts that forest land is normally converted into grassland, and grassland in to cropland can be acknowledged. Next to this the forestry sector is implemented as a sector where land use and harvest of the land are not directly coupled. An explicit function is included that acknowledges that deforestation generates a once and for ever production of wood and other forestry products.
    LULUCF values under the Kyoto Protocol : background document in preparation of the National Inventory Report 2011 (reporting year 2009)
    Wyngaert, I.J.J. van den; Kuikman, P.J. ; Lesschen, J.P. ; Verwer, C.C. ; Vreuls, H.J.J. - \ 2011
    Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-werkdocument 266) - 70
    broeikasgassen - kooldioxide - emissie - klimaatverandering - bebossing - ontbossing - nederland - greenhouse gases - carbon dioxide - emission - climatic change - afforestation - deforestation - netherlands
    This report collects all background information that is used for the 2011 submission under the Kyoto Protocol (KP) for the Netherlands. It includes the full text of the National Inventory Report (NIR)-II for LULUCF, as well as a description of the table-bytable methodologies, choices and motivations. In 2009 afforestation and reforestation activities produced a sink of 546.68 Gg CO2 equivalents while deforestation caused an emission of 780,45 Gg CO2 equivalents. These values were based on changes in above- and belowground biomass, dead wood, litter and soil (mineral as well as organic), and agricultural lime application on deforested areas. The values for 2008 were recalculated from last year, and the recalculation included changes due to: (i) This was the first year emissions from mineral and organic soils were reported for Afforestation, Reforestation, and Deforestation (ARD). (ii) An error in harvested wood was corrected, and (iii) The calculation of dead wood was improved. Some minor gaps remain to be solved in the coming year(s), especially for the estimation of uncertainty of all reported values.
    Carbon pools in tropical peat forest : towards a reference value for forest biomass carbon in relatively undisturbed peat swamp forests in Southeast Asia
    Verwer, C.C. ; Meer, P.J. van der - \ 2010
    Wageningen : Alterra (Alterra-report 2108)
    veengebieden - veengronden - tropische bossen - kooldioxide - ontbossing - biomassa - koolstofvastlegging - gegevens verzamelen - ligstro - zuidoost-azië - peatlands - peat soils - tropical forests - carbon dioxide - deforestation - biomass - carbon sequestration - data collection - litter - south east asia
    Carbon budgets and carbon sequestration potential of Indian forests
    Kaul, M. - \ 2010
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Frits Mohren, co-promotor(en): V.K. Dadhwal. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085858089 - 181
    koolstofvastlegging - koolstof - kringlopen - bossen - bio-energie - landgebruik - ontbossing - bebossing - biomassa - india - carbon sequestration - carbon - cycling - forests - bioenergy - land use - deforestation - afforestation - biomass - india

    Keywords: Carbon uptake, Forest biomass, Bioenergy, Land use change, Indian forests, Deforestation, Afforestation, Rotation length, Trees outside forests.

    Global climate change is a widespread and growing concern that has led to extensive international discussions and negotiations. Responses to this concern have focused on reducing emissions of greenhouse gases, especially carbon dioxide, and on measuring carbon absorbed by and stored in forests and soils. Forests are a significant part of the global carbon cycle. The amount of carbon stored, however, changes over time as forests grow and mature. Land use changes, especially afforestation and deforestation may have major impacts on carbon storage. An option for mitigating the accumulation of CO2 in the atmosphere is the enhanced sequestration of carbon by the biosphere through massive reforestation or sustainable afforestation programs. Reducing the rate of deforestation reduces carbon losses from the biosphere. Establishing plantations on former agricultural land may have less of an impact on increasing carbon sequestration than restoring natural forests. The focus of this study was to estimate the carbon budgets and carbon sequestration potential of Indian forests, assessing the possible impacts of land-use changes and climate change on carbon stocks of Indian forests, and the mitigation potential of using forest-based bioenergy for fossil fuel substitution. The results from this study show that over a 10-year period from 1992-2002, Indian forests have acted as a small carbon sink. Thus, India with high population density, low forest cover per capita, high dependence of a large part of human population on forests, and a predominantly agrarian economy, has been able to reduce deforestation rate and increase its forest cover and associated carbon sink in the terrestrial biosphere. Due to fast growth rate and adaptability to a range of environments, short rotation plantations, in addition to carbon storage, rapidly produce biomass for energy and contribute to reduced greenhouse gas emissions. India has the potential to create additional carbon sinks using marginal lands, while at the same time balancing economic development and environmental concerns.

    Forestry
    Nabuurs, G.J. ; Masera, O. ; Andrasko, K. ; Benetiz-Ponce, P. ; Boer, R. ; Dutschke, M. ; Elsiddig, E. ; Ford-Robertson, J. ; Frumhoff, P. ; Karjalainen, T. ; Krankina, O. ; Kurz, W.A. ; Matsumoto, M. ; Oyhantcabal, W. ; Ravindranath, N.H. ; Sanz Sanchec, M.J. ; Zhang, X. - \ 2007
    In: Climate Change 2007: Mitigation. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change / Metz, B., Davidson, O.R., Bosch, P.R., Dave, R., Meyer, L.A., Cambridge (UK) and New York (USA) : Cambridge University Press (Climate Change 2007 ) - ISBN 9780521705981 - p. 541 - 584.
    landgebruik - bosbouw - ontbossing - land use - forestry - deforestation
    During the last decade of the 20th century, deforestation in the tropics and forest regrowth in the temperate zone and parts of the boreal zone remained the major factors responsible for emissions and removals, respectively. However, the extent to which the carbon loss due to tropical deforestation is offset by expanding forest areas and accumulating woody biomass in the boreal and temperate zones is an area of disagreement between land observations and estimates by top-down models
    Paradise in a Brazil nut cemetery : sustainability discourses and social action in Pará, the Brazilian Amazon
    Otsuki, K. - \ 2007
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Jandouwe van der Ploeg, co-promotor(en): Alberto Arce. - [S.l.] : s.n. - ISBN 9789085046837 - 255
    ontwikkelingsstudies - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - ontbossing - nederzetting - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - hulpbronnenbeheer - etnografie - sociale structuur - gemeenschappen - brazilië - amazonas - sociale processen - development studies - sustainability - deforestation - settlement - natural resources - resource management - ethnography - social structure - communities - brazil - amazonas - social processes
    This book is about sustainable development and deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. It explores how Amazonian settlers construct their life in a settlement project and how this process accompanies the landscape change in the southeast of Pará State. The book critically examines discourses of sustainable development and natural resource management for the institutionalism and insufficient dealings with the settlers’ everyday practice of forest clearing. The study demonstrates rich social and political life of the settlers in ethnographic details and shows flexible community boundaries of settlement projects. Deforestation and sustainable development in the Amazon cannot be discussed without understanding changeable social and physical spaces from the settlers’ standpoint. This book further elaborates a critical account of development projects and international cooperation programs promoting sustainable development in the Amazon, based on the author’s own experience.
    Forest, institutions, discourses : a discursive-institutional analysis of global forest politics
    Arts, B.J.M. - \ 2006
    Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research centre - 40
    bossen - bosbeleid - politiek - ontbossing - instellingen - openbare redes - forests - forest policy - politics - deforestation - institutions - public speeches
    Economic analysis of deforestation : the case of the gum Arabic belt in Sudan
    Rahim, A. - \ 2006
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Ekko van Ierland; Ruerd Ruben, co-promotor(en): Justus Wesseler. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085044697 - 141
    natuurlijke hulpbronnen - hulpbronnenbeheer - ontbossing - milieuafbraak - economische analyse - arabische gom - Sudan - milieueconomie - natural resources - resource management - deforestation - environmental degradation - economic analysis - gum arabic - Sudan - environmental economics
    Keywords: Gum Arabic; Deforestation; Entry and Exit; Real options Drought; Socio-economic, Oligopoly; Interdependent markets; Stackelberg.The gum arabic belt inSudanoffered in the past an example of how environmental conservation and economic development could be achieved simultaneously as it generates a number of private and social benefits to gum producers and the country as a whole. The most important benefits from the gum based system are income from the gum harvest to the poor farmers and combating large scale desertification in the Sudan-Sahel zone. Over the last few decades, however, the gum belt suffered from increased degradation, gum production decreased andSudanlost its near monopoly position in the gum export market. The main purpose of this study is to obtain a better understanding of the factors underlying the deforestation of the gum belt and the decline in gum production inSudanduring recent years.

    Two important gum arabic producing acacias are found in the gum belt: Acaciasenegal that produces high quality gum and Acacia seyal that produces low quality gum. The analysis in this study focuses mainly on Acaciasenegal and Acacia senegal -based agroforestry system in Kordofan region - a major gum production area inSudan. Various methodological approaches including theoretical and empirical analysis are employed in the study. A micro econometrics technique is used to identify the effect of socio-economic factors assumed to influence the disadoption of gum production. The study merges the real options approach with agroforestry to analyze farmers' investment decision in the choice between three different land use systems (gum agroforestry, gum forestry and agriculture). Moreover a theoretical scheme of Stackelberg model (non-cooperative oligopoly model) is deployed to analyze the competition in the gum export market for high and low quality gum between the (leader)Sudanand the followers (ChadandNigeria). It attempts to investigate the effects of market interventions-such as international subsidies on gum market equilibrium and leader's (Sudan's) long run performance of profits from the gum export.

    The micro-econometric approach used to analyze the determinants of farmers' disadoption of gum production shows that factors which affect the opportunity cost of labor and income from annual crops tend to influence the observed variation in the behavior of adoption practices in gum production. Income from annual crops has a positive effect on continuous adoption of gum agroforestry. This specific result suggests that gum arabic and other agricultural crops (except groundnut because of overlap in harvest time) do not compete but rather complement one another in the household farming economy. Policy measures that aim to improve agricultural production in the region will induce farmers to settle in their village and reduce the seasonal labor migration trend which in turn will increase the availability of labor for gum production.

    The theoretical framework developed using a real options approach aimed to analyze the economic incentives for entry (planting gum tree) and exit (abandoning gum forest) in the gum arabic agroforestry.Monte Carlosimulation shows that higher economic benefit is observed from agricultural production than the gum production. Results also suggest that an increase of about nine to ten times on the average opportunity costs of labor is necessary in order for farmers to further abandon gum arabic production and neglect the gum forest.

    As for the expansion (plantation) of gum forest we analyzed two options: converting idle land into gum forest and converting agricultural land into gum forest. Results show that the incremental average annual benefits of gum agroforestry or forestry systems are above the critical values for converting idle land to a gum arabic forest. This suggests that farmer's could expand gum forest. However, this is not observed, and we suggest two interpretations to explain the observed non-expansion of gum forest into idle lands: scarcity of labor and insecure property rights caused by political instability in the country which discourage long-term investments.

    Furthermore, the current incremental average annual benefits for converting agricultural land to gum arabic agroforestry (forestry) system are found to be below the calculated threshold values needed for the investment. Results suggest that an increase in the prices of gum arabic respectively of about 315 per cent and 775 percent is needed to induce a shift in land use system from continuous agricultural production to gum agroforestry or forestry land use systems respectively.

    The analysis of the competition in the gum export market between the three major gum exporters attempts to assess the best strategy forSudanto pursue in light of the recent changes in the gum market structure and the proposed donor policies of subsidizing gum production in Sub-Saharan Africa. The analysis is based on von Stackelberg model and investigates the effect of different subsidy scenarios. Our result shows that the proportionate increase inSudan's profit is higher when the leader (Sudan) uses a subsidy to promote high quality gum than when it uses the subsidy to promote the low quality gum. In the case of followers (Chad,Nigeria), however, the decision on which quality to promote appears to be sensitive to the levels of own and cross price elasticities. Moreover, the results suggest that it is in the advantage of Sudan, Chad and Nigeria to adopt an export coordination strategy with some side payments to be made by Sudan as compensation for Chad's and Nigeria's lost profits in case they agree to curtail their export of high quality gum.
    Agriculture and climate beyond 2015: a new perspective on future land use patterns
    Brouwer, F.M. ; McCarl, B.A. - \ 2006
    Dordrecht : Springer (Environment & policy vol. 46) - ISBN 9781402040634 - 307
    landgebruik - landbouw - klimaatverandering - broeikasgassen - emissie - bio-energie - ontbossing - land use - agriculture - climatic change - greenhouse gases - emission - bioenergy - deforestation
    Interactions between agriculture, climate and patterns of land use are complex. Major changes in agriculture, and land use patterns are foreseen in the next couple of decades in response to shifts in climate, greenhouse gas management initiatives, population growth and other forces. The book explores key interactions between changes in agriculture, patterns of land use and efforts to reduce greenhouse emissions from agriculture. The volume is based on inter-disciplinary science and policy interactions, exploring the way land use may aid in addressing or be affected by the onset of climate change and alterations in food demand. Future forces shaping land use decisions are examined, and its sensitivity to climate change is highlighted. Patterns of land use and the agricultural role in climate change mitigation are explored. Also, policy and social responses to the new perspectives on future land use patterns are identified. The perspective of the book is beyond the year 2015.
    Land Use, Nature Conservation and the Stability of Rainforest Margins in Southeast Asia
    Gerold, G. ; Fremery, M. ; Guhardja, E. ; Claassen, N. ; Priess, J. ; Rheenen, T. van; Waltert, M. ; Zeller, M. - \ 2004
    Berlin : Springer Science + Business Media (Environmental science ) - ISBN 9783540006039 - 534
    tropische regenbossen - landgebruik - natuurbescherming - ontbossing - bosbestanden - bosbedrijfsvoering - biodiversiteit - zuidoost-azië - tropical rain forests - land use - nature conservation - deforestation - forest resources - forest management - biodiversity - south east asia
    This book contains a selection of contributions presented at an international symposium on "Land Use, Nature Conservation and the Stability of Rainforest Margins in Southeast Asia," in Bogor, Indonesia, October 2002. It highlights the critical issue of rainforest preservation from an interdisciplinary perspective, comprising input from scientists in socio-economic, biological, geographical, agrarian and forestry disciplines.
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