Planned development interventions and contested development in the Casamance Region, Senegal: an enquiry into the ongoing struggles for autonomy and progres by the Casamance peasantry
Ndiame, Fadel - \ 2017
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): J.D. van der Ploeg, co-promotor(en): P.G.M. Hebinck. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463436779 - 180
peasant farming - peasantry - farming - farmers - agricultural development - development projects - development studies - history - social change - senegal - west africa - landbouw bedrijven in het klein - boerenstand - landbouw bedrijven - boeren - landbouwontwikkeling - ontwikkelingsprojecten - ontwikkelingsstudies - geschiedenis - sociale verandering - senegal - west-afrika
This thesis analyses the relationships between i) planned development interventions which took place in the Casamance over the last 100 years; ii) the advent and co-existence of different forms of endogenous responses to state interventions, and iii) the conflictive outcomes which emanated from the interplay of i) and ii). The ultimate goal is to provide a critical and situated understanding of the ‘Casamance crises’.
The thesis is anchored on and actor oriented conceptual framework. This approach positions the agency of different categories of actors and their ability to engage, accommodate, resist and co-determine the outcome of the development processes. The processes observed in the Casamance are interpreted as ‘a structural feature of agrarian development’, as “arenas where different actors interact, compete and cooperate, based on their own objectives’ (Long, 2001). In light of this framework, the peasantry is seen to be able to strive for autonomy by relying on own resources to survive in an increasingly globalising economy. However, their potentials can be blocked by unfavourable socio- economic conditions, such as those that deprive them the fruits of their labour, thus leading to an agrarian crisis as defined by Van der Ploeg (2008). From this angle, the thesis explores the extent to which the long-term configurations of relationships between external interventions and local responses have accelerated the disarticulation of the traditional production systems, and contributed to compromising the livelihood position and the emancipation trajectories of youth and women within the traditional domestic units in the Casamance.
The methodology adopted described in chapter 2, thus focussed on unpacking interplay and mutual determination between ‘internal’ and ‘external’ factors and relationships. This entailed a historical contextualization of processes of planned state interventions and distancing from development activities in the Casamance over a long period of time. This is followed by a detailed analysis of the various consequent responses shown by different segments of the Casamance society at different historical junctures, in pursuit of a differentiated set of emancipatory trajectories. Data collection involved multiple times and locations, combining field observations, data collected through interviews and surveys and consulting research reports.
Chapter 3 reviews the key physical, socioeconomic and political features of the Casamance region, from the colonial era until the present day’s developments which culminated in the protracted conflict opposing the Government of Senegal and the Mouvement des Forces Democratiques de la Casamance (MFDC). The land reform programmes initiated during the colonial era brought a number of provisions which made it easier for the Colonial government to control local people’s holdings. When Senegal became independent in 1960, the colonial concept of land tenure also played an important role in the “Loi sur le Domaine National”, considered as a means of achieving both economic and social objectives. In addition, the country maintained a policy of specialisation on groundnut and the development of an import- substitution industry funded by foreign donors. During the 1980-2000s, changes in government policy and the drought contributed to significant changes in the production systems. These changes triggered multifaceted responses: collaboration, resistance, rejection as well as conflict- the most dramatic of which was the launch of an armed campaign for the independence of the Casamance region during the 1980s.
Chapter 4 analyses the state-administered agricultural programmes and the consequent local people’s responses which took place in the Casamance between the 1960s and the 1980s. These typically revolved around land and agrarian reform programmes supplying agricultural equipment and technology, rural development projects and farming systems research. They enabled significant sections of rural people to access animal traction equipment and complementary inputs through agricultural credit. Later during the 1980s, the state withdrew form direct involvement in production and marketing activities as part of the structural adjustment programme. This chapter also showed that State hegemony and locally driven development dynamics are related both historically and conceptually: During the first phase of State hegemony, a number of rural institutions were controlled and managed by the State. During the 1970s and 1980s when the state withdrew, an autonomous farmer movement (FONGS) emerged outside the official state extension and structuring system- defining a new farmer-centered political and economic agenda.
Chapter 5 provides an in-depth analysis of the two types of responses that the Casamance peasantry brought to planned development interventions. First, the incentives provided through State policies for groundnuts production analysed in chapter 4 led to a widespread adoption of labour-saving and scale-enlarging technologies, which facilitated a significant increase in the male-dominated production of cash crops- groundnuts especially- as a source for rural livelihoods in the region. This however happened at the expense of food crops whose production was dominated by women and youth. It also accelerated the gradual disconnections between crop production, livestock management at the household and village levels. Moreover, subsequent changes in State policies, which was no longer providing favourable conditions for entrepreneurial farming, combined with the negative consequences of a long drought, led to devastating impacts on local production systems. This situation triggered a significant out-migration of the Casamance youth to the country’s capital city and other metropolitan areas, in search of alternative employment and livelihood opportunities.
With the evolution of time, the Casamance farmers developed a second set of responses. As discussed in chapters 5 and 6, the rural youth and women explored new livelihood and emancipation opportunities- such as producing rice for family consumption and diversifying production activities to include seasonal cultivation of fruits and vegetables for sale. Many young people also embarked on seasonal out-migration to enable them to accumulate the resources necessary to start their own households.
Chapters 6 further analyzes the development and growth of FOs, and how they managed to use funding from donors to develop new technical and organisational capabilities to support the activities of the Casamance family farms. They succeeded in fulfilling the technical and advisory roles previously provided by state institutions, and facilitated rural people’s access to agricultural finance. They were also able to integrate and play a bigger role in the activities of their local government-with a more emboldened voice and power to influence change. The Chapter also shows the development of other forms of private rural business development actors from the Casamance and other regions of Senegal- mainly premised on the participation of smallholder farmers in the agricultural value chain.
Chapter 7 analyses the Casamance crisis as a major conflict of articulation between a region and the rest of country; epitomising a violent contestation of a dominant state- driven modernisation scenario which does not conform to the emancipation trajectories of the educated youth, aspiring to the benefits of sovereignty. In this respect the conflict conforms to the definitions of a governance and agrarian crisis as articulated in this thesis. However while significant, the actions of the MFDC do not represent the sole and unique responses of the Casamance rural youth to the prevailing crisis. The agrarian interpretation of the conflict adopted in this thesis enable us to illustrate other types of development dynamics associated with the interplay between planned interventions and local people responses. Building on the lessons learned in conducting this study, it appears that finding practical answers to the question of local people’s access to decent resources and living conditions could be a prerequisite to overcoming the current political and agrarian crisis prevailing in the Casamance.
The concluding chapter 8 explores the links between ‘peace’, ‘autonomy’ and ‘development’ in the Casamance. I examine the extent to which more autonomy, associated with peasant-centred development, can lead to ‘peace’ and development in the southern region of Senegal. It links the successful resolution of the Casamance crisis to the advent of a governance revolution, which permits a re-alignment of the resources, activities and personal agendas of the different family members around a shared goal for transformation and progress. Building on the lessons learned as part of this study, the approaches considered here are based on new principles of the valorisation of local resources, as well as the redefinition of the format and content of relationships with other development actors. This approach requires the revision of the relationships between local actors and the wider set of actors; it also implies a reconciliation of diverse strategies deployed by the different protagonists over different geographic boundaries.
These principles inform the final recommendations of this study which aim at creating the necessary conditions for the advent of lasting peace linked to the capacity of the local people to rebuild a more viable livelihood for the inhabitants of the Casamance region.
Life and capital : development and change in the 21st century
Büscher, B.E. - \ 2015
Wageningen : Wageningen University, Wageningen UR - ISBN 9789462573680 - 36
development studies - rural development - environmental degradation - environmental impact - social change - developing countries - quality of life - ontwikkelingsstudies - plattelandsontwikkeling - milieuafbraak - milieueffect - sociale verandering - ontwikkelingslanden - kwaliteit van het leven
Community based fish culture in the public and private floodplains of Bangladesh
Mahfuzul Haque, A.B. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Leontine Visser, co-promotor(en): M.M. Dey. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574533 - 166
stroomvlakten - visteelt - ontwikkelingsstudies - ontwikkelingseconomie - samenleving - huishoudens - bangladesh - zuid-azië - floodplains - fish culture - development studies - development economics - society - households - bangladesh - south asia
Seasonal floodplains are water bodies that retain water for 5-6 months during which they are suitable to grow fish and other aquatic animals. Out of 2.8 million ha of medium and deep-flooded areas, about 1.5 million ha are estimated to be suitable for Community-Based Fish Culture (CBFC). WorldFish had undertaken a five-year interdisciplinary action research project from 2005-2010 with the overall aim of enhancing the productivity of seasonally occurring floodwaters for the improved and sustained benefit of the livelihoods of the poor. My involvement in this project was as PhD Scholar from 2007-2009 for understanding the different and complex institutional arrangements and its overall impact of governing Community-Based Fish Culture in seasonal floodplains for the sustainable use and maximization of benefits to the targeted people of Bangladesh.
Six seasonal floodplains in different areas of Bangladesh were selected under the action research project implemented by the Department of Fisheries in collaboration with the Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council and the Bangladesh Fisheries Research Institute. For the action research which is the subject of this thesis, three seasonal floodplains were selected in the Brahamaputra, the Padma and the Teesta River Basins located at Mymensingh, Rajshahi and Rangpur districts, respectively. Another three floodplains were selected as control sites in the same river basins located near to the projects sites. The control sites were included in the economic study (Chapters 4 and 5) only. All the six floodplains belong to two types of ownership categories: public floodplains surrounded by private lands.
My thesis is broadly divided into a sociological and an economic part, mainly because of methodological differences. Chapter 2 and Chapter 3 discuss the institutional arrangements and the power and decision-making process of Community-Based Fish Culture management. Chapter 4 addresses the overall economic impact of technical and institutional arrangements of fish culture at both floodplain and household levels. We here employed a random effects model to estimate the impact of participation on fish income. Finally, in Chapter 5 the economic impact of community-based fish culture on expenditure inequality was measured at household level.
In the sociological part, three project floodplains covered the different institutional arrangements for managing the floodplains and maximizing their benefits to different classes of beneficiaries. Power relations between the various key actors or stakeholders were assessed who were directly or indirectly involved in the floodplain, and decision making processes in co-management practices were also studied at different institutional levels. Sociological research methods and techniques including semi-structured interviews, Focus Group Discussions, informal discussions with key informants, and
For the economic analysis of Chapter 4 and Chapter 5, three project floodplains and three control floodplains were selected for comparing the impact of the intervention at beneficiary level and also community level. Household survey data includes a baseline survey on socioeconomic information, three months monitoring on seasonal and monthly basis at community and household levels, as well as an assessment of the floodplains’ natural resource systems. The seasonal survey covered the changes in input use for crop production, changes in quality of output from the agricultural land and the effects of the intervention on crop production. A monthly survey on the 1st and 15th day of the month was conducted to capture the household consumption pattern, especially the frequency and quantity of fish and meat consumption.
Chapter 2 improves our understanding of the complex institutional relationships governing Community-Based Fish Culture in seasonal floodplains in Bangladesh. Formal institutional linkages between DoF, WorldFish Center and the Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council (BARC) played a key role in ensuring success. DoF is a government institution with establishments at different administrative levels. Institutional embedding of DoF through the Fishers Cooperatives (FMC) as implementing institutions appeared highly instrumental. Large numbers of people, including landless poor seasonal fishers, professional landowning fishers, and non-fishing landowners benefited from the successful implementation of the CBFC activities in the floodplains. The outcomes demonstrate a significant increase in income to all classes of beneficiaries through income sharing derived from their involvement in the fisheries cooperatives and fish culture.
In case 2 and case 3 the floodplains under private ownership privately owned land is inundated during the monsoon season; these floodplains are similar in size, with comparable percentages of beneficiaries and similar numbers of communities surrounding the floodplains. However, the distribution of beneficiaries among the classes differs with more landowners than landless seasonal fishers benefitting. FMCs normally allow these non-members to access the floodplains, but only to harvest un-stocked fish using local gears, considering the importance of fishing to their livelihood. This means that the CPR character of the management by the FMCs shows a certain permissiveness or permeable boundary regarding landless non-members under strict spatial and temporal conditions. Regulation and conservation thus guarantee the availability of un-stocked small fish in the floodplains with a high catch by artisanal gears which results in higher incomes and related benefits to the poorer households. Households who own land or ditches in the floodplains do not depend on un-stocked fish as they can have ponds to trap and harvest fish obtained in the wild. Additionally, during the dry season, they may use land in lowland areas for crop production.
Case 1 of the public floodplain surrounded by private lands differs most from the private floodplain cases. Here, the public area is leased out to fishers during the monsoon, including the private land owned by the affluent and politically influential stakeholders. The floodplain is larger than in the other two cases, but both the percentages of landless fishers and of landowners are lower, making the class of the landowning professional fishers the majority among the beneficiaries.
Generally, the rules and regulations that apply to public and privately owned floodplains are written down in a Memorandum of Understanding between DoF and the individual FMC’s in a non-judicial construction. In their regular meetings the FMCs also document the everyday practices of the rules related to fish culture and management in the minutes that are distributed among its members. It appears that in the three cases, comparable rules and regulations for fish culture are applied to the public and to the private floodplains in operational rules, collective choice rule and constitutional rule.
Benefit sharing of the fish production from the floodplains was agreed at the start of project activities by all stakeholders, but their commitment varied between the classes of beneficiaries and across the cases. A significant increase of income for different stakeholders was derived from their involvement in fish culture. In the public floodplain fishers received around 40% of net income increase and the landowners received almost 38% of net income increase, as they had to pay the lease money for the floodplain. But in private floodplain all classes of stakeholders deposited around 25% of their net income in a revolving fund. The fishers group got their income from the final harvesting of fish as they received 50% of the price of the harvest of un-stocked fish and 10-15% of the stocked fish. The landowners received 45-50% of income according to their land. The landless seasonal fishers had open access to the non-stocked fish during the monsoon. Finally, the users of the public as well as the private floodplains contributed a small portion of their income to social work, like the building of a mosque or a Hindu temple.
Chapter 3 firstly assessed the power relations between the various key actors or stakeholders who were directly or indirectly involved in floodplain fisheries in the three sites. Secondly, their shifting power relations and decision making process in co-management practices were studied in the different institutional contexts of the three research sites during WorldFish project intervention. Instead of merely listing the institutions involved, we studied the actual power practices and decisions making processes between the stakeholders in the three cases to gain insight in the different governance models used in CBFC in Bangladesh. Existing co-management arrangements are characterized by unequal power distribution among the different actors, often resulting in the marginalization of the professional fishers and the landless poor fishers. I differentiated between two types of power in the management of floodplain aquaculture and stakeholder involvement, namely a) the power to create rules and decision making procedures, and b) the power to resolve disputes and ensure compliance. The Floodplain Management Committee (FMC) reviews the rules and regulations formulated by the government to complement the vision and roles of the institution, and if there is a need, modify them. Rules and regulations governing access to the public and privately owned floodplains were developed by the Department of Fisheries (DoF) and the FMC. A similar set of rules and regulations was applied to the public and the privately owned floodplains for fish culture. Most of the rules were derived from the national fisheries law. The rules and regulations that were applied to the floodplain were written down in a Memorandum of Understanding between DoF and FMC. Examples are rules and regulations about membership, leadership, boundary and access, allocation, penalties, input, and conflict resolution that were enforced for the management of community based-fish culture.
Magistrate courts at local level in Bangladesh have the power to decide on penalties for offenders in case of violation of the Government Fisheries Act of 2010 (DoF 2013) in the management of fisheries and aquaculture including the floodplain; a range of penalties is stipulated in the Offences and Penalties paragraph of the Act. In addition, in the case of both public and private floodplains, leaders of customary organizations have the authority and power to confiscate illegal nets and penalize offenders by charging monetary fines.
Governance in the context of Community-Based Fish Culture (CBFC) management addresses the dominancy of the land-owning group, informal sets of norms and traditions, and the social network and power relationships between stakeholders. In the public floodplain governance processes resulting in the formation of a responsive, accountable leadership and representative membership appeared vital for the success of CBFC. But, the establishment of successful CBFCs in public floodplains demands continuous institutional support from agencies such as the Department of Fisheries, because an increase in production and income also increases the risk of elite capture, and the possibility of an exploitative. In the private floodplain, there was no specific governance system in place to manage access and use of the floodplains during the wet season, as opposed to the dry months when the lands of the floodplain could be used by individual households for crop production. Thanks to greater accountability of the leaders, and more equal representation of the different stakeholders including active leadership and a supporting role of DOF, leadership problems were few and easily solved. Downward accountability was well established in addition to many efforts by the project.
Chapter 4 examined the overall impact on households involved through the WorldFish project in community-based fish culture in seasonal floodplains, particularly with respect to fish production, consumption, and income generation. Qualitative as well as quantitative methods were deployed to examine the impact of Community-Based Fish Culture starting with a conceptual framework as to how positive impacts take effect. The overall fish production in the floodplains of the project appeared to have increased 274%. Due to project intervention introducing fish culture, 43% of the farmers used floodplain water to meet up irrigation needs instead of ground water and rice production increased by 18.9% for dry-season (Boro) rice and 28.9% for wet-season (Aman) rice in the project floodplain areas.
Increased income is an important economic incentive for the expansion of community-based fish culture in Bangladesh. Over that period, average income from fish production increased to USD 240 for all beneficiaries involved in the project, which is 237% higher than the income of beneficiaries in the control group. Results of the random effects model show that project-involved households significantly increased their fish income compared to the households of the control sites. Furthermore, total household income increased to about USD 175 per household for those who participated in the WorldFish project.
Fish availability increased in the project area from July to December. During these months approximately 68%-75% of the total fish consumption needs of the project beneficiaries could be fulfilled by the newly introduced fish culture in the floodplains. The consumption of nutritional food shows that per capita fish consumption of households in the project sites increased from 1.26 kg per capita per month in the baseline year to 2.31 kg per capita per month in 2009.
Apart from the direct effect on household income and food consumption, CBFC intervention also created the opportunity for employment, backward linkage, and access to market to sell harvested fish. Indirect benefits of the community based fish culture include reduced conflict; improved social capital and greater cooperation in the community.
Expenditure is a better measurement of welfare than income where most of the people are poor and struggle for food. In this study I therefore used data on expenditure instead of income. The results in Chapter 5 show that the CBFC project had a positive and significant impact on food expenditure, as well as on non-food (other basic needs) and overall total expenditure. The impact of CBFC on household expenditure and expenditure inequality was measured by using Propensity Score Matching (PSM) method and Gini decomposition. Results revealed that the overall average food expenditure per year per household (for panel estimation) increased due to participation in the CBFC project from USD 93 to USD 141. Project participants were able to spend significantly more on food compared to non-participants. In addition, expenditure on food was increasing year by year. Moreover, participant households were capable to spend more compared to non-participants on non-food items like cloth, health, education, housing, transport etc. (from USD 45 to USD 74 per year). This non-food expenditure also gradually increased per year. Finally, total household expenditure of CBFC project participants was between USD 134 and USD 215 per year higher than the total expenditure of control households, which implies a better livelihood of the households involved in the project.
Gini index of total expenditure was found to be 0.34 and 0.40 for the CBFC project and control households respectively, which indicate that expenditure was equally distributed among households, but that it is more equally distributed among the CBFC households as compared to the control households. The expenditure inequality difference between the CBFC project and the control sites was 0.06, which implies that the CBFC management system helped to distribute total expenditure more equally among the surrounding communities.
For better management of the floodplain beels, the government may apply a similar policy for better utilization of the resources and for the economic benefits of the beneficiaries. Accountability, sustainable management of the floodplains, proper marketing of fish and equity in the distribution of benefits of the floodplains have proven to increase the productivity and ensure the accessibility of the poor and landless farmers, as long as elite capture is controlled.
Taking all CBFC project lessons into consideration, the Bangladesh government could indeed make some changes to their floodplain /wetland policy in order to accommodate the poor fishers and the landless poor. Policy (re)formulation may be needed for the dissemination of the CBO-based fish culture approach to scale-up its impact. In order to establish the rights of the CBOs (under the leadership of fishers) there is a need for modification of the policy of leasing of public floodplains. The major issues to be included are to bring private and public floodplains under CBO management; to secure government support for the registration of the CBOs and the strengthening of the institution; to guarantee that CBOs obtain long term (10-15 years or more) lease of the public areas of the floodplains as priority; to support small infrastructure constructions in the outlet and inlets of the floodplains; and to develop a functional model for the scaling-up (influencing policy) and scaling-out of the CBO fish culture approach in Bangladesh.
To assess the effectiveness of the scaling-up of the innovation in Community-Based Fish Culture in public and private floodplains, using a CBO to CBO approach will have to be developed with the support and facilitation from formal institutions. This will be considered as the subject of future research.
The rise and fall of tourism for poverty reduction within SNV Netherlands Development Organisation
Hummel, J.A. - \ 2015
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Rene van der Duim, co-promotor(en): Jaap Lengkeek. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462574939 - 206
toerisme - ontwikkeling van toerisme - ontwikkelingsstudies - tourism - tourism development - development studies
Although development organizations have been involved in tourism for poverty reduction for more than 30 years, their role remains contested. In my study, I examined the rise and fall of tourism within SNV Netherlands Development Organisation in the period 1993–2013. Here, I show how and why tourism as a development tool was introduced within SNV, how it was conceptualized and implemented as development practice, how the organization’s internal ‘ways of working’ influenced this implementation and why SNV recently phased out tourism.
Only a few researches have studied tourism development practices in development organizations. To study on these development practices, I used notions that are of importance at the intersection of tourism studies, development studies and organization studies. As such, this thesis contributes to ‘aidnography’, an ethnographic approach to study institutions, organizations and people involved in international development. Aidnography often includes notions of the actor-oriented and actor-network theory approaches.
Based on my research I conclude that tourism emerged as a tool for poverty reduction in SNV when development paradigms changed to an alternative/sustainable development paradigm in the 1990s, providing possibilities for tourism to be introduced as an element of integrated rural development. A few enterprising SNV directors started tourism initiatives.
The development discourses of SNV and the Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs have always been closely related, reflecting and influencing international development debates. Around the turn of the millennium, SNV changed its main development concepts, emphasizing capacity development. In the second half of the 2000s, partnerships for development became more important. Tourism in SNV was enabled by and followed these paradigm shifts.
In line with these shifts, SNV changed its tourism development approaches and tools. In this thesis I discerned six phases. In the first years tourism was an element in sustainable rural development projects, especially in relation to local participatory planning. A few years later, the tourism practice focused more on capacity development, using multi-stakeholder approaches. Finally, in the years before phasing out, private sector engagement and support, and value chain analysis and development, became dominant approaches.
The way tourism was organized and implemented in the organization, was strongly related to the way SNV changed its internal organization over the years. Combinations of six organizational modes of ordering created possibilities for organizational change, which kept SNV relevant as a development organization and consequently influenced the tourism development practice.
The way SNV measured its results changed in every phase, and consequently its definition of development success changed in every phase. SNV needed periods of conceptual and material stability to get its result frameworks in place. Within SNV, and in development aid in general, ideas about what needed to be measured changed; changes occurred in the way development results had to be measured and documented, by whom and when. Therefore, impact was not measured thoroughly in the various phases.
In early 2011, tourism as a development sector was rather suddenly phased out by SNV. The organization concluded that tourism had not demonstrated its development impact convincingly and had limited donor funding potential, and that not enough expertise was available within SNV in comparison to other development sectors. It also seemed that tourism as a development sector in SNV did not have a strong internal or external lobby. Due to announced budget cuts for the end of 2010 by a new coalition government in the Netherlands, SNV decided to immediately focus only on its most prominent development sectors, namely agriculture, water and sanitation, and renewable energy. Tourism and other development sectors were phased out.
However, tourism as a development sector remains relevant wherever poverty persists in existing or potential tourism destinations. It is a growing sector in several developing countries. Tourism can propel innovative local development and provides opportunities for ethnic minority groups and remoter communities. An inclusive destination development approach is proposed, combining an enabling policy environment with strategic marketing and product development, capacity development, local enterprise development, and impact measurement on the ground. To support these multi-stakeholder development processes, a facilitating organization is often required to act as a catalyst.
If no local organizations are readily available to take the facilitating role, development organizations can support tourism for poverty reduction through three interrelated roles: facilitating, linking and networking; capacity development of local organizations and in local contexts; and knowledge development, innovating and sharing;. It is suggested that development organizations focus on innovative solutions and on time and space for experimenting and situated learning from the start of new development initiatives, and use tourism for poverty reduction to pull local social and economic development, demanding more dynamic pathways for inclusive and sustainable growth at the local level.
As tourism for poverty reduction is a composite and complex cross-cutting development sector, development impacts are difficult to measure and demonstrate. To improve impact assessments, the focus might need to be broadened beyond employment and income to include the multiple impacts (based on direct, indirect and dynamic effects) of tourism for poverty reduction in destinations. The focus could be on multi-stakeholder capacity development situations, with more emphasis on local learning. There seems a need for more case studies and impact narratives in tourism for development. Continued analysis and comparison of case studies will enhance situated learning and increase understanding of tourism in development and poverty reduction.
Met bomen op landbouwgrond opbrengsten verhogen
Noordwijk, M. van - \ 2014
agroforestry - agroforestrysystemen - ontwikkelingslanden - kennis van boeren - ontwikkelingsstudies - kennisoverdracht - landbouw - agrosilviculturele systemen - duurzame landbouw - agroforestry systems - developing countries - farmers' knowledge - development studies - knowledge transfer - agriculture - agrosilvicultural systems - sustainable agriculture
Filmpje over agroforestry. Aan het woord is prof.dr. Meine van Noordwijk, buitengewoon hoogleraar Agroforestry aan Wageningen University. “We moeten ons realiseren dat op 43% van het landbouwareaal in de wereld bomen staan die voor minstens 10% de bodem bedekken. Het gaat dus om een landbouwareaal ter grootte van een continent".
Visser, L.E. - \ 2013
Wageningen : Wageningen Universiteit - ISBN 9789461733283
ontwikkeling - sociologie - ontwikkelingsstudies - antropologie - ontwikkelingstheorie - armoede - interdisciplinair onderzoek - globalisering - development - sociology - development studies - anthropology - development theory - poverty - interdisciplinary research - globalization
De vraag of er ontwikkeling is, kan altijd en overal positief worden beantwoord. Maar de betekenis ervan verschilt voor een visser in Indonesië of een handelaar in Honduras. De Sociologie van Ontwikkeling staat voor een niet-normatieve benadering van ontwikkeling en tracht de meervoudigheid ervan in de praktijk van het alledaagse leven te begrijpen. Een kritische toetsing van regels en modellen vraagt de noodzakelijke aandacht voor de diversiteit en creativiteit van mensen die ontwikkeling in eigen hand willen houden in de marges van de globale wereld.
Forest fights in Haripur, Northwest Pakistan
Nizami, A. - \ 2013
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Leontine Visser, co-promotor(en): Paul Hebinck. - S.l. : s.n. - ISBN 9789461734556 - 257
ontwikkelingsstudies - sociologie - politieke processen - acteurs - actor-network theorie - samenleving - natuur - bossen - bosbouw - staat - bosbranden - ecologie - vrouwen - pachtstelsel - pakistan - development studies - sociology - political processes - actors - actor-network theory - society - nature - forests - forestry - state - forest fires - ecology - women - tenure systems - pakistan
This thesis is an inter-paradigmatic exchange between political ecology and post-structuralist interpretations of actor-structure relationships. The study is founded on multiple discourses where different interpretations of a particular phenomenon by various actors have been analysed. The thesis is meant to show that relationships between society and nature are dynamic, entail multi-sited struggles among many actors at several terrains and are deeply rooted in earlier history.The study transpires that the forest is shaped by a loosely knit network of actors that are linked together by a kaleidoscope of rights, claims and social relationships which seem to determine the fate of the forest in a village.
Chapter 2 elaborates the theoretical foundation and methodological trajectory of this thesis. The concept of arena is central and analytically useful for this study as it connotes and involves social actors, their social relationships, practices and struggles between them. The notion of social arena is a metaphor for the site or place where action takes place between social actors. These places are not limited by geographical, natural or administrative borders. Arenas are social locations in which contests over issues, resources, values and representations take place. These are either spaces in which contestation associated with different practices and values of different domains takes place; or they are spaces within a single domain where attempts are made to resolve discrepancies in value interpretation and incompatibilities between actor interests. I argue that the forest as a social arena stretches beyond its natural and physical borders.The arena as the site of the struggle is not just geographically confined within natural (e.g. forest) and/or administrative (e.g. political) boundaries but it stretches beyond the locality. These arenas are diverse, they overlap and co-exist, and the boundaries at a given time are defined by networks of relationships between forest users and consumers, relationships between the State, bureaucrats, forest owners, dwellers, and so on.
Chapter 3 gives a detailed account of history of Haripur and how forests were legally categorised and distributed. History helps understand the political alliances and the power struggles in the region, the district, and (sub district) Khanpur. The State, during British rule introduced a new management regime for natural resources which changed the entire social landscape of Khanpur by attaching private property rights to the trees as well as forest lands in the region. The government authorities, notably the Forest department have most often seen forest dwellers destructive for the forest, depleting its resources and interfering with nature. This premise lays foundation of mistrust between people and the government. Contrary to this, the initiatives to introduce people in forestry governance are based on the realisation that the ownership, or at least management control over forests, is critical to responsible management by the people.
Chapter 4 provides a detailed account of how the Forest department operates in relation to people and forest resources. There are multiple scales of articulation, alliances and struggles within and around the department and these positions are changeable from time to time with several internal and external factors. The case of Forest department manifests that the State is to be seen as a multifaceted organ and not as an individual actor. Structural changes were introduced in the department but the core on which the foundation of the department was laid, was never changed. Many women firmly believe that the department must continue to use authority to control local people who cause degradation. Each reform initiative taken in the name of participation ended up with basically continuing the same centralised system. Forests were never handed over to the community along with management responsibility (e.g. Guzara forests). Only joint management of forests was enacted – yet not implemented. Trust remained a major issue in all these struggles.
The subject of forest fire, which I perceive and have experienced as a strong manifestation of resistance and also as a tool to manipulate natural resources, has been dealt with in different places in this thesis, but particularly in Chapter 5. Burning forests is an old practice for clearing land for agriculture.Fire therefore had a significant role in defining farmers’ territories. Gradually these practices changed but grazers continued to light up forests to produce lush green grass for their livestock. This led to a persistent discourse based on appropriating every fire incident to the grazers’ practices. This study highlights that fire is now increasingly used as a management tool for manipulating the resource. Firewood collectors and big owners use fire for obtaining dry firewood or build the case for felling dead / dry trees which is allowed in the policy after ban on green felling. Even if fires may occur due to the will of the forest owner, the policy blindly holds grazersresponsible for their wasteful and damaging practices. The collectors of Non-Timber Forest Produce (NTFP), mostly women, are not happy with fire since their resources are burnt down due to the productive fire requirement of Chir pine (Pinus roxburghii). There is an incline in the graph of forest fires, decreasing self initiative among people to control fires, along with the Forest department’s management bias towards Chir pine trees in fire control operations; these concerns echo in various voices from the field. The chapter also highlights a form of connivance between the owner and the occupants of lands (peasants / tenants) and also the owners and Forest department staff.
Chapters 6 deals with actors in their struggle to secure their rights to the forest through acquiring forest land title deeds. This initiative from the side of the new owners can be understood as a response to what is explained in Chapter 5. No forests have been handed over with management responsibilities to non owner forest users in nearly one and a half centuries. Non owners have resorted to buying forest lands in little parcels in creating private forests. This way, new meanings are given to the forest and new spaces are created through tactical networking among various actors. Field evidence and opinions from several actors suggest that Reserved forests are frequently being accessed by people for their needs in a de facto manner. Several new owners have acquired land entitlement comprising small pieces of lands which do not have a huge timber value in future. Followed by this, it is also visible that the nature of power in the contemporary society of Khanpur (and beyond) is changing. Power, which was once measured through landholding, is now measured through other symbols, such as political connectivity and affiliation.
Regular access to NTFP by non-right holders for the sake of earning an income (Chapter 7) is an illustration of their struggle, or more strongly put, an in-between expression of resistance. Poor women remain invisible in their daily practice to access NTFPs. They use spaces that are considered undesirable by other forest actors. These spaces cannot be completely separated within the social arena, but they are knitted into the day to day practices of people. State intrusion into women’s customary and de facto practices concerns them. They fear that this will only reduce their chances of earning a modest livelihood from the forest. However, the women are also highly creative in reshaping their practices and relationships with every change that takes place around them. Firewood collection is the most visible, uninterrupted and non-compromising activity for women. In their daily struggle to feed the family, they virtually manage and control the forest. Contrary to this, women are not part of any dialogue on forestry reform. They need to be part of the negotiation process in which their spaces remain secure. The most important challenge is to create the mechanisms for discussion, negotiation, and arbitration of gendered access regimes under a variety of circumstances.
Role of an explorative model for learning about sustainable agricultural development in Burkina Faso
Paassen, A. van; Ridder, N. de; Stroosnijder, L. - \ 2011
International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability 9 (2011)2. - ISSN 1473-5903 - p. 310 - 321.
ontwikkelingsstudies - landbouwontwikkeling - duurzame landbouw - modellen - sociaal leren - burkina faso - development studies - agricultural development - sustainable agriculture - models - social learning - burkina faso - systems
Agricultural development is complex, highly dynamic and differs among varying contexts. Decision-making for sustainable agricultural development cannot be based on generalized science-based knowledge, but should include context-specific knowledge and values of local stakeholders. Computer models seem a useful tool to integrate scientific knowledge include local-specific data, and explore local-specific solutions. In this paper we study whether and how a multiple goal linear program (MGLP) model could enhance learning for sustainable development. According to the learning theory, multi-actor learning is only productive when it consists of first-order (experiential) learning and second-order (social) learning. We applied an action-research approach and explored the value of an MGLP model SHARES (SHAred RESources) for learning by agricultural extension staff and farmers in an integrated rural development project in Burkina Faso. Fieldwork showed the main value of SHARES in the capacity to generate farm scenarios and trigger second-order learning about tacit frames-of-reference. People rarely engage in secondorder learning, but pursue different objectives and often remain trapped in confusing discussions and action. SHARES was a critical boundary-spanning object that facilitated communication between farmers and agricultural staff, enhanced mutual understanding, and the determination of area- and category-specific farm development goals.
Critical success factors in capacity development support : an exploration in the context of international cooperation, project report
Wigboldus, S.A. ; Lee, J. van der; Brouwer, J.H. ; Hijweege, W.L. - \ 2011
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Centre for Development Innovation - 53
ontwikkelingsstudies - capaciteitsopbouw - ontwikkeling - internationale samenwerking - ontwikkelingssamenwerking - ontwikkelingshulp - ontwikkelingslanden - development studies - capacity building - development - international cooperation - development cooperation - development aid - developing countries
Behind the Scene : the enactments of human sexuality in Tehuantepec, Mexico
Rodriguez, V. - \ 2011
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Leontine Visser, co-promotor(en): Gerard Verschoor. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085858072 - 324
sociologie - ontwikkeling - ontwikkelingsstudies - seksueel gedrag - vrouwen - man-vrouwrelaties - oefening - voortplantingsgedrag - mexico - centraal-amerika - agressief gedrag - inheemse volkeren - gebruiken - sociology - development - development studies - sexual behaviour - women - gender relations - practice - reproductive behaviour - mexico - central america - aggressive behaviour - indigenous people - customs
This work deals with human sexuality in Tehuantepec, Oaxaca, Mexico, based on the practices performed by the actors in their everyday lives. Here sexuality is not conceived of as a spontaneous or autonomous phenomenon, nor as something that is pre-existing or established, but as the result of complex practices that go beyond the human and the sexual, which are assembled by a set of actors; that is to say, by networks.
The argument is based on the construction of case studies which account for the production of complexities in human sexuality in Tehuantepec. This community was selected because of the notoriety of its women, That belong to the Zapotec ethnic group, often considered to be dominant in the Isthmus.
The purpose of the research was to look beyond the superficial appearance of the Isthmus and its people and to explore in depth the critical moments, achievements and concerns of those who contribute to the enactment of a distinct region and its society. No claim is made, then, to deprive generalizations of their veracity. Instead of focusing on particularities the work concentrates on specificities, or rather, the possible connections that are produced in the interactions between humans and the various elements by which they are surrounded.
The study considers five themes commonly associated with human sexuality: beauty, gendered spatiality, sexual life, motherhood and intimate violence in Tehuantepec had been chosen as axis which articulate the practices and discourses of local actors. Through them, it is argued that sexuality does not form part of something abstract but something that is produced by the interactions that take place on daily life.
Methodologically and conceptually, feminism (above all in its post-structuralism guise), the Actor Oriented Approach, and Actor Network Theory all supported this task. On certain occasions, these schools of thought allowed the identification of deterministic statements and on others the recognition of the binary oppositions or dualisms upon which many of the general perspectives, stereotypes and common positions related to the Isthmus are erected. However, it was Actor Network Theory which led me to non-conventional forms of approaching and understanding the complexity of the human and the social’.
The introduction, or chapter one, presents the historical, economic and cultural processes, which often characterize the region. It becomes clear just how easy it is to fall prey to stereotyped images, as well as the importance of being able to see behind the foreground in order to observe the details, or the specific nature of these traditional landscapes.
The second chapter provides the theoretical and methodological reflection which supports the recognition of the importance of the diverse, the voice of the actors and their connectivity with their surroundings. The chapter arrives at the assembly of associations and the production of complexities in which concepts such as networks, bodies and enactments become keys to the recognition of the assemblages related to human sexuality.
The third chapter introduces the notion of ‘enacting beauty’ in order to suggest that the different Isthmus beauties are produced through a series of dynamic, heterogeneous, multiple and hybrid associations. It also proposes the consideration of Isthmus beauty as something that is malleable and transformable.
The fourth chapter covers the polemical association of spatiality and gender. Here if a link between spatiality and gender is recognized, it is nonetheless considered unstable, impure and fluid, in correspondence with the dynamics that the actors themselves succeed in assembling in their daily lives. Hence, it is suggested that both categories repeatedly crosscut, interweave and overlap; something which is captured by the term ‘entangled boundaries’.
The fifth chapter focuses on some of the possible connections between the Isthmus customs and the practices of the local actors with respect to sexual life. ‘Sexual bodies’ captures these multiple and dynamic connections where the biological, ethnic, cultural and social are neither omnipresent nor exclusive when human sexual life is enacted and re-enacted in Tehuantepec.
The sixth chapter questions the tendency to associate motherhood with the woman, alongside another series of diverse determinisms. The cases explored illustrate how motherhood is a battlefield, in the sense that the actors must remain in constant action, often facing struggles in order to assemble, provide continuity or disconnect from maternal networks. It also touches on additional connections in which motherhood forms part of wider and complex networks.
The seventh chapter considers another of the practices associated with human sexuality that actors confront in their everyday life in Tehuantepec: intimate violence. Here the notion of ‘counteracting intimate violence’ argues for a broader conception of this topic as a complex network. It also highlights actors’ actions in order to make clear that they are not passive victims but dynamic actors who enact other networks which counteract chains of intimate violence.
The eighth chapter, or conclusion, covers the trajectory followed throughout the course of this research in order to make the production of complexities associated with human sexuality visible. It recognizes the necessary shift in reference points in order to move away from a focus on commonplaces. It also identifies human sexuality as a set of practices which can, in turn, be related to different themes and links, or, in other words, as the result of associations.
Trainer's manual on climate change adaptation and development : integrating climate change in policy making for sustainable development in agriculture and natural resources management
Terwisscha Van Scheltinga, C.T.H.M. ; Geene, J. van; Gordijn, F. ; Jaspers, A.M.J. ; Argaw, M. - \ 2010
Wageningen : Wageningen UR Centre for Development Innovation (Working paper / Wageningen UR Centre for Development Innovation ) - ISBN 9789085859673 - 136
ontwikkelingsstudies - ontwikkelingsbeleid - duurzame ontwikkeling - landbouw - natuurlijke hulpbronnen - hulpbronnenbeheer - klimaatverandering - ontwikkelingslanden - klimaatadaptatie - lerarenopleiding - kennisoverdracht - development studies - development policy - sustainable development - agriculture - natural resources - resource management - climatic change - developing countries - climate adaptation - teacher training - knowledge transfer
Dangerous assumptions : the agroecology and ethnobiology of traditional polyculture cassava systems in rural Cameroon and implications of green revolution technologies for sustainability, food security, and rural welfare
Nchang Ntumngia, R. - \ 2010
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Patricia Howard, co-promotor(en): Lisa Price. - [S.l : S.n. - ISBN 9789085858423 - 392
ontwikkelingsstudies - plattelandsontwikkeling - plattelandsvrouwen - bedrijfssystemen - teeltsystemen - meervoudige teelt - cassave - groene revolutie - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - voedselzekerheid - rurale welzijnszorg - kameroen - franssprekend afrika - ontwikkelingslanden - centraal-afrika - acs-landen - hoogopbrengende rassen - etnobotanie - agro-ecologie - middelen van bestaan - development studies - rural development - rural women - farming systems - cropping systems - multiple cropping - cassava - green revolution - sustainability - food security - rural welfare - cameroon - francophone africa - developing countries - central africa - acp countries - high yielding varieties - ethnobotany - agroecology - livelihoods
The Alliance for a New Green Revolution in Africa and African government and
CGIAR programmes oriented toward improving cassava production through intensification
and the use of external inputs have the ultimate goals to improve food production, promote
market integration, and increase incomes of small farm households. Essentially, AGRA’s
arguments, which are either implicit or explicit in the policies and programmes of the Government
of Cameroon and of several CGIAR institutes that the Government collaborates
with, are that traditional farming systems and practices suffer from low productivity and are
unsustainable. African soils are naturally poor, farmers use little or no fertiliser, and the
fallow periods that, in the past, provided for nutrient recycling, are declining due to population
pressure, leading farmers to mine the soil, which results in declining crop yields. Further,
farmers’ local varieties are low yielding and are highly susceptible to pests and diseases
compared to improved, high-yielding varieties (HYVs). Across Africa, per capita food
production is declining, and families live in poverty and hunger. Population pressure is increasing,
farmers are poor and thus in need of additional income and, if given the opportunity,
they will seek to maximise their income from crops sales, which they in turn will
reinvest in agriculture, given the right incentives. Farm households are food insecure and,
by increasing their output and sales, they will become food secure.
This dissertation challenges these underlying assumptions and questions the underlying
parameters individually and as a whole by examining traditional and more commercial
smallholder cassava agroecological systems and households in two study sites in rural
Cameroon (where conditions are theoretically quite positive for the acceptance of such
technologies) from agroecological, ethnobiological, economic, and cultural perspectives.
The objective is to understand the implications of policies and programmes that promote
Green Revolution-type technologies and market integration for the productivity and sustainability
of such agroecological systems, for the conservation of crop genetic resources,
and for the livelihoods, income, and food and nutritional security of smallholder farm
households. The intention is to critically examine the assumptions and underlying parameters
posited by AGRA, and to reformulate these on the basis of the findings to provide a
more adequate framework for approaching and assessing agricultural innovations in the
The following questions orient the research: Are African farming systems, and
farmers, characterised by attributes that AGRA ascribes to them? Are such farmers likely to
accept the technologies that AGRA is promoting? Are AGRA technologies and strategies
likely to lead to more sustainable, higher yielding farming systems? Are they likely to
translate into greater market integration, higher incomes, greater food security, and renewed
investment in agricultural intensification for small farm households? Are there trade-offs
that farmers and their households and communities have to confront in adopting such technologies
and, if so, how might these influence their strategies and responses to programmes
that promote Green Revolution-type intensification of the ‘old’ or ‘new’ varieties?
Findings presented in this dissertation show that Koudandeng and Malende farmers
have barely accepted Green Revolution technologies and modern farming strategies and
systems (including monoculture). The analysis of the findings proposes reasons for this,
and attempts to explain farmers’ and households’ production systems and strategies from an
emic (farmers’) perspective. It is argued that, if African farmers do not accept the Green
Revolution-type technologies, or accept them only on their own terms and in accordance
with the outcomes that they themselves desire that differ significantly from what governments
and researchers and donors anticipate, then this may be attributable at least in part to
the fact that the strategies and technologies that are promoted are based on erroneous assumptions,
not least about the key parameters that define the performance of real African
farming systems and real African farming households. These parameters are grouped under
two main categories - agroecological and socio-economic – which, in AGRA’s discourse,
are treated as if they were unrelated. There is thus an absence of attention to the relations
between the agroecological (or what can be termed environmental, or ‘nature’), and the
socioeconomic (or what can be termed ‘culture’), which in turn leads to an inattention to
the diversity of cultures and agroecologies across Africa – its biocultural diversity – that
permits blanket recommendations to be made on the basis of over-generalised and oversimplified
When emphasising the need to give greater consideration to the relations between
culture and nature – that is, to the diversity of African cultures, agroecologies, and socioeconomic
systems and relations, and to the relations between culture, agroecology, and socioeconomics
- this dissertation proposes three different interacting sets of analytical parameters
that must be considered if insights into real African agriculture and real African farm
households are to emerge. Two of these sets of parameters emerge from a critique of
AGRA’s parameters and a third arises out of a framework for assessing the acceptability of
crop varieties that has its foundations in ethnobiology.
This comparative research, which was carried out between 2002 and 2008, involved
a total of 206 farmers in two different villages in two regions in the South of Cameroon.
The methods for collecting and analysing data were both quantitative and qualitative, and
were drawn from sociology, anthropology, and ethnobiology (cognitive anthropology).
Qualitative data collection methods included a review of grey and published literature, as
well as ethnographic interviewing and participant observation. Quantitative methods included
four closed question surveys and cognitive ethnobiological elicitation (freelisting
and triads testing). Qualitative interview data were coded and analysed narratively (description,
explanation, interpretation, quotations) using Microsoft Word. The small household
sample size that was used did not permit the use of sophisticated statistical analyses according
to population sub-samples, which limited the analysis of survey data to that which
would be done using descriptive statistics, such as proportions, percentages, and frequencies.
Regression analysis was done sparingly. Cultural consensus analysis, proximities
analysis, multidimensional scaling, quadratic assessment product, cluster analysis, and
property fitting regression were used to analyse the ethnobiological data that was collected.
The general conclusions of this dissertation assert that traditional African polyculture
systems and their genetic diversity (crop species and varieties) are often environmentally
sustainable, able to meet income and food needs of rural households and communities,
and fulfil multiple cultural needs relating to identity, foodways, spirituality, and social reciprocity.
The assumptions behind the promotion of AGRA-type technologies are reductionist;
they do not take into consideration the complexities of African agriculture and livelihoods,
or the interrelation between farmers’ social and cultural norms, resource access, and
livelihood strategies, and how they carry out agriculture (e.g. spatial and temporal configurations,
cropping patterns, crop and varietal choices, cultural practices). Across most of
Africa, smallholders and their agroecosystems are firmly embedded in ethnic and tribal
communities that adhere more or less strongly to cultural norms, beliefs, and kinship or
lineage-based social relations. Their agricultural knowledge and practices are often based
largely on local knowledge and resources. Such ‘traditional’ agricultural systems generally
represent a long-term adaptation between culture and nature, where both have co-evolved
over time. Farmers’ knowledge and practices are embedded in social relations where many
modes of subsistence are characterised by forms of communalism that are relatively egalitarian,
which tends to ensure that resources are distributed in such a way that people have
sufficient means to meet socially defined, as well as biological needs. Unsustainable practices
and inegalitarian social relations that may accompany the adoption of Green Revolution
technologies and greater market integration are likely to be mal-adaptive over the long
The assumptions underlying the ‘New Green Revolution for Africa’ drastically
over-simplify traditional African farming systems and ignore their diversity and thus do not
hold everywhere in Africa which, it is argued, may represent yet another threat to the integrity
of traditional African cultures, agroecological systems, and biological diversity. Eight
major critiques of this over-simplification and the resultant dangerous consequences for
African farm households include: i) the inappropriateness (technical and practical limitations)
of the recommendations for integrated soil fertility management practices and fertiliser
use for most African contexts; ii) the lack of consideration for farm households’ social
constraints: differential access to income, land, and labour, and investments in other livelihood
activities that compete with investments in agricultural inputs, which consequently
may have implications for soil fertility management; iii) the lack of attention to the pests
and diseases of most significance to farmers; iv) the relative inattention to the need to develop
varieties that conform with local foodways and food processing and storage conditions;
v) the implications of mass production of the reduction of crop diversity and varietal
diversity for food security and nutrition and the consequences for human health; vi) the
lack of serious consideration of farmers’ knowledge and practices in crop breeding strategies
and the lack of precise methodologies for effectively and systematically accessing and
document farmers’ varietal knowledge, perceptions, and preferences and relating these to
farmer behaviour when accepting crop varieties; vii) the improbability that prices for mass
produced HYVs will increase income and investments in inputs; and viii) the consequences
of conversion to monoculture for livelihood and food security that are entailed in widescale
acceptance of AGRA-type recommendations.
Based on these critiques, the major policy recommendation emphasised in this dissertation
is to give greater consideration to real African farming systems and real African
farmers and how and why they function as they do, which, it is argued, must serve as the
point of departure for agricultural policies and programmes across the region if these are to
succeed in supporting such farmers, their communities, and their nations. Farmers’ culture,
social relations, knowledge, practices, and experiences that remain, in the ‘New’ Green
Revolution, as in the ‘Old’, a black box, should be newly considered in policies and research
and development as positive points of departure for increasing food security in Africa.
|AIDS and Rural Livelihoods. Dynamics and Diversity in Sub-Saharan Africa
Niehof, Anke ; Rugalema, G. ; Gillespie, S. - \ 2010
London : Earthscan - ISBN 9781849711265 - 234
ontwikkelingsstudies - acquired immune deficiency syndrome - humane ziekten - hiv-infecties - volksgezondheid - platteland - plattelandsbevolking - sociale economie - rurale sociologie - economische aspecten - afrika ten zuiden van de sahara - landbouwhuishoudens - development studies - acquired immune deficiency syndrome - human diseases - hiv infections - public health - rural areas - rural population - socioeconomics - rural sociology - economic aspects - africa south of sahara - agricultural households
HIV and AIDS continue to devastate the livelihoods of millions of Africans and represent the major public health challenge in many countries. More people die of AIDS each day than from wars, famine and floods combined, while an orphaned generation of children must be provided for. Yet despite millions of dollars of aid and research, there has previously been little detailed on-the-ground analysis of the long-term impact on rural people. This book brings together recent evidence on HIV/AIDS impacts on rural households, livelihoods, and agricultural practice in sub-Saharan Africa. There is particular emphasis on the role of women in affected households. The book presents micro-level information collected by original empirical research in a range of African countries, and shows how well-grounded conclusions on trends and major problems can then be addressed by policies. It is shown that HIV/AIDS impacts are more diverse than we know (and not always negative) on the basis of cumulative evidence so far.
Developing an environmentally appropriate, socially acceptable and gender-sensitive technology for safe-water supply to households in arsenic affected areas in rural Bangladesh
Amin, N. - \ 2010
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Anke Niehof; Wim Rulkens, co-promotor(en): Harry Bruning. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085858164 - 243
plattelandsontwikkeling - platteland - ontwikkeling - ontwikkelingsstudies - watervoorziening - milieubescherming - grondwater - grondwaterverontreiniging - watervoerende lagen - pijpleidingen - arsenicum - maatschappelijke betrokkenheid - landbouwhuishoudens - waterfilters - drinkwater - sociologie - bangladesh - zuid-azië - rural development - rural areas - development - development studies - water supply - environmental protection - groundwater - groundwater pollution - aquifers - pipelines - arsenic - community involvement - agricultural households - water filters - drinking water - sociology - bangladesh - south asia
To confront the arsenic crisis in Bangladesh, several options for a safe water supply in the rural As-affected areas are available. Most of these options have shown a minimum scope to mitigate arsenic-related risks because of their poor performance and non-acceptability by the rural households. In this research, therefore, the development of an appropriate technology for an As-free, safe drinking water supply is considered from a local perspective and a societal context. To achieve the goal and objectives of this research, four research questions were formulated (Chapter 1). The first research question is about the technological and socio-economic performance of community-based pipeline water supply systems that use deep aquifers. The second question deals with available and currently implemented household-level arsenic removal technologies in rural Bangladesh. The third addresses the weaknesses, limitations, strengths and advantages of the technologies in terms of a number of technological, social, economic and gender indicators. Fourth, the question is posed of the most promising arsenic removal option for rural house¬holds in terms of its techno¬logical performance and social acceptability and suitability from a gender perspective. The occurrence of As in the Delta region is of geochemical origin and its distribution in the groundwater has distinct regional patterns and depth trends. An overview of the arsenic problem in Bangladesh is given in Chapter 2.
The overall objective of the research was to develop a socially appropriate and gender-sensitive household-level As removal filter. Technical, socio-economic and cultural aspects were incorporated in this research to assess the development of a sustainable innovation through multi- and interdisciplinary approaches. The technical validation of the systems was carried out through laboratory-based research, to address the efficiency, robustness, operational and maintenance convenience, safety and viability of the technology. For the social research, the model by Spaargaren and Van Vliet (2000) was adjusted to address the filter’s suitability in terms of lifestyle, domestic time-space structures, affordability, standards of comfort, cleanliness, convenience and modes of provision. In addition, I also considered the household resource-based affordability during the operation and maintenance phase, in terms of a socio-technological and gender perspective. A conceptual model was developed to guide the research and to answer the research questions (Chapter 1). The socio-economic data on the main concepts of this research work were collected through a survey (Appendix 2).
In this research, a synthesis of knowledge resulting from disciplinary, open-ended collaboration and local perspectives is achieved. Such a transdisciplinary research approach ensures an integration of knowledge through the participation of a variety of stakeholders, including end users, and mutual learning between the different stakeholders, such as users of the Modified Garnet Homemade Filter (MGH Filter), caretakers, village committees, implementing organizations and donors, users of water, households, and women.
The community–based piped water supply in Bangladesh
There are several alternative sources to get safe and As-free drinking water in Bangladesh. A community-based piped water supply system using deep aquifers is one of them. In this research, three community-based piped water supply systems were compared to evaluate their technological and economic sustainability, the sustainability of using deep aquifers for the long term, and the social and gender appropriateness of the systems, based on the users’ perspective (Chapter 4). The technical performance of the three systems in different geological conditions was found satisfactory in terms of their efficacy, water quality, adequacy of the water supply, and operations and maintenance. The water is As- and Fe-free and is of good taste. The concentration of As is below the limiting range of drinking water in Bangladesh (50µgL-1As), as well as within the WHO and new EPA standards (10µgL-1As). The sustainable use of deep aquifers for a longer period is a serious issue. To address the sustainability, hydro-geological factors need to be well understood. Overextraction of water from deep aquifers could induce a downward migration of dissolved As and permanently destroy the deep resource. Only one system is practicing chlorination to disinfect the water in the overhead tank, while the other two systems do not have such a provision. However, the field data reveal that the three systems are technologically acceptable and do not require disposal of contaminated sludge.
The women who are using one of the three water supply systems are satisfied about the water supply systems. They think the systems reliable in their delivery of adequate water and convenient and comfortable for the women users. Women can get water close to their house, which saves collection time and a physical burden. The appointed caretakers are operating the systems efficiently, including maintenance and the collection of the monthly bill from the beneficiaries. The economical sustainability seems to be satisfactory, provided the initial costs are subsidized by external financial assistance with only a little contribution from the communities, which varies from five to seven percent of the total capital cost. The community participation in sharing the installation cost for the system and the monthly bill are fixed, based on the economical condition of the households. However, a drawback of the community-based piped water system is disruption of the system due to its sensitivity to power failure, which is a big problem in Bangladesh. Other shortcomings are the limitations to extend the system to meet the increasing demand of the village people. On the long term, economical sustainability factors need to be considered, such as the availability of funds and the participation of the users in the system’s management, which were absent in all three systems.
Currently available and implemented household-level arsenic removal technologies
The application of arsenic removal technologies to provide safe drinking water in rural areas plays a vital role where other, alternative options and safe aquifers are not easily available and where community-based pipeline water supply systems are not feasible. In this research, physico-chemical and biological as well as conventional techniques for the removal of arsenic were reviewed (Chapter 5). Based on literature, an inventory was carried out of 40 available and currently implemented technologies at the household level in terms of their arsenic removal efficiency, cost and users’ acceptance. All the technologies remove As from the water to a limited extent. Therefore, there is scope for further development of these technologies. A multiple-criteria analysis (MCA) approach was applied to select a technology for the further development of an appropriate arsenic removal filter for household-level use. In the research, based on the integrated assessments, the MCA-GARNET technology was selected for further development.
An assessment of the performances of the three governmentally certified arsenic removal technologies for rural household use was carried out (Chapter 5). This research concludes that the government’s investments in an improved water supply so far have failed to meet the needs of the poor villagers, because they are not able to buy the costly Alcan and Read-F filters. Even the relatively cheap Sono filter proved to be unaffordable for the poorest. Furthermore, assessing the As removal efficiency and life span of these filters is difficult at this preliminary stage, and so is predicting how the disposal of the spent filter materials will be carried out by the users. The As leaching from the sludge/waste generated by the three treatment processes is dependent on the type of removal mechanism and the ultimate sludge disposal methods.
Development of a chemical-free arsenic removal technology for household use
In this research, by the active participation of potential end users and other stakeholders, I have included local knowledge and social and gender perspectives in the process of the development of an innovative As removal filter (MGH filter) (Chapter 6). The MGH filter efficiency and breakthrough point were studied at different operational variables, such as filter bed thickness, types of filter media and flow rate. The toxicity of the spent material was addressed by a TCLP test. The developed filter meets the Bangladesh standard for arsenic in drinking water (50µgL-1). It can reduce the arsenic concentrations of the shallow tube well water samples from 160-959µgL-1 to 0-50µgL-1. It can also remove bacteriological contamination in terms of total coliform and fecal coliform counts from >500 to 0 cfu/100 mL-1 . The filter consists of two-bucket filters in series, each with three filter material layers of 14 cm thickness each, containing sand, brick chip and sand (Figure 7.1). The first-class brick chips of 1.3 cm size and Sylhet coarse sands were found to be the most efficient. The major advantage of this unit is that it does not require any daily addition of chemicals and can be operated at a high flow rate. It needs to be cleaned regularly to prevent bacterial contamination, while its maintenance requires treatment with bleaching powder at 15-day intervals. The filter is cost–effective and viable; the investments and operational cost are about € 10.8-13.4 and € 0.11-0.14 per 100 liters of treated water, respectively.
In this research, a multi-perspective and participatory socio-technological assessment of the filter’s performance during the field level application was carried out in two phases: the trial phase during March 2008 and the evaluation phase during July 2008 (Chapter 7). Eight MGH filters were distributed among eight households in the research area in Kumarbhog. In this research, the multi-perspective assessment comprised interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary approaches to evaluate the performance of the filters for household use. Both quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection and analysis were used. The suitability and acceptability of the filters were evaluated through systematic observation, interviewing, FGDs and eight case studies of the filter users. The compatibility and appropriate¬ness of the filter were viewed from a gender pers¬pective, since access to safe water is an important practical gender need of women, directly related to their domestic and reproductive role.
Women of the selected eight rural households adopted the technology and ran the filters successfully during the trial phase. As elsewhere in developing countries, in Bangladesh too, rural women are the managers of water for household use. They hardly participate in income generation. The male household head controls the allocation of household income and expenditures, which caused problems when women wanted to re-install their filter. The household survey revealed that sometimes, women cannot be bothered to fetch safe water from far away and, instead, drink the con¬taminated water from their own shallow tube wells. Having the appliance inside the house complied well with the social norms and religious restrictions (purdah) that women have to abide by. In these circumstances, the MGH filter was eagerly accepted by the eight households, because it reduced women’s social and physical burden to fetch As-free, safe water far from their home. In the evaluation phase, some filters were unused because the women could not persuade their husbands to purchase the necessary filter bed materials. During the evaluation phase, the performance of the filters declined compared to the trial phase, because not all users followed the instructions on its operation and maintenance, such as proper chlorination and clean¬liness of the appliance. Disposal of spent filter material was carried out in different ways by the MGH filter users, but more investigation is needed to enable an environmentally friendly disposal of the As-rich sludge.
A new filter system has been developed that can be used by women at the household level. In terms of the simplicity of construction, operation and maintenance, As removal efficiency, and bacterial removal efficiency, its technical performance is good. It is also very cost-effective. However, because such a system always needs to be completely safe for producing drinking water, on the long term as well as under local and household conditions other than those investigated in this research project, further evaluation and additional research will be necessary. In this research, the filter was field-tested under controlled conditions for a month and evaluated after three months. Considering the need for arsenic treatment options in Bangladesh and other developing countries, further research on the performance of the MGH technology could have important positive implications for a safe water supply. Therefore, to allow for seasonality, the MGH filter should be pilot-tested and properly developed over a period of at least a year, in different geographical conditions. A social, economic and technical validation of the MGH filter should be included in the pilot-testing in different parts of the country by applying interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary approaches. Because women are the collectors and managers of drinking water, doing the validation in different parts of the country allows for variation in women’s roles and position and the local socio-cultural context. The MGH filter should be submitted for certification by the government of Bangladesh after further testing and development. The technological principle of the MGH filter may be used to research and develop a community-based low-cost arsenic removal water supply system in rural areas. The results of this research testify to the feasibility of a gender-sensitive, socially acceptable and technologically sound, sustainable solution to the problem of the As contamination of water for household use in rural areas in Bangladesh.
Single women, land and livelihood vulnerability in an communal area in Zimbabwe
Paradza, G.G. - \ 2010
Wageningen : Wageningen Academic Publishers (AWLAE series no. 9) - ISBN 9789086861460 - 295
ontwikkelingsstudies - vrouwen - plattelandsvrouwen - positie van de vrouw - huwelijk - gezinnen - gezinsstructuur - gezamenlijk eigendom - gemeenschappelijke weidegronden - eigendom - toegang - toegangsrecht - zimbabwe - afrika ten zuiden van de sahara - middelen van bestaan - strategieën voor levensonderhoud - alleenstaanden - burgerlijke staat - development studies - women - rural women - woman's status - marriage - families - family structure - coownership - common lands - ownership - access - right of access - zimbabwe - africa south of sahara - livelihoods - livelihood strategies - single persons - civil status
Efficacy of micro-financing women's activities in Côte d'Ivoire : evidence from rural areas and HIV/AIDS-affected women
Binaté Fofana, N. - \ 2010
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Gerrit Antonides; Anke Niehof, co-promotor(en): Johan van Ophem. - [S.l.] : S.n. - ISBN 9789085854289 - 209
development studies - women - rural women - hiv infections - human immunodeficiency viruses - acquired immune deficiency syndrome - public health - socioeconomics - rural areas - empowerment - finance - credit - cooperative credit - cote d'ivoire - west africa - developing countries - microfinance - ontwikkelingsstudies - vrouwen - plattelandsvrouwen - hiv-infecties - humaan immunodeficiëntievirussen - acquired immune deficiency syndrome - volksgezondheid - sociale economie - platteland - empowerment - financiën - krediet - coöperatief krediet - ivoorkust - west-afrika - ontwikkelingslanden - microfinanciering
This thesis deals with the effectiveness and the capability of microfinance institutions in enhancing women’s livelihood and empowerment, and mitigating the effects of HIV and AIDS on affected women and their households in Côte d’Ivoire. This study was carried out within the framework of the AWLAE (African Women Leaders in Agriculture and Environment) Project. The AWLAE project addresses the theme of the role of women in food systems and effects of HIV and AIDS on rural livelihoods.
Microfinance has been recognized as a significant means of economic development in developing countries, especially in Africa where most of the economies are based on agriculture. Microfinance as a credit institution is seen as one of the relevant tools that can provide small loans for poor people especially women who have no access to formal banks. Therefore MFIs have attracted more attention from governments, NGOs, researchers and civil servants since the microcredit summit in 1997 and the nomination of the year 2005 as the International Year of Microcredit by the United Nations General Assembly.
Studies have shown that the effects of MFIs on women’s activities differ between countries and between regions within countries according to factors including the environment, and the socio-demographic characteristics of the beneficiaries. This heterogeneity renders the effects of MFIs inconclusive and explains the necessity and the relevance to conduct this empirical study in Côte d’Ivoire.
The objective of this study is to gain insight into women’s needs in terms of support for economic activities and empowerment in rural areas and the way in which MFIs address these needs. Specifically, the study aims at assessing whether microfinance services provided for women in Côte d’Ivoire fit their needs in terms of improving their incomes, productivity, decision-making power, human and social capital. Special attention is paid to HIV-affected women. To achieve these objectives, the study tends to respond to four main research questions: 1) What are women’s needs for credit in rural areas? 2) How do women have access to MFI credit in rural areas? 3) What are the effects of participation in microfinance programs on women’s practical and strategic gender needs? 4) What is the relationship between microfinance programs and women coping with HIV/AIDS? These research questions lead to the formulation of hypotheses that are confirmed or rejected.
This study uses both a theoretical and empirical approach that represents the interaction of women’s livelihood, microfinance and HIV and AIDS. The empirical analysis consists of an in-depth analysis of microfinance institutions and a survey analysis applied to cross-sectional data collected from 440 women in the Abengourou region located in the Central Eastern part of Côte d’Ivoire. The sample was divided into four categories of women as follows: Non-HIV affected women with and without MFI credit; HIV-affected women with and without credit.
This study gives a descriptive analysis of the study country, and the response of the state to promote the microfinance sector and to mitigate the effects of HIV and AIDS on the individual, household and communities in Côte d’Ivoire. Women in the Abengourou region are basically involved in agriculture from which they earn their livelihood and the opportunity to produce food for household consumption. The type of activities carried by women depends on their access to credit. Those who have no access to MFI loans were mainly engaged in farm activities while women with access to credit were mainly traders. They were also able to undertake both agricultural and trade activities. From these results, it appears that women in rural areas need MFI credit for trade purposes and to a lesser extent for agricultural activities.
This study found a significant relation between savings and credit, meaning that access to MFI credit was fundamentally conditioned on the provision of savings from the borrowers that most of the rural population did not have. MFIs use savings as collateral to prevent defaults. In addition, MFI membership and the type of activity are also important to obtain MFI credit. Furthermore, access to MFI credit depends on factors linked to the characteristics of female borrowers including, marital status, wealth status of the household, ethnicity and the empowerment of women, and trade activity. These determinants positively affect the probability of obtaining MFI credit in rural areas. The study reveals that MFIs prefer to finance trade activity rather than agricultural activity as the latter is seen as risky and associated with unpredictable income.
The use of the propensity score matching method led to the following results. MFIs are found to be effective in enhancing a set of variables including income, the level of farm production, human and social capital. MFI credit has enhanced women’s decision-making power within the households too. However, women’s access and use of MFI credit in rural areas did not significantly increase the value of women’s assets but it did significantly enhance the value of household assets. This result on the value of women’s assets did not confirm the findings of several studies which indicated that the provision of credit enables women to build up and improve the value of their assets (Rahman, 2004; Mayoux, 1999, Van Maanen, 2004). The result also suggested that female borrowers were more likely to use their income earned not to build their own assets, but to contribute to the improvement of the household standard of living. Doing so enables these women to achieve more power in fulfilling their practical and strategic gender needs within the household as indicated by the findings of this study.
The effectiveness of MFIs in providing loans for women in rural areas is measured by the loan repayment which is an important indicator for MFI practitioners. It gives insight into the capability of the credit institution to insure its sustainability and to increase its outreach. From our analysis, loan repayment among female borrowers generally was not successful as some borrowers had difficulties to pay back their MFI loan. The non-repayment is mainly explained by the diversion of loans from investment purposes, which has to do with the lack of women’s control over loans. For MFIs, the diversion of loans can endanger their functioning and sustainability and therefore their effectiveness in rural areas. However, this study found the low repayment performance of female borrowers to be contradictory to the positive effect of MFI credit on women’s income and the positive return on investment they achieved. Hence, this study suggests that in addition to the diversion of loans, non-repayment might be linked to other factors especially the unwillingness of the borrowers to repay their loan.
The analysis of the interaction between HIV/AIDS, women’s livelihood and MFIs reveals on the one hand that HIV and AIDS negatively affects both human and physical capital of households through morbidity and mortality. The morbidity of affected women results in a direct negative impact on their livelihood activities and an indirect effect on their income and loan repayment. HIV/AIDS has an impact on the morbidity of household members that leads to the loss of family labour, which is difficult to replace due to lack of resources. In addition, the morbidity results in a drop in the level of education as children are forced to stay at home due to illness. On the other hand, the negative effects of HIV and AIDS on female borrowers entail an indirect effect on MFIs through the incapability of affected borrowers to generate more money and inability to payback their loans. This result essentially has to do with the diversion of loans to meet medical expenditures and the process of the provision of loans that appears to be flawed. In line with this deficiency, the functioning and the effectiveness of MFIs to support and extend their outreach among HIV-affected individuals or households are threatened.
This study contributes to the existing findings about the socio-economic role of MFIs to support women generating their livelihood. It gives empirical findings in the case of rural areas in Côte d’Ivoire. Such study was not done since the implementation of microfinance institutions in the Abengourou region. The study reveals that the activities carried by women can be influenced by their need to have access to MFIs. This means that women will choose to undertake a particular activity to fit the preferences of microfinance institutions. Another important contribution of this study is to empirically link women’s empowerment to their access to MFI credit. The study reveals that women’s empowerment regarding the demand for and the use of credit make them more reliable and give them more opportunity to obtain MFI credit. With regard to HIV, this study highlights the diversity and the specificity of the way HIV-affected individuals are financially supported by credit institutions.
To conclude, the study provides some policy recommendations and interventions in order to make MFIs more effective in offering financial services to individuals and households in general and women in particular in rural areas. Specifically we recommend the provision of loans taking into account the needs of borrowers with respect to the special nature of their activities to be financed. MFIs need subsidies from the state or other potential donors to reinforce the capacity building of MFI credit officers through training and to support the transaction costs linked to the provision of small loans. Doing so will help them to better understand and serve the rural population living in an environment which seems to be complex. The study also recommends further study to be conducted in order to explore the long-run effects of MFI credit in rural Côte d’Ivoire.
Single women, land and livelihood vulnerability in an communal area in Zimbabwe
Paradza, G.G. - \ 2010
Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Han van Dijk, co-promotor(en): B. O'Laughlin; J. Stewart. - [S.l. : S.n. - ISBN 9789085854746 - 307
development studies - women - rural women - woman's status - marriage - families - family structure - coownership - common lands - ownership - common property resources - farming - rural areas - land ownership - access - right of access - zimbabwe - africa south of sahara - livelihoods - livelihood strategies - single persons - civil status - ontwikkelingsstudies - vrouwen - plattelandsvrouwen - positie van de vrouw - huwelijk - gezinnen - gezinsstructuur - gezamenlijk eigendom - gemeenschappelijke weidegronden - eigendom - gemeenschappelijk bezit - landbouw bedrijven - platteland - grondeigendom - toegang - toegangsrecht - zimbabwe - afrika ten zuiden van de sahara - middelen van bestaan - strategieën voor levensonderhoud - alleenstaanden - burgerlijke staat
I nuovi contadini, le campagne e le risposte alla globlizzazione
Ploeg, J.D. van der - \ 2009
Roma : Donzelli Editore - ISBN 9788860364166 - 403
boerenstand - landbouw bedrijven in het klein - plattelandsontwikkeling - plattelandssamenleving - boeren - landbouw bedrijven - bedrijfssystemen - ondernemerschap - globalisering - rurale sociologie - ontwikkelingsstudies - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - voedselproductie - politiek - landbouwbeleid - italië - nederland - peru - landschapsbeheer - peasantry - peasant farming - rural development - rural society - farmers - farming - farming systems - entrepreneurship - globalization - rural sociology - development studies - sustainability - food production - politics - agricultural policy - italy - netherlands - peru - landscape management
|Tales of Development: people, power and space
Hebinck, P.G.M. ; Slootweg, S. ; Smith, L. - \ 2008
Assen : Van Gorcum - ISBN 9789023244691 - 274
ontwikkelingsstudies - development studies
|The New Peasantries, struggles for autonomy and sustainability in an era of empire and globalization
Ploeg, J.D. van der - \ 2008
London [etc.] : Earthscan - ISBN 9781844075584 - 356
boerenstand - landbouw bedrijven in het klein - plattelandsontwikkeling - plattelandssamenleving - boeren - landbouw bedrijven - bedrijfssystemen - ondernemerschap - globalisering - rurale sociologie - ontwikkelingsstudies - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - voedselproductie - politiek - landbouwbeleid - italië - nederland - peru - landschapsbeheer - peasantry - peasant farming - rural development - rural society - farmers - farming - farming systems - entrepreneurship - globalization - rural sociology - development studies - sustainability - food production - politics - agricultural policy - italy - netherlands - landscape management
This book explores the position, role and significance of the peasantry in an era of globalization, particularly of the agrarian markets and food industries. It argues that the peasant condition is characterized by a struggle for autonomy that finds expression in the creation and development of a self-governed resource base and associated forms of sustainable development. In this respect the peasant mode of farming fundamentally differs from entrepreneurial and corporate ways of farming. The author demonstrates that the peasantries are far from waning. Instead, both industrialized and developing countries are witnessing complex and richly chequered processes of 're-peasantization', with peasants now numbering over a billion worldwide. The author's arguments are based on three longitudinal studies (in Peru, Italy and The Netherlands) that span 30 years and provide original and thought-provoking insights into rural and agrarian development processes. The book combines and integrates different bodies of literature: the rich traditions of peasant studies, development sociology, rural sociology, neo-institutional economics and the recently emerging debates on Empire.