Staff Publications

Staff Publications

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    'Staff publications' is the digital repository of Wageningen University & Research

    'Staff publications' contains references to publications authored by Wageningen University staff from 1976 onward.

    Publications authored by the staff of the Research Institutes are available from 1995 onwards.

    Full text documents are added when available. The database is updated daily and currently holds about 240,000 items, of which 72,000 in open access.

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    Valorisation of waste streams from by-product to worm biomass
    Laarhoven, Bob - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): C.J.N. Buisman, co-promotor(en): B.G.. Temmink; H.J.H. Elissen. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463438117 - 141
    biomass - residual streams - animal nutrition - fisheries - organic wastes - helminths - biomassa - reststromen - diervoeding - visserij - organisch afval - wormen

    There is a global demand for more feed resources to keep up with the increasing production of livestock. The hunger for resources is most urgent in the aquaculture sector, which to a large degree depends on the non-sustainable use of fish oil/ meal from wild fish. Aquatic macro invertebrates such as the freshwater worm Lumbriculus variegatus (Oligochaeta, Lumbriculidae, common name blackworms, further abbreviated as Lv) are rich in proteins, lipids, vitamins and minerals. When cultivated on safe and low-grade organic wastes they can provide a sustainable fishmeal alternative for most freshwater and marine fish.

    Chapter 1 introduces the concept of aquatic worm production on waste streams. Worm biomass composition and relevant research lines are explained. Organic waste sludges from food industries are a rich source of bio-molecules and can be upgraded to (fish) feed when fed to aquatic worms. For valorisation of waste streams by aquatic worms, as proposed in this thesis, these streams preferably are free from contaminants such as organic micro pollutants, heavy metals and pathogens. For example, this would not be the case when sewage (municipal) sludge is used as a substrate for the worms. However, such contaminated sludges may still be applied for non-food applications. Thus, the quality of the waste stream that is used as a substrate for the worms determines the application potential of the worm biomass as well as the options for downstream processing and refinery.

    Previous research showed that Lv can be used for reduction and compaction of sewage sludge. The consumption of (suspended) sludge particles results in a dry matter reduction of 25 - 50 % and in worm faeces that are 60 % more compact than the original waste sludge. This contributes to a significant reduction in sludge processing costs. Sludge reduction by aquatic worms is mainly studied by research groups in The Netherlands and in China. Unfortunately, it is generally accepted free swimming worms in full-scale wastewater treatment plants is extremely difficult, mainly because of large (seasonal) population fluctuations. A controlled reactor concept applying the sessile (crawling, sediment dwelling) species Lv already was developed in earlier research. The key characteristic of this reactor is a carrier material for the worms, which also functions as a separation layer between the waste stream (worm food) and a water phase used for aeration, worm harvesting and worm faeces collection. This concept also was the starting point for the development of the improved reactor concept that is described in this thesis.

    The two main objectives of this thesis were: (1) to assess the potential of organic waste streams and by-products for Lv production for fish feed and (2) to develop a (cost and resource) effective bioreactor for this purpose.

    In Chapter 2 a new, standardized method is described and tested that can be used for a quantitative and qualitative assessment of the effect of different substrates on worm growth. This method not only can be used to select waste streams suitable for worm production, but also is proposed as a tool is ecotoxicology studies.

    The test method consists of beaker experiments with a combination of agar and sand to optimize food uptake by and growth of the worms. The effects of agar gel, sand, and food quantity were studied and evaluated for different food sources. Agar gel addition ameliorated growth conditions by reducing microbial food hydrolysis and by improving the sediment structure. This guaranteed that substrate ingestion and worm growth in the first place were the result of the food quality and the effect of other (environmental) factors was reduced. A final test with secondary potato starch sludge demonstrated the test method is appropriate for the evaluation of solid and suspended organic feedstuffs/waste streams.

    In Chapter 3 the standardized method of chapter 2 was used for worm growth studies, focussing on the effect of carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratios of diets on worm growth and reproduction. Growth and reproduction of Lv on different combinations of wheat based derivatives like gluten and gray starch was studied at fixed isoenergetic levels (expressed as chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the food), but at different C/N ratios. Growth and reproduction rates were compared to those on Tetramin, a substrate known to result in excellent worm growth. Growth was mainly controlled by the C/N ratio of the single and mixed wheat fraction diets. Lower C/N ratios of around 6-7 gave a much better performance than high C/N ratios of around 20. This probably was caused by Lv relying on the presence of proteins as carbon and energy source. Although growth and reproduction rates were not as high as on the control diet, the results were promising for development of a worm biomass production reactor, operating on by-products from wheat processing industries.

    In Chapter 4 a new reactor concept for Lv cultivation on waste streams was developed and tested. In a vertical tubular reactor a centralized food compartment was surrounded by a gravel layer that mimicked the natural habitat of Lv. Secondary (biological) sludge from a potato starch processing industry was used as a clean and low value food source. The results with respect to worm growth rate, density and production and nutrient recovery were compared to the previous reactor design. Much higher worm densities were achieved (6.0 compared to 1.1 kg ww m-2 carrier material) as well as much faster Lv growth rates (4.4 - 12 compared to 1.2 % d-1). As a result the areal worm production rate was no less than 40 times higher (560 compared to 14 g ww m-2 d-1). The higher worm density, which was found to be independent of gravel size in a range of 2.4 to 8.0 mm, allowed for a significantly shorter food retention time in the reactor (~ 2.2 days compared to > 10 days for the previous reactor design). This restricted microbial mineralization of the food, making high nutrient recoveries from waste to worm biomass possible: 16-30 % COD, 19-22 % N and 9-11 % P. The high biomass density also limited the release of ammonium, which at large concentrations is toxic for the worms. However, even shorter food retention times (e.g. higher loading rates) are not recommended as a minimum microbial activity is needed for conversion of the original substrate into compounds that can be taken up by the worms.

    In Chapter 5 worm growth, reproduction and biomass quality were evaluated on several waste streams and by-products of bacterial, animal and plant origin. The effect of 26 different diets, all applied at high food levels, on Lv growth, reproduction and fatty acid (FA) content and profile were investigated. For this purpose the standardized test method of Chapter 2 was used. In addition, it was discussed which diet composition and food sources would be most suitable for large scale production of Lv.

    Diets consisting of single cell biomass from bacterial or plant origin with a high protein content (C/N ratio < 8.8), high P content (C/P < 50) and low in total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) (< 20 g N/kg) gave the highest growth rates and vital worms without signs of mortality. Besides the C/P ratio of the diet, worm conditions related with the difference between test and pre-culture conditions. The starting weight of the worms seemed to have an effect on the total fatty acid content of the worms. The growth potential of a diet rich in proteins and P depends on how much TAN is associated with the diet. By blending different food sources these factors to a certain extent can be manipulated. Lv seemed to have a distinct and very stable FA composition, irrespective of the diet’s FA composition. The worms were rich in poly unsaturated FAs (PUFAs), including several w3 and w6 FAs, and contained relatively high levels of C18 and C20 PUFAs. This makes them suitable as fish feed, in particular for freshwater fish.

    In order to serve aquaculture feed markets with an attractive alternative to fish meal, such as aquatic worm biomass, a continuous and secure bulk production needs to be realized. In Chapter 6 the performance parameters established in chapter 4 (worm growth rate, density and biomass production rate) were used as the input for a feasibility assessment of large scale worm production on secondary sludge from the potato industry. In addition, in chapter 6 future value chains and lines of research were discussed.

    A hypothetical worm production system treating the surplus secondary sludge from a potato processing factory can reduce excess sludge production by 50 % in solids and 62 % in volume. This is accompanied by a daily production of 1.6 metric ton of fresh worm biomass. With a very conservative estimation of the worm density of 1.6 kg ww/m2 carrier material a footprint of the system of 217 m2 can be realized, which is at least two times smaller than with a previous reactor design without a gravel layer. With reduced sludge processing costs and a conservative market price of 1.4 €/kg dry worm biomass, worm production can already be realized at an annual rate of return of 3 years. However, the costs are highly sensitive for worm biomass stocking, reactor construction and operation. A more accurate economic assessment should be based on the results of pilot-scale research.

    Two general product types, whole biomass (as fish feed) and refined products can be distinguished and applied in two application areas (feed and non-food), depending on the quality of the organic (waste) sludge that the worms have been produced from. Valorisation for potential bulk markets needs further refinery of crude worm biomass into a lipid (worm oil) and a protein fraction (protein isolate). This can result in several new and unique business models in aquaculture, feed, chemical and agriculture sectors. Obviously, an assessment of economical and legislative boundary conditions needs to be part of such business models.

    Worm biomass is a potential high quality fishmeal replacer, with a similar or even better potential than other waste based alternatives such as single cell biomass and insects. A comparison between Lv and fishmeal with respect to crude composition, essential amino acids and FAs learns that Lv is a highly suitable fish feed source. It can provide essential amino acids at sufficiently high levels. Based on its FA composition and (relatively low) fat content, Lv can best be considered a protein source. Still, worm biomass is rich in PUFA, which could be a potential high value product for feed applications. Compared to black soldier fly and bacterial production systems, Lv shows intermediate production efficiencies, while biomass harvesting and processing probably is more easy.

    Additional advantages of Lv worm biomass to replace fishmeal are: 1) Lv acts as a strong natural fish attractant, 2) the growth efficiency of fish on worms is high in comparison to regular feeds, 3) the nutritional profile of worms matches that of fishmeal, 4) the worms are a natural feed source for freshwater fish and 5) the worms allow a secure and stable feed production that is independent of natural resources.

    Further recommendations for future research as outlined and discussed in chapter 6 are mostly related to the technical upscaling of the reactor technology and obtaining more detailed insight in controlled worm growth in response to food characteristics, reactor design and operational conditions.

    Biodigestion at the Neighbourhood Level : from community participation to waste separation
    Hiemstra, J. ; Lie, R. ; Rietveld, M. - \ 2017
    Urban Agriculture Magazine (2017)32. - ISSN 1571-6244 - p. 49 - 51.
    bio-energie - biobrandstoffen - biobased economy - reststromen - projecten - co-vergisting - digestaat - hernieuwbare energie - energiebronnen - organisch afval - recycling - bioenergy - biofuels - residual streams - projects - co-fermentation - digestate - renewable energy - energy sources - organic wastes
    Urban Agriculture magazine • number 32 • September 2017 49 High energy bills and litter on the streets caused a group of residents of the Wildeman neighbourhood in the district of Osdorp in Amsterdam to act. Expecting no solution from the municipality, they decided to take care of it themselves and tackled these two problems with one solution: using the technology of biodigestion to produce energy from municipal food waste - a perfect example of the urban food-waste-energy nexus.
    More food, lower footprint : How circular food production contributes to efficiency in the food system
    Scholten, M.C.T. - \ 2017
    Wageningen : Wageningen University & Research
    biobased economy - biobased chemistry - cycling - environment - sustainability - nutrition - biomass - renewable energy - residual streams - agricultural wastes - organic wastes - crop residues - food production - biobased economy - chemie op basis van biologische grondstoffen - kringlopen - milieu - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - voeding - biomassa - hernieuwbare energie - reststromen - agrarische afvalstoffen - organisch afval - oogstresten - voedselproductie
    Martin Scholten on circular food production. Ideas about how circular food production can contribute to the sustainable food security.
    Microbial chain elongation based on methanol
    Chen, Wei-Shan - \ 2017
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): C.J.N. Buisman; C. Kroeze, co-promotor(en): D.P.B.T.B. Strik. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789463431989 - 201
    feedstocks - renewable resources - organic wastes - waste utilization - fermentation - methanol - industriële grondstoffen - vervangbare hulpbronnen - organisch afval - afvalhergebruik - fermentatie - methanol

    Our society relies heavily on fossil resources to fulfill our energy and commodity demands and this dependence has led to negative economic, environmental and societal consequences. The re-generation rate of fossil resources is much slower than their consumption rate, making these resources a non-renewable feedstock for the supply of energy and goods to our society. Moreover, the rapid consumption of fossil resources releases the carbon sequestrated in the last few million years in a much shorter time span, which contributes to the carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration increase in the atmosphere and potentially global warming. The geographically-uneven distribution of fossil resources also induces social insecurities and political conflicts. An alternative feedstock is necessary for energy and goods supply to our society, and such alternative feedstock should be renewable, economically sustainable, environmentally sound and geographically wide-spread,.

    Organic waste is an emerging and promising alternative feedstock. The production of organic waste is inevitable, occurs in large quantities and is geographically wide-spread, especially the so-called “mixed organic waste,” e.g. organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) and food processing waste. Mixed organic waste contains a large quantity of carbon materials that can be valorised into energy carriers and commodities. However, the extremely heterogeneous composition and the relatively high water content of mixed organic waste make its valorisation via the current waste management methods (e.g. incineration, composting and anaerobic digestion) less efficient and not economically attractive. Given this context, a novel bioprocess based on a mixed culture fermentation, i.e. microbial chain elongation, was developed to promote the valorisation of mixed organic waste. In microbial chain elongation, the diverse, complex organic matter in mixed organic waste are homogenised via hydrolysis and bacterial acidification into basic building blocks; like short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), CO2 and hydrogen (H2). After the homogenisation, energy-rich co-substrates like ethanol are added to these basic building blocks to synthesise medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) via a mixed culture fermentation. MCFAs are organic compounds with a higher economic value and a higher energy content. Microbial chain elongation can be operated under a non-sterile condition, which makes it applicable to valorise mixed organic waste where diverse microorganisms exist. Caproate is the most dominant product in the microbial chain elongation of mixed organic waste and ethanol, which can be produced at a high rate and selectivity. Caproate has a higher economic value, a lower solubility in water and an interesting market potential. Thus, caproic acid production from mixed organic waste and ethanol via microbial chain elongation is currently undergoing up-scaling and commercialisation.

    Many studies were done to improve the process of caproate production via microbial chain elongation to make it of industrial interest. The on-going commercialisation of microbial chain elongation also supports the economic feasibility. However, until now, no study addressed the environmental sustainability of microbial chain elongation. Chapter 2 of this thesis took the first attempt in analysing the life-cycle environmental impacts of caproic acid production from organic waste via microbial chain elongation, based on the literature and existing business case. The use of ethanol as a co-substrate (i.e. the electron donor) was shown to be the largest cause the environmental impact. This was found in in all assessed cases and all impact categories studied, and regardless of the feedstocks from which ethanol was produced. An alternative for ethanol as electron donor in microbial chain elongation is, therefore, an effective way to improve the environmental sustainability of microbial chain elongation.

    In Chapter 3, we investigated the use of methanol as an alternative electron donor in microbial chain elongation, i.e. methanol chain elongation, for butyrate and caproate production. Methanol chain elongation was previously demonstrated using a pure culture, but never with a mixed culture. To employ organic waste as feedstock, the feasibility of applying methanol chain elongation in an open mixed culture condition needs to be investigated. In Chapter 3, it was demonstrated in a batch incubation that methanol chain elongation could occur with a mixed culture, where butyrate was the dominant product (4.2 g/L). Caproate production via methanol chain elongation was also demonstrated, though only in a low concentration (0.1 g/L). In a continuous reactor operation, continuous butyrate production (1.5 g/ was achieved via microbial chain elongation of acetate and methanol. However, caproate was not observed in the continuous methanol chain elongation. Interestingly, microorganisms that can perform methanol chain elongation were likely present in the inoculum taken from a previous ethanol chain elongation reactor without any methanol supplement.

    In Chapter 4, the use of methanol chain elongation to synthesise a novel product, i.e. isobutyrate, was proposed and investigated. Methanol chain elongation was found to continuously produce butyrate as the main metabolite, the accumulation of which was found to trigger isobutyrate formation in several previous methanogenic anaerobic digestion studies. It was, therefore, hypothesised that by elevating the butyrate concentration in the medium, methanol chain elongation might be able to produce isobutyrate as another metabolite. The result showed that isobutyrate could be produced as the main product, up to 6.2 g/L, when using acidified supermarket food waste and methanol as the substrate. A continuous methanol chain elongation using synthetic medium was also performed, which achieved a production rate of 2.0 g/ over five hydraulic retention times. Moreover, the production of isovalerate was also observed. Isobutyrate has a much larger market potential than caproate, though its production relies wholly on fossil-based feedstock. Isobutyrate biosynthesis was demonstrated in previous studies, but was only achieved using metabolically engineered microorganisms as the biocatalyst and glucose as the substrate. Methanol chain elongation, in contrast, could employ derivatives from organic waste as the substrates and a self-regenerating mixed culture biocatalyst for producing isobutyrate. Moreover, methanol chain elongation may be integrated into the current microbial chain elongation production facility without a significant infrastructure retrofit. All these advantages make methanol chain elongation an interesting and promising isobutyrate production process. The relatively large market potential of isobutyrate promotes the application of chain elongation and the use of organic waste for value-added chemical production.

    In Chapter 5, isobutyrate production was integrated with the caproate production via microbial chain elongation, by concurrently feeding both methanol and ethanol to a mixed culture. The result from Chapter 3 supports the possibility of coexistence of ethanol and methanol chain elongation microorganisms in the same microbiome. In Chapter 4, the possible concurrence of methanol and ethanol chain elongation was also observed. Based on these observations, we hypothesised that methanol and ethanol chain elongation could be integrated to simultaneously produce caproate and isobutyrate. The result showed that such integration was possible when a stable pH was maintained. When pH was controlled between 6.2 – 6.5 and butyrate was supplied in the medium, caproate and isobutyrate could be produced simultaneously. Additionally, increasing the ethanol feeding rate promoted the chain elongation of butyrate to caproate via ethanol chain elongation. The outcome of this chapter demonstrated the possibility of producing two valuable products in a single reactor with a mixed culture which, coupled with further process improvement, may be of industrial interest.

    In Chapter 6, we reflected on the caproate production performance of methanol chain elongation, in comparison with other electron donors used in microbial chain elongation, i.e. ethanol and lactate. Furthermore, we also reflected on the isobutyrate production via methanol chain elongation, in comparison with other emerging products in microbial chain elongation. These reflections could serve as a benchmark for methanol chain elongation as a waste management strategy. Based on this benchmarking, we proposed that methanol chain elongation is a promising bioprocess for isobutyrate production but not for caproate production. A potential strategy for improving the isobutyrate production via methanol chain elongation was proposed and discussed. The outcomes of this thesis may contribute to future application and assessments of microbial chain elongation in waste management. It may fuel discussion on how to further promote microbial chain elongation for a more sustainable waste management.

    Publishable version of Compendium on research results on agro and forest-biomass side-streams : Deliverable 1.1. EU-Horizon2020 project AGRIFORFALOR, Project ID: 696394
    Hendriks, C.M.A. ; Lambrecht, E. ; Nabuurs, G.J. ; Gellynck, X. ; Welck, H. - \ 2016
    European Commission - 25
    biomass - bioenergy - sustainability - biobased economy - residual streams - wood - agricultural wastes - organic wastes - chemical industry - projects - biomassa - bio-energie - duurzaamheid (sustainability) - biobased economy - reststromen - hout - agrarische afvalstoffen - organisch afval - chemische industrie - projecten
    AGRIFORVALOR aims to close the research and innovation divide by connecting practitioners from agriculture and forestry to research and academia as well as with associations and clusters, bio-industry, policy makers; business support organisations, innovation agencies and technology transfer intermediaries in multi-actor innovation partnership networks. The focus of the project is on the transfer of know-how and information to enable and support farmers and foresters to exploit existing research results and facilitate the capture of grass root ideas for bio-industry development.
    In the project, practitioners in the field of biomass side-streams are united in three Biomass Innovation Design Hubs, piloted in Spain (Andalucía), Hungary and Ireland. In each of these hubs, existing research results and good practices on valorisation of biomass side-streams from agro and forest will be shared and matched with the specific needs and potentials; new grass-roots ideas collected and developed; and dedicated innovation support applied to further deploy selected topics which are dealt with by multi-actor innovation partnership groups.
    Composting trial with BioFoam® products in a full scale commercial composting facility : final report, April 2015
    Zee, M. van der - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR - Food & Biobased Research (Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research report 1561) - ISBN 9789462575141 - 31
    biobased economy - biobased materials - biomass - organic wastes - degradation - composts - composting - biotechnology - technology - plastic foam - biobased economy - materialen uit biologische grondstoffen - biomassa - organisch afval - degradatie - compost - compostering - biotechnologie - technologie - schuimplastic
    The main objective of the trial was to be able to judge whether BioFoam® material degrades at sufficient rate to be composted together with regular source separated municipal solid biowaste in a full scale industrial composting facility.
    Imaging science course: converting organic waste into resources
    Chen, W.S. - \ 2015
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR
    bioproceskunde - chemie op basis van biologische grondstoffen - biobased economy - organisch afval - biomassaconversie - lesmaterialen - bioprocess engineering - biobased chemistry - biobased economy - organic wastes - biomass conversion - teaching materials
    Wei-Shan Chen’s research is about Mixed Culture Chain Elongation (MCCE). MCCE is a potentially clean, renewable and economic viable bioprocess that converts organic waste into useful commodity chemicals. This video gives a short and easy explanation.
    Input of organic waste products
    Depret, D. ; Bloem, J. ; Faber, J.H. ; Hartmann, A. ; Houot, S. ; Lundin, L. ; obriot, F. ; Revallier, A. ; Vieublé-Gonod, L. - \ 2014
    Parijs, Frankrijk :
    bodem - organische stof - organisch afval - bodemverbeteraars - soil - organic matter - organic wastes - soil conditioners
    Returning to the soil Organic Waste Products (OWP) such as manure, sludge or compost is possible when these OWPs present an agronomic interest due to the input of organic matter (OM) to soil and nutritive elements for crops. Organic matter being at the heart of soil functions, spreading OWPs may impact a number of ecosystem services provided by soils by modifying OM quantities and dynamics.
    BioHydrogen : hydrogen from light and organic waste
    Hoekema, S. - \ 2014
    Wageningen University. Promotor(en): Rene Wijffels, co-promotor(en): Marcel Janssen; Hans Tramper. - Wageningen : Wageningen University - ISBN 9789462571051 - 228
    organisch afval - waterstof - licht - bioproceskunde - bioreactoren - energie - organic wastes - hydrogen - light - bioprocess engineering - bioreactors - energy
    Goede bedrijfshygiëne geeft suzuki-fruitvlieg weinig kans
    Helsen, H.H.M. ; Heijerman-Peppelman, G. - \ 2014
    De Fruitteelt 104 (2014)22. - ISSN 0016-2302 - p. 17 - 11.
    kleinfruit - drosophila suzukii - aantasting - plagen - bedrijfshygiëne - kersen - prunus avium - organisch afval - teeltsystemen - plagenbestrijding - small fruits - drosophila suzukii - infestation - pests - industrial hygiene - cherries - prunus avium - organic wastes - cropping systems - pest control
    De meeste suzuki-fruitvliegen werden vorige jaar gevangen in kersenboomgaarden waar geïmporteerd fruit werd verkocht. In dat fruit zaten eieren en larven van de suzuki-fruitvlieg. In dat afval van dat fruit ontwikkelden zich vliegen, die op minstens één bedrijf flinke schade veroorzaakten aan de late kersen. Een goede bedrijfshygiëne is dan ook onontbeerlijk bij de beheersing van de suzuki-fruitvlieg, al laten buitenlandse ervaringen zien dat dit geen garanties geeft.
    Alternatieve systematiek voor de beoordeling van covergistingsmaterialen : 2. Residuen van gewasbeschermingsmiddelen
    Poorter, L. ; Beelen, P. van; Struijs, J. ; Linden, A.M.A. van der; Ehlert, P.A.I. ; Posthuma, L. - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-werkdocument 359) - 72
    afvalverwerking - organisch afval - co-vergisting - beoordeling - verontreinigingen - pesticiden - milieubeleid - protocollen - biobased economy - waste treatment - organic wastes - co-fermentation - assessment - impurities - pesticides - environmental policy - protocols - biobased economy
    Om de toelating van afval- en reststoffen voor gebruik als covergistingsmateriaal te versnellen en ook om de verantwoordelijkheid voor de toetsing meer bij het bedrijfsleven te leggen, heeft de Staatsecretaris van het ministerie van Economische Zaken (EZ) besloten tot opname van een ‘Alternatieve systematiek’ afval- en reststoffen in de regelgeving te toetsen. Met deze systematiek moet het bedrijfsleven op basis van een beperkt aantal gegevens zelfstandig kunnen beoordelen of een afval- of reststof geschikt is om te worden gebruikt als covergistingsmateriaal. Het ministerie van EZ heeft Alterra Wageningen UR en RIVM gevraagd om een alternatieve systematiek op te stellen voor de toetsing van afval- en reststoffen voor gebruik als covergistingsmateriaal, waarbij een beperkt aantal gegevens nodig is. Tevens is gevraagd om mogelijkheden voor rubricering van afval- en reststoffen onder de rubricering van Europese regelgeving voor afvalstoffen (EURAL-codes) in de Meststoffenwet te onderzoeken. Het onderzoek heeft geleid tot twee deelrapporten. Deelrapport 1 (WOt werkdocument nr. 358, Ehlert et al., 2013b) behandelt een alternatieve systematiek voor anorganische en organische contaminanten die door de Meststoffenwet (MW) zijn aangewezen en onderliggende beoordelingssystematieken. Dit deelrapport (2) gaat in op de milieubezwaarlijkheid van aangewezen residuen van gewasbeschermingsmiddelen, die niet door de MW aangewezen zijn, en resulteert in een voorstel met opties die beleidsafweging vragen
    Alternatieve systematiek voor de beoordeling van covergistingsmaterialen : 1. toetsing van contaminanten aangewezen door de Meststoffenwet
    Ehlert, P.A.I. ; Schöll, L. van; Dijk, T.A. van - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-werkdocument 358) - 88
    afvalverwerking - organisch afval - co-vergisting - beoordeling - milieubeleid - toxicologie - verontreinigingen - protocollen - biobased economy - waste treatment - organic wastes - co-fermentation - assessment - environmental policy - toxicology - impurities - protocols - biobased economy
    Om het proces van de toelating van afval- en reststoffen voor gebruik als covergistingsmateriaal te versnellen en vooral ook om de verantwoordelijkheid voor de toetsing meer bij het bedrijfsleven te leggen, heeft de Staatsecretaris van het Ministerie van Economische Zaken (EZ) besloten tot opname van een ‘Alternatieve systematiek’ voor de toetsing van stoffen in de regelgeving. Met deze systematiek kan het bedrijfsleven op basis van een beperkt aantal gegevens zelfstandig beoordelen of een afval- of reststof geschikt is om te worden gebruikt als covergistingsmateriaal. Het Ministerie van EZ heeft Alterra Wageningen UR en RIVM gevraagd om een alternatieve systematiek op te stellen voor de toetsing van afval- en reststoffen voor gebruik als covergistingsmateriaal, waarbij een beperkt aantal gegevens nodig is. Tevens is gevraagd om mogelijkheden voor rubricering van afval- en reststoffen onder de rubricering van de Europese regelgeving voor afvalstoffen (EURAL-codes) in de Meststoffenwet te onderzoeken. Het onderzoek heeft geleid tot twee deelrapporten. Dit WOt-werkdocument (1) behandelt contaminanten die door de Meststoffenwet zijn aangewezen en die voor kunnen komen in afval- en reststoffen die bestemd worden voor vergisting met dierlijke mest. Het tweede WOt-werkdocument (De Poorter et al., 2013) behandelt organische microverontreinigingen die niet door de Meststoffenwet zijn aangewezen
    Pyrolysis in the Countries of the North Sea Region: Potentially available quantities of biomass waste for biochar production
    Kolk, J.W.H. van der; Zwart, K.B. - \ 2013
    Groningen, the Netherlands : Interreg IVB project Biochar - 24
    afvalverwerking - pyrolyse - biochar - biomassa - organisch afval - inventarisaties - noordwest-europa - biobased economy - waste treatment - pyrolysis - biochar - biomass - organic wastes - inventories - northwestern europe - biobased economy
    One of the objectives of the Interreg IVB project Biochar: Climate Saving Soils is to assess the amount of available biomass that could be used for the production of biochar. In this publication the authors give an impression of the amounts of biomass available for pyrolysis.
    Biomassawerf Rova
    Smakman, G.J.J. - \ 2013
    Lelystad : ACRRES - 37
    afvalverwerking - afvalverwijdering - organisch afval - biomassa - ketenmanagement - snoeiafval - grasmaaisel - phragmites - biobased economy - waste treatment - waste disposal - organic wastes - biomass - supply chain management - pruning trash - grass clippings - phragmites - biobased economy
    Het idee van een biomassawerf (vorm van grondstoffenbank) sluit goed aan bij de rol en positie die Rova vervult in de afvalverwerkingsketen en het streven naar hoogwaardige recycling. In de regio IJssel Vecht zamelt Rova ca. 33.500 ton gft in, in de overige regio’s ca. 9.500 ton. Andere stromen die Rova op dit moment inzamelt bij gemeenten zijn grof tuinafval, bladafval, snoeihout en bermgras/slootmaaisel. In het rapport wordt ook stilgestaan bij de beschikbaarheid van agrarische residuen in de regio IJssel Vecht. Rova is als publieke dienstverlener actief voor de aangesloten gemeenten. Het bedrijf is een publieke tot semi-publieke organisatie. Dit betekent dat Rova de concurrentie met groenaannemers, fouragehandelaren of handelaren in houtsnippers zal moeten vermijden. De meeste kansen liggen dan ook op het gebied van residuen van landschapsbeheer, zoals takhout, berm- en natuurgras en riet. De volgende product markt combinaties worden als kansrijk geschouwd: Lokale houtsnippers voor lokale energie; Maaisel en loof voor energie en vezels; Riet voor energie en vezels.
    Protocol beoordeling Meststoffenwet
    Commissie Deskundigen Meststoffenwet, - \ 2013
    Wageningen : Wettelijke Onderzoekstaken Natuur & Milieu (WOt-werkdocument 335) - 72
    organische meststoffen - wetgeving - organisch afval - co-vergisting - beoordeling - protocollen - milieubeleid - landbouw en milieu - biobased economy - Nederland - organic fertilizers - legislation - organic wastes - co-fermentation - assessment - protocols - environmental policy - agriculture and environment - biobased economy - Netherlands
    De Meststoffenwet reguleert de vrije verhandeling van meststoffen. Alleen aangewezen meststoffen mogen vrij verhandeld worden. Het gebruik van afval- en reststoffen als meststof of als grondstof voor meststofproductie is verboden. Er is echter een wettelijke voorziening getroffen om aangewezen afval- en reststoffen een gebruik als meststof of als grondstof voor meststofproductie te geven. Onderdeel van deze voorziening is een beoordeling van een afval- of reststof op landbouwkundige betekenis en toetsing op milieubezwaarlijkheid bij verantwoord landbouwkundig gebruik. Daartoe is een protocol opgesteld. Deze publicatie is het protocol. De publicatie geeft antwoord op de vraag "hoe rest- of afvalstoffen beoordeeld moeten worden om te kunnen worden aangewezen als meststof of als stof die bij de productie van meststoffen mag worden gebruikt". Het protocol beschrijft de beoordelingssystematiek voor toetsing aan landbouwkundige eisen en milieukundige eisen. Het protocol maakt daarbij onderscheid tussen een gebruik van een afval- of reststof als meststof, grondstof voor meststofproductie en grondstof voor biogasproductie bij vergisting met dierlijke mest. Tevens beschrijft het protocol de administratieve procedure en geeft overzichten van de gegevens die nodig zijn om tot toetsing te kunnen overgaan
    Inventarisatie van biomassa in Flevoland : een inventarisatie van potentieel beschikbare biomassa in Flevoland, met name niet vastgelegde stromen
    Voort, M.P.J. van der; Rooij, M. de - \ 2012
    Lelystad : PPO AGV (PPO 494) - 33
    biomassa productie - biomassa - inventarisaties - bio-energie - flevoland - reststromen - organisch afval - biobased economy - biomass production - biomass - inventories - bioenergy - flevoland - residual streams - organic wastes - biobased economy
    In 2008 is door studenten van de Christelijke Agrarische Hogeschool (CAH) te Dronten een inventarisatie uitgevoerd van biomassa in Flevoland. Dit rapport geeft een goede eerste indruk van de beschikbare stromen. Het probleem is echter dat de stromen, waar we met het project Biomassabank Flevoland oprichten, over het algemeen incidenteel en vaak in kleinere hoeveelheden vrijkomen en beperkt in de inventarisaties voorkomen. De vraag is hoe deze biomassastromen beter benut kunnen worden voor energietoepassing, bij voorkeur in Flevoland.
    Potentiele praktijkcases biomassa in Flevoland : een verkenning van potentiele biomassaketens in Flevoland
    Voort, M.P.J. van der; Leeuwen, M.A.E. van - \ 2012
    Lelystad : PPO AGV (Pubnr: PPO 495 ) - 13
    biomassa - biomassa productie - reststromen - organisch afval - logistiek - bio-energie - biobased economy - flevoland - biomass - biomass production - residual streams - organic wastes - logistics - bioenergy - biobased economy - flevoland
    Het biomassabank project wilde in het kader van dit onderzoek de hoofdlijnen voor het realiseren van benutting van biomassa reststromen in Flevoland verkennen. Op basis van de uitgevoerde inventarisatie zijn hieruit een drietal potentiele biomassastromen geselecteerd. Het niet vastliggen van de biomassa was hierbij een belangrijk uitgangspunt. Dit betrof voornamelijk biomassa uit de landbouw en de verwerkende industrie. De vraag is hoe deze biomassastromen beter benut kunnen worden voor energietoepassing, bij voorkeur in Flevoland. De huidige knelpunten zullen worden geanalyseerd en er wordt gestreefd om te komen tot 3 generieke concepten/arrangementen.
    Sustainable valorisation of organic urban wastes : insights from African case studies
    Scheinberg, A. ; Agathos, N. ; Gachugi, J.W. ; Kirai, P. ; Alumasa, V. ; Shah, B. ; Woods, M. ; Waarts, Y.R. - \ 2011
    Wageningen : Wageningen UR - 48
    biobased economy - afvalverwerking - organisch afval - compostering - afvalcompost - kenya - malawi - biogas - ontwikkelingsprojecten - biobased economy - waste treatment - organic wastes - composting - refuse compost - kenya - malawi - biogas - development projects
    Understanding the problems and potentials of the organic waste stream is perhaps the single most important step that city authorities in Africa could take in moving towards sustainable, affordable, effective and efficient waste management. This publication presents four examples of recent attempts to manage organic waste sustainably in the African context. The participants in the ‘Nairobi organic urban waste’ project have structured this case exercise in order to use the case studies as object lessons, to harvest genuine insights into the feasibility of a variety of ways to successfully and sustainably valorise urban organic waste streams. Three contemporary case examples of compost production are presented. These include composting by a community-based organisation in the Kenyan private sector and by a public-private partnership in Malawi. In all three cases, the project and case study focus is on the relations between city waste and the agricultural supply chain. A fourth case study describes the technical and economic potential to produce and use biogas from urban organic waste.
    Final report on household and institutional biogas : technical performance & economic potential
    Anonymous, - \ 2010
    Nairobi : Carbon Africa - 17 p.
    biobased economy - biogas - organisch afval - kenya - uitrusting - gistingstanken - economische haalbaarheid - opbrengsten - biobased economy - biogas - organic wastes - kenya - equipment - digesters - economic viability - yields
    This report gives an overview of the technical performance for the ARTI compact biogas system in Nairobi and of the potential economic savings therein, and provides a preliminary analysis of the “gas for cash” business concept in Kenya.
    Fermentation as possible energy source for the organic greenhouse horticulture
    Vermeulen, P.C.M. ; Wolf, P.L. de; Voort, M.P.J. van der - \ 2010
    bio-energie - biogas - fermentatie - regionale planning - organisch afval - glastuinbouw - duurzame energie - flevoland - biobased economy - bioenergy - biogas - fermentation - regional planning - organic wastes - greenhouse horticulture - sustainable energy - flevoland - biobased economy
    In 2009 the province Flevoland had the idea to start a study to make the horticultural sector in the province more sustainable. The province started the project Agropark Flevoland. One of the issues is to look for the input of organic materials. Will it be possible to use this material as food for a fermentation plant to produce biogas, before it will be used to upgrade the soil? In 2010 a case study is done to find out what the possibilities will be for the use of a fermenting plant to produce biogas to heath a group of greenhouses and produce electricity with a cogenerator. This article shows the results of this case study.
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